Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Voroshilina, E. S. Ovsepyan, R. A. Plotko, E. E. Baskova, O. Yu. Gerasimova, O. B. Budykina, T. S. and Vuimo, T. A. 2016. The ranges of thrombodynamic assay parameters during physiological pregnancy. Rossiiskii vestnik akushera-ginekologa, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 10.


    van Wettere, W. H. E. J. Smits, R. J. and Hughes, P. E. 2013. Methyl donor supplementation of gestating sow diets improves pregnancy outcomes and litter size. Animal Production Science, Vol. 53, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    van Wettere, W.H.E.J. Herde, P. and Hughes, P.E. 2012. Supplementing sow gestation diets with betaine during summer increases litter size of sows with greater numbers of parities. Animal Reproduction Science, Vol. 132, Issue. 1-2, p. 44.


    Tsitsiou, Eleni Sibley, Colin P. D’Souza, Stephen W. Catanescu, Otilia Jacobsen, Donald W. and Glazier, Jocelyn D. 2011. Homocysteine is transported by the microvillous plasma membrane of human placenta. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, Vol. 34, Issue. 1, p. 57.


    Haliloglu, Berna Aksungar, Fehime Benli Celik, Aygen Ilter, Erdin Coksuer, Hakan and Ozekici, Umit 2010. Negative correlation between D-dimer and homocysteine levels during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 153, Issue. 1, p. 23.


    Newton, Laura AA Sandhu, Kiran Livingstone, Callum Leslie, Ray and Davis, James 2010. Clinical diagnostics for homocysteine: a rogue amino acid?. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. 489.


    Hofer, S. Heindl, B. Meister, F.C. Maul, H. Martin, E. Sohn, C. and Weigand, M.A. 2009. Blutungen während Schwangerschaft und Geburt. Der Gynäkologe, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 55.


    Nagaraja, Dindagur Noone, Mohan Leslie Bharatkumar, Venkata Pinnelli and Christopher, Rita 2008. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Vol. 272, Issue. 1-2, p. 43.


    Gatt, Alex and Makris, Michael 2007. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Venous Thrombosis. Seminars in Hematology, Vol. 44, Issue. 2, p. 70.


    Hofer, S. Schreckenberger, R. Heindl, B. Görlinger, K. Lier, H. Maul, H. Martin, E. and Weigand, M.A. 2007. Blutungen während der Schwangerschaft. Der Anaesthesist, Vol. 56, Issue. 10, p. 1075.


    Penner, Justin D and Brown, Alan S 2007. Prenatal infectious and nutritional factors and risk of adult schizophrenia. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Vol. 7, Issue. 7, p. 797.


    ×

Changes in haemostasis during normal pregnancy: does homocysteine play a role in maintaining homeostasis?

  • Valerie A. Holmes (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS2003251
  • Published online: 01 March 2007
Abstract

Homocysteine, derived from the demethylation of the ammo acid methionine, is either further catabolised by trans-sulfuration to cysteine or remethylated to methionine. Remethylation to methionine requires the cofactors, folate and vitamin B12. Folate is an effective homocysteine-lowering agent and, thus, homocysteine and folate status are inversely related. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a strong independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, early pregnancy loss and neural-tube defects. Pregnancy is a risk factor for VTE as a result of prothrombotic changes in levels of haemostatic factors. However, despite this hypercoagulable state, the incidence of pregnancy-associated VTE is relatively low. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is associated with abnormalities in markers of coagulation activation, and recent research suggests that folic acid supplementation, as well as lowering homocysteine, lowers markers of coagulation activation and increases levels of coagulation inhibitors. Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of blood coagulation in vivo, and homocysteine induces TF expression in vitro. During pregnancy, monocyte TF expression is lower than that in the non-pregnant state, and this lowering of TF may act to counterbalance increases in coagulation activation. Furthermore, despite a high folate requirement, several studies have reported that homocysteine is lower in normal pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state. Although the exact mechanism of homocysteine lowering during pregnancy is unclear, one possible outcome of lower homocysteine may be the protection of women from pregnancy complications and VTE, and thus lower homocysteine may contribute to maintaining homeostasis in haemostasis.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Changes in haemostasis during normal pregnancy: does homocysteine play a role in maintaining homeostasis?
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Changes in haemostasis during normal pregnancy: does homocysteine play a role in maintaining homeostasis?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Changes in haemostasis during normal pregnancy: does homocysteine play a role in maintaining homeostasis?
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Dr Valerie Holmes, Present address: Department of Medicine, Queen's University Belfast, Mulhouse, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BJ, UK, fax +44 2890 235900, v.holmes@qub.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

MK Al-Obaidi , H Philippou , PJ Stubbs , A Adami , R Amersey , MM Noble & DA Lane (2000) Relationships between homocysteine, factor VIIa, and thrombin generation in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 101, 372377

A Andersson , L Brattström , B Israelsson , A Isaksson , A Hamfelt & B Hultberg (1992a) Plasma homocysteine before and after methionine loading with regard to age, gender and menopausal status. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 22, 7987

KA Bauer (1999) Activation markers of coagulation. Bailliere's Best Practice and Research in Clinical Haematology 12, 387406

A Becker , Hinsbergh van , Kostense VW , Jager PJ , Dekker A , Nijpels JM , Heine G , Bouter RJ , Stehouwer CD LM (2000) Serum homocysteine is weakly associated with von Willebrand factor and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, but not with C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects–The Hoorn Study. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 30, 763770

J Bellart , R Gilabert , A Anglès , V Piera , RM Miralles , J Monasterio & L Cabero (1999) Tissue factor levels and high ratio of fibrinopeptide A:D-dimer as a measure of endothelial pro-coagulant disorder in pre-eclampsia. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 106, 594597

J Bellart , R Gilabert , RM Miralles , J Monasterio & L Cabero (1998) Endothelial cell markers and fibrinopeptide A to D-dimer ratio as a measure of coagulation and fibrinolysis balance in normal pregnancy. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 46, 1721

T Bienvenu , A Ankri , B Chadefaux , G Montalescot & P Kamoun (1993) Elevated total plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for thrombosis. Relation to coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters. Thrombosis Research 70, 123129

MI Bokarewa , M Wramsby , K Bremme & M Blomback (1997) Variability of the response to activated protein C during normal pregnancy. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 8, 239244

RE Bonnette , MA Caudill , AM Boddie , AD Hutson , GPA Kauwell & LB Bailey (1998) Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration in pregnant and non-pregnant women with controlled folate intake. Obstetrics and Gynecology 92, 167170

M Božič , M Stegnar , I Fermo , A Ritonja , P Peternel , J Stare , A D'Angelo (2000) Mild hyperhomocysteinemia and fibrinolytic factors in patients with history of venous thromboembolism. Thrombosis Research 100, 271278

L Brattström , B Israelsson , L Tengborn & B Hultberg (1989) Homocysteine, factor VII and antithrombin III in subjects with different gene dosage for cystathionine beta-synthase. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 12, 475482

L Brattstrom , DEL Wilcken , J Öhrvik & L Brudin (1998) Common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation leads to hyperhomocysteinemia but not to vascular disease–the result of a meta-analysis. Circulation 98, 25202526

T Brunelli , D Frisco , S Fedi , A Rogolino , A Farsi , R Marcucci , B Giusti , C Pratesi , R Pulli , GF Gensini , R Abbate & G Pepe (2000) High prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Journal of Vascular Surgery 32, 531536

M Cattaneo , F Franchi , ZL Maddalena , I Martinelli , D Asti & PM Mannucci (1998) Plasma levels of activated protein C in healthy subjects and patients with previous venous thromboembolism. Relationships with plasma homocysteine levels. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 18, 13711375

F Cerneca , G Ricci , R Simeone , M Malisano , S Alberico & S Guaschino (1997) Coagulation and fibrinolysis changes in normal pregnancy. Increased levels of procoagulants and reduced levels of inhibitors during pregnancy induce a hyper-coagulable state, combined with a reactive fibrinolysis. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology 73, 3136

LY Chan , WH Tarn & TK Lau (2001) Venous thromboembolism in pregnant Chinese women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 98, 471475

SY Chan , PH Chan , PC Ho & A Yam (1985) Factor VIII-related antigen levels in normal pregnancy and puerperium. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology 19, 199204

M Colucci , G Balconi , R Lorenzet , A Pietra , D Locati , MB Donati & N Semerara (1983) Cultured human endothelial cells generate tissue factor in response to endotoxin. Journal of Clinical Investigation 71, 18931896

P Comeglio , S Fedi , AA Liotta , AP Cellai , E Chiarantini , D Prisco , F Mecacci , E Parretti , G Mello & R Abbate (1996) Blood clotting activation during pregnancy. Thrombosis Research 84, 199202

J Constans , AD Blann , F Resplandy , F Parrot , M Renard , M Seigneur , V Guérin , M Boisseau & C Conri (1999) Three months supplementation of hyperhomocysteinaemic patients with folic acid and vitamin B6 improves biological markers of endothelial dysfunction. British Journal of Haematology 107, 776778

AM Cotter , AM Molloy , JM Scott & SF Daly (2001) Elevated plasma homocysteine in early pregnancy: A risk factor for the development of severe pre-eclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 185, 781785

F Couturaud , E Oger , JH Abalain , E Chenu , B Guias , HH Floch , B Mercier , D Mottier & C Leroyer (2000) Methylenetetrahydro-folate reductase C677T genotype and venous thromboembolic disease. Respiration 67, 657661

AM Cumming , RC Tail , S Fildes , A Yoong , S Keeney & CR Hay (1995) Development of resistance to activated protein C during pregnancy. British Journal of Haematology 90, 725727

AE Czeizel & I Dudas (1992) Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 18321835

EW Davie & OD Ratnoff (1964) Waterfall sequence for intrinsic blood clotting. Science 145, 13101312

GA Dekker , Vries de , Doelitzsch JIP , Huijgens PM , von PC , BME Blomberg , C Jakobs , HP van Geijn (1995) Underlying disorders associated with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 173, 10421048

AV D'Elia , L Driul , R Giacomello , R Colaone , D Fabbro , Leonardo Di , Florio C , Petraglia P , Marchesoni F , Damante G D (2002) Frequency of factor V, prothrombin and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in pre-eclampsia. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 53, 8487

KR Dimitrova , K DeGroot , AK Myers & YD Kim (2002) Estrogen and homocysteine. Cardiovascular Research 53, 577588

S Donohoe , S Quenby , I Mackie , G Panal , R Farquharson , R Malia , J Kingdom & S Machin (2002) Fluctuations in levels of antiphospholipid antibodies and increased coagulation activation markers in normal and heparin-treated antiphospholipid syndrome pregnancies. Lupus 11, 1120

CR Falcon , M Cattaneo , D Panzeri , I Martinelli & PM Mannucci (1994) High prevalence of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in patients with juvenile venous thrombosis. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 10801083

W Faught , P Garner , G Jones & B Ivey (1995) Changes in protein C and protein S levels in normal pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 172, 147150

JD Finkelstein (2000) Pathways and regulation of homocysteine metabolism in mammals. Seminars in Thrombosis and Haemostasis 26, 219225

ZJ Foka , AF Lambropoulos , H Saravelos , GB Karas , A Karavida , T Agorastos , V Zournatzi , PE Makris , J Bontis & A Kotsis (2000) Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations, but not methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, are associated with recurrent miscarriage. Human Reproduction 15, 458462

AR Folsom , FJ Nieto , PG McGovern , MY Tsai , MR Malinow , JH Eckfeldt , DL Hess & CE Davis (1998) Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins–The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 98, 204210

I Francalanci , P Comeglio , AA Liotta , AP Cellai , S Fedi , E Parretti , G Mello , D Prisco & R Abbate (1995) D-dimer concentrations during normal pregnancy, as measured by ELISA. Thrombosis Research 78, 399405

P Frosst , HJ Blom , R Milos , P Goyette , CA Sheppard , RG Matthews , GJH Boers , Heijer den , Kluijtmans M , van den LAJ , LP Heuvel & R Rozen (1995) A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Nature Genetics 10, 111113

RH Fryer , BD Wilson , DB Gubler , LA Fitzgerald & GM Rodgers (1993) Homocysteine, a risk factor for premature vascular disease and thrombosis, induces tissue factor activity in endothelial cells. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13, 13271333

L Gatti , PM Tenconi , D Guarneri , C Bertulessi , MW Ossola , P Bosco & GA Gianotti (1994) Hemostatic parameters and platelet activation by flow-cytometry in normal pregnancy: a longitudinal study. International Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Research 24, 217219

D Gemmati , M Previati , ML Serino , S Moratelli , S Guerra , S Capitani , E Forini , G Ballerini & GL Scapoli (1999a) Low folate levels and thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as primary determinant of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in normal and thromboembolic subjects. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19, 17611767

JN George (2000) Platelets. Lancet 355, 15311539

AE Gharavi , SS Pierangeli , RA Levy & EN Harris (2001) Mechanism of pregnancy loss in antiphospholipid syndrome. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 44, 1119

RB Gherman , TM Goodwin , B Leung , JD Byrne , R Hethumumi & M Montoro (1999) Incidence, clinical characteristics, and timing of objectively diagnosed venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 94, 730734

TAW Goddijn-Wessel , MGAJ Wouters , der van , EF Molen , MDEH Spuijbroek , RPM Steegers-Theunissen , HJ Blom , GHJ Boers & TKAB Eskes (1996) Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor for placental abruption or infarction. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 66, 2329

E Grandone , M Margaglione , D Colaizzo , G D'Andrea , G Cappucci , V Brancaccio , Minno G Di (1998) Genetic susceptibility to pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism: roles of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 179, 13241328

IA Greer (1999) Thrombosis in pregnancy: maternal and fetal issues. Lancet 353, 12581265

KA Hajjar (1993) Homocysteine-induced modulation of tissue plasminogen activator to its endothelial cell membrane receptor. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91, 28732879

M Hellgren , M Blombäck (1981) Studies on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in pregnancy, during delivery and in the puer-perium. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 12, 141154

MA Hofmann , B Kohl , MS Zumbach , V Borcea , A Bierhaus , M Henkels , J Admiral , AM Schmidt , W Fiehn , R Ziegler , P Wahl & PP Nawroth (1998) Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and endothelial dysfunction in IDDM. Diabetes Care 21, 841848

T Kaiser , SP Brennecke & EK Moses (2001) C677T methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism is not a risk factor for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia among Australian women. Human Heredity 51, 2022

SS Kang , PWK Wong & M Norusis (1987) Homocysteinemia due to folate deficiency. Metabolism 36, 458462

SS Kang , PWK Wong , J Zhou & HY Cook (1986) Total homocyst(e)ine in plasma and amniotic fluid of pregnant women. Metabolism 35, 889891

K Kario , PB Duell , T Matsuo , T Sakata , H Kato , K Shimada & T Miyata (2001) High plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in elderly Japanese patients are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independently from markers of coagulation activation and endothelial cell damage. Atherosclerosis 157, 441449

B Kristensen , J Malm , TK Nilsson , J Hultdin , B Carlberg , G Dahlen & T Olsson (1999) Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypofibrinolysis in young adults with ischemic stroke. Stroke 30, 974980

B Kuch , M Bobak , M Fobker , R Junker , Eckardstein von , Marmot A , Hense HW M (2001) Associations between homocysteine and coagulation factors–a cross-sectional study in two populations of Central Europe. Thrombosis Research 103, 265273

K Kunz , P Petitjean , M Lisri , F Chantrel , C Koehl , ML Wiesel , JP Cazenave , B Moulin & TP Hannedouche (1999) Cardio-vascular morbidity and endothelial dysfunction in chronic haemodialysis patients: is homocyst(e)ine the missing link?. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 14, 19341942

MJ Kupferminc , A Eldor , N Steinman , A Many , A Bar-Am , A Jaffa , G Fait & JB Lessing (1999) Increased frequency of genetic thrombophilia in women with complications of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine 340, 913

SR Lentz & JE Sadler (1991) Inhibition of thrombomodulin surface expression and protein C activation by the thrombogenic agent homocysteine. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88, 19061914

SR Lentz , CG Sobey , DJ Piegors , MY Bhopatkar , FM Faraci , MR Malinow & DD Heistad (1996) Vascular dysfunction in monkeys with diet-induced hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98, 2429

A Lindgren , C Lindoff , B Norrving , B Astedt & BB Johansson (1996) Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in stroke patients. Stroke 27, 10661071

P Lindqvist , B Dahlbäck , K Maršál (1999) Thrombotic risk during pregnancy: a population study. Obstetrics and Gynecology 94, 595599

F Lyall & IA Greer (1996) The vascular endothelium in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Reviews of Reproduction 1, 107116

MD McColl , J Ellison , F Reid , RC Tail , ID Walker & IA Greer (2000) Prothrombin 20210 G→A, MTHFR C677T mutations in women with venous thromboembolism associated with pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 107, 565569

MD McColl , ID Walker & IA Greer (1999) The role of inherited thrombophilia in venous thromboembolism associated with pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 106, 756766

RG Macfarlane (1964) An enzyme cascade in the blood clotting mechanism, and its function as a biochemical amplifier. Nature 202, 498499

NS Macklon , IA Greer & AW Bowman (1997) An ultrasound study of gestational and postural changes in the deep venous system of the leg in pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 104, 191197

MR Malinow , A Rajkovic , PB Duell , DL Hess & BM Upson (1998) The relationship between maternal and neonatal umbilical cord plasma homocyst(e)ine suggests a potential role for maternal homocyst(e)ine in fetal metabolism. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 178, 228233

J Malm , M Laurell & B Dahlback (1988) Changes in the plasma levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins C and S and of C4b-binding protein during pregnancy and oral contraception. British Journal of Haematology 68, 437443

A Many , L Schreiber , S Rosner , JB Lessing , A Eldor & MJ Kupferminc (2001) Pathologic features of the placenta in women with severe pregnancy complications and thrombophilia. Obstetrics and Gynecology 98, 10411044

F Mathonnet , Mazancourt de , Bastenaire P , Morot B , Benattar M , Beufe N , Borg S & Y JY Giudicelli (1996) Activated protein C sensitivity ratio in pregnant women at delivery. British Journal of Haematology 92, 224246

O Mayer , J Filipsvský , M Hromádka , V Svobodová , J Racek , O Mayer , Stehlík Jr , Trefil P , M L Zárybnická (2002) Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia with folic acid: effects on homocysteine levels, coagulation status, and oxidative stress markers. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 39, 851857

O Mayer , Šimon Jr , Rosolová J , Hromádka H , Šubrt M , I I Vobrubova (2002) The effects of folate supplementation on some coagulation parameters and oxidative status surrogates. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 58, 15

Medical Research Council Vitamin Study Research Group (1991) Prevention of neural tube defects: Results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 338, 131137

S Midorikawa , H Sanada , S Hashimoto & T Watanabe (2000) Enhancement by homocysteine of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression and secretion from vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 272, 182185

V Mijatovic , P Kenemans , C Jakobs , Baal van , Peters-Muller WM , van der ER & MJ Mooren (1998a) A randomized controlled study of the effects of 17beta-estradiol-dydrogesterone on plasma homocysteine in postmenopausal women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91, 432436

V Mijatovic , C Netelenbos , der van , MJ Mooren , Valk-de de , GW Roo , C Jakobs & P Kenemans (1998b) Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of raloxifene and conjugated equine estrogen on plasma homocysteine levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Fertility and Sterility 70, 10851089

JL Mills , JM McPartlin , PN Kirke , YJ Lee , MR Conley , DG Weir & JM Scott (1995) Homocysteine metabolism in pregnancies complicated by neural-tube defects. Lancet 345, 149151

P Morawitz (1905) Die Chemie der Blutgerinnung (The chemistry of blood clotting). Ergebnisse der Physiologie 4, 307422

MS Morris , PF Jacques , J Selhub & IH Rosenberg (2000) Total homocysteine and estrogen status indicators in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology 152, 140148

HA Mousa & Z Alfirevicl (2000) Do placental lesions reflect thrombophilia state in women with adverse pregnancy outcome?. Human Reproduction 15, 18301833

M Naruszewicz , M Klinke , K Dziewanowski , A Staniewicz & H Bukowska (2001) Homocysteine, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein (a) levels are simultaneously reduced in patients with chromic renal failure treated with folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyano-cobalamin. Metabolism 50, 131134

WLDM Nelan , HJ Blom , EAP Steegers , Heijer den , Thomas M , TKAB CMG Eskes (2000) Homocysteine and folate levels as risk factors for recurrent early pregnancy loss. Obstetrics and Gynecology 95, 519524

F Neuman , I Ott , N Marx , T Luther , S Kenngott , M Gawaz , M Kotzch & A Schomig (1997) Effect of human recombinant interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 on monocyte procoagulant activity. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 17, 33993405

M Nishinaga , T Ozawa & K Shimada (1993) Homocysteine, a thrombogenic agent, suppresses anticoagulant heparan sulfate expression in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92, 13811386

O Nygård , SE Vollset , H Refsum , I Stensvold , A Tverdal , JE Nordrehaug , PM Ueland & G Kvale (1995) Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile: The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 274, 15261533

P Øian , I Omsjø , JM Maltau , B Østerud (1985) Reduced thromboplastin activity in blood monocytes and reduced sensitivity to stimuli in vitro of blood monocytes from pregnant women. British Journal of Haematology 59, 133137

MJ Peek , C Nelson-Piercy , RA Manning , Swiet de , Letsky EA M (1997) Activated protein C resistance in normal pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 104, 10841086

RW Powers , RW Evans , AK Majors , JI Ojimba , RB Ness , WR Crombleholme & JM Roberts (1998) Plasma homocysteine concentration is increased in pre-eclampsia and is associated with evidence of endothelial activation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 179, 16051611

RW Powers , LA Minich , DL Lykins , RB Ness , WR Crombleholme & JM Roberts (1999) Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism, folate, and susceptibility to pre-eclampsia. Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 6, 7479

FE Preston , FR Rosendaal , ID Walker , D Briët , E Brentorp , J Conrad , J Fontcuberta , M Makris , G Mariani , W Noteboom , I Pabinger , C Legnani , I Scharrer , S Schulman , der van & FJM Meer (1996) Increased fetal loss in women with heritable thrombophilia. Lancet 348, 913916

I Quèrè , H Bellart , M Hoffet , C Janbon , P Mares & J Gris (1998) A woman with five consecutive fetal deaths: case report and retrospective analysis of hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence in 100 consecutive women with recurrent miscarriages. Fertility and Sterility 69, 152154

EP Quinlivan , J McPartlin , H McNulty , M Ward , JJ Strain , DG Weir & JM Scott (2002) Importance of both folic acid and vitamin B 12 in reduction of risk of vascular disease. Lancet 359, 227228

R Rai , H Cohen , M Dave & L Regan (1997) Randomised controlled trial of aspirin and aspirin plus heparin in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospolipid antibodies). British Medial Journal 314, 253257

A Rajkovic , PM Catalano & MR Malinow (1997) Elevated homocyst(e)ine levels with pre-eclampsia. Obstetrics and Gynecology 90, 168171

JG Ray , LJ Langman , MJ Vermeulen , J Evrovski , EL Yeo & DEC Cole (2001) Genetics University of Toronto Thrombophilia Study in Women (GUTTSI): genetic and other risk factor for venous thromboembolism in women. Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2, 141149

JG Ray & CA Laskin (1999) Folic acid and homocyst(e)ine metabolic defects and the risk of placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and spontaneous pregnancy loss: A systematic review. Placenta 20, 519529

G Reber , J Amiral , P de Moerloose (1998) Modified antithrombin III levels during normal pregnancy and relationship with prothrombin fragment F1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complexes. Thrombosis Research 91, 4547

GM Rodgers & WH Kane (1986) Activation of endogenous factor V by a homocysteine-induced vascular endothelial cell activator. Journal of Clinical Investigation 77, 19091916

J Rolschau , J Date & K Kristoffersen (1979) Folic acid supplement and intrauterine growth. Acta Obstetrica and Gynecologica Scandinavica 58, 343346

J Rolschau , K Kristoffersen , M Ulrich , P Grinsted , E Schaumburg & N Foged (1999) The influence of folic acid supplement on the outcome of pregnancies in the county of Funen in Denmark. Part I. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 87, 105110

FR Rosendaal (1999) Venous thrombosis: a multicausal disease. Lancet 353, 11671173

O Salomon , DM Steinberg , A Zivelin , S Gitel , R Dardik , N Rosenberg , S Berliner , A Inbal , A Many , A Lubetsky , D Varon , U Martinowitz & U Seligsohn (1999) Single and combined prothrombotic factors in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism: prevalence and risk assessment. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19, 511518

A Schlit , Beys Col-de , Moriau C , E M Lavenne-Pardonge (1996) Acquired activated protein C resistance in pregnancy. Thrombosis Research 84, 203206

J Selhub , PF Jacques , PWF Wilson , D Rush & IH Rosenbery (1993) Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homo-cysteinemia in an elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 270, 26932698

BL Sheppard & J Bonnar (1999) Uteroplacental hemostasis in intrauterine fetal growth retardation. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 25, 443446

H Shu , M Wramsby , M Bokarewa , M Blombäck & K Bremme (2000) Decrease in protein C inhibitor activity and acquired APC resistance during normal pregnancy. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 9, 277281

JM Sikkema , A Franx , HW Bruinse , der van , NJ Wijk , Valk de , PG HW Nikkels (2002) Placental pathology in early onset pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction in women with and without thrombophilia. Placenta 23, 337342

EL Simpson , RA Lawrenson , AL Nightingale & RDT Farmer (2001) Venous thromboembolism in pregnancy and the puerperium: incidence and additional risk factors from a London perinatal database. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 108, 5660

Y Somekawa , K Kobayashi , S Tomura , T Aso & H Hamaguchi (2002) Effects of hormone replacement therapy and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism on plasma folate and homocysteine levels in postmenopausal Japanese women. Fertility and Sterility 77, 481486

RPM Steegers-Theunissen , GHJ Boers , FJM Trijbels , JD Finkelstein , HJ Blom , CMG Thomas , GF Borm , MGAJ Wouters & TKAB Eskes (1994) Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor for neural-tube defects?. Metabolism 43, 14751480

J Thambyrajah , MJ Landray , HJ Jones , FJ McGlynn , DC Wheeler & JN Townend (2001) A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of the effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid on endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 37, 18581863

J Thambyrajah , MJ Landray , FJ McGlynn , HJ Jones , DC Wheeler & JN Townend (2000) Does folic acid decrease plasma homocysteine and improve endothelial function in patients with predialysis renal failure?. Circulation 102, 871875

A Undas , TB Domagala , M Jankowski & A Szczeklik (1999) Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia with folic acid and vitamins B 12 and B 6 attenuates thrombin generation. Thrombosis Research 95, 281288

A Undas , EB Williams , S Butenas , T Orfeo & K Mann (2001) Homocysteine inhibits inactivation of factor Va by activated protein C. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 43894397

M Uszynski , E Zekanowska , W Uszynski & J Kuczynski (2001) Tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in amniotic fluid and blood plasma: implications for the mechanism of amniotic fluid embolism. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 95, 163166

VWM van Hinsbergh (2001) The endothelium: vascular control of haemostasis. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology 95, 198201

MC Walker , PR Garner , EJ Keely , GA Rock & MD Reis (1997) Changes in activated protein C resistance during normal pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 177, 162169

M Ward , H McNulty , J McPartlin , JJ Strain , DG Weir & JM Scott (1997) Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is lowered by physiological doses of folic acid. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 90, 519524

MGAJ Wouters , GHJ Boers , HJ Blom , FJM Trijbels , CMG Thomas , GF Borm , RPM Steegers-Theunissen & TKAB Eskes (1993) Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Fertility and Sterility 60, 820825

JG Wright , P Cooper , B Astedt , I Lecander , JT Wilde , FE Preston & M Greaves (1988) Fibrinolysis during normal human pregnancy: complex inter-relationships between plasma levels of tissue plasminogen activator and inhibitors and the euglobulin clot lysis time. British Journal of Haematology 69, 253258

JWG Yarnell , PM Sweetnam , A Rumley & GDO Lowe (2000) Life-style and hemostatic risk factors for ischemic heart disease–The Caerphilly Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 20, 271279

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: