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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    BORN, GEORGINA and DEVINE, KYLE 2015. Music Technology, Gender, and Class: Digitization, Educational and Social Change in Britain. Twentieth-Century Music, Vol. 12, Issue. 02, p. 135.

    Nelson, Peter 2015. The Materiality of Space. Organised Sound, Vol. 20, Issue. 03, p. 323.

    Devine, Kyle 2014. A mysterious music in the air: cultural origins of the loudspeaker. Popular Music History, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    James, Robin 2014. NeoliberalNoise: Attali, Foucault & the Biopolitics of Uncool. Culture, Theory and Critique, Vol. 55, Issue. 2, p. 138.


Imperfect sound forever: loudness wars, listening formations and the history of sound reproduction

  • Kyle Devine (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 16 May 2013

The purpose of this paper is to provide some historical perspective on the so-called loudness war. Critics of the loudness war maintain that the average volume level of popular music recordings has increased dramatically since the proliferation of digital technology in the 1980s, and that this increase has had detrimental effects on sound quality and the listening experience. My point is not to weigh in on this debate, but to suggest that the issue of loudness in sound recording and playback can be traced back much earlier than the 1980s. In fact, loudness has been a source of pleasure, a target of criticism, and an engine of technological change since the very earliest days of commercial sound reproduction. Looking at the period between the turn-of-the-century format feud and the arrival of electrical amplification in the 1920s, I situate the loudness war within a longer historical trajectory, and demonstrate a variety of ways in which loudness and volume have been controversial issues in – and constitutive elements of – the history of sound reproduction. I suggest that the loudness war can be understood in relation to a broader cultural history of volume.

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Popular Music
  • ISSN: 0261-1430
  • EISSN: 1474-0095
  • URL: /core/journals/popular-music
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