Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Fuel utilization by cells of the immune system

  • Philip C. Calder (a1)
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Fuel utilization by cells of the immune system
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Fuel utilization by cells of the immune system
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Fuel utilization by cells of the immune system
      Available formats
      ×
Abstract
Copyright
References
Hide All
Ardawi M. S. M. (1988). Glutamine and glucose metabolism in human peripheral lymphocytes. Metabolism 37, 99103.
Ardawi M. S. M. & Newsholme E. A. (1982). Maximum activities of some enzymes of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and ketone-body and glutamine utilisation pathways in lymphocytes of the rat. Biochemical Journal 208, 743748.
Ardawi M. S. M. & Newsholme E. A. (1983). Glutamine metabolism in lymphocytes of the rat. Biochemical Journal 212, 835842.
Ardawi M. S. M. & Newsholme E. A. (1984). Metabolism of ketone bodies, oleate and glucose in lymphocytes of the rat. Biochemical Journal 221, 255260.
Ardawi M. S. M. & Newsholme E. A. (1985). Metabolism in lymphocytes and its importance in the immune response. Essays in Biochemistry 21, 144.
Ashworth L. A. E. & MacLennan A. P. (1974). Comparison of L-asparaginases from Escherichia coli and Erwinia carotovora and immunosuppressants. Cancer Research 34, 13531359.
Askanazi J., Carpentier Y. A., Michelsen C. B., Elwyn D. H., Furst P., Kantrowitz L. R., Gump F. E. & Kinney J. M. (1980). Muscle and plasma amino acids following injury. Annals of Surgery 192, 7885.
Brambilla G., Pardodi S., Cavanna M., Caraceni C. E. & Baldini L. (1970). The immunodepressive activity of E. coli L-asparaginase in some transplant systems. Cancer Research 30, 26652670.
Brand K. (1985). Glutamine and glucose metabolism during thymocyte proliferation. Biochemical Journal 228, 353361.
Brand K., Fekl W., von Hintzenstern J., Langer K., Luppa P. & Schoerner C. (1989). Metabolism of glutamine in lymphocytes. Metabolism 8, 2933.
Bustos R. & Sobrino F. (1989). Control of fructose 2,6-biphosphate levels in rat macrophages by glucose and phorbol ester. FEBS Letters 251, 143146.
Buttke T. M. (1984). Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by free fatty acids. Immunology 53, 235242.
Calder P. C. (1994). Glutamine and the immune system. Clinical Nutrition 13, 28.
Calder P. C., Bevan S. J. & Newsholme E. A. (1992). The inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation by fatty acids is via an eicosanoid-independent mechanism. Immunology 75, 108115.
Calder P. C., Bond J. A., Bevan S. J., Hunt S. V. & Newsholme E. A. (1991). Effect of fatty acids on the proliferation of concanavalin A-stimulated rat lymph node lymphocytes. International Journal of Biochemistry 23, 579588.
Calder P. C., Bond J. A., Harvey D. J., Gordon S. & Newsholme E. A. (1990). Uptake and incorporation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into macrophage lipids and their effect upon macrophage adhesion and phagocytosis. Biochemical Journal 269, 807814.
Calder P. C. & Newsholme E. A. (1992 a). Glutamine promotes interleukin-2 production by concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 105A.
Calder P. C. & Newsholme E. A. (1992 b). Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress human peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production. Clinical Science 82, 695700.
Calder P. C. & Newsholme E. A. (1992 c). Unsaturated fatty acids suppress interleukin-2 production and transferrin receptor expression by concanavalin A-stimulated rat lymphocytes. Mediators of Inflammation 1, 107112.
Calder P. C. & Newsholme E. A. (1993). Influence of antioxidant vitamins on fatty acid inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 29, 175183.
Calder P. C., Yaqoob P., Harvey D. J., Watts A. & Newsholme E. A. (1994 a). The incorporation of fatty acids by lymphocytes and the effect on fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity. Biochemical Journal 300, 509518.
Calder P. C., Yaqoob P. & Newsholme E. A. (1994 b). Triacylglycerol metabolism by lymphocytes and the effect of triacylglycerols on lymphocyte proliferation. Biochemical Journal 298, 605611.
Castell L. M., Powell H., Parry-Billings M. & Newsholme E. A. (1993). The effect of surgery on plasma glutamine concentrations. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 52, 70A.
Chait A., Iverius P.-H. & Brunzell J. D. (1982). Lipoprotein lipase secretion by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Journal of Clinical Investigation 69, 490493.
Chakrabarty A. K. & Friedman H. (1970). L-Asparaginase-induced immunosuppression: effects on antibody-forming cells and serum titers. Science 167, 869870.
Curi R., Newsholme P. & Newsholme E. A. (1986). Intracellular distribution of some enzymes of the glutamine utilisation pathway in rat lymphocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 138, 318322.
Curi R., Williams J. F. & Newsholme E. A. (1989 a). Pyruvate metabolism by lymphocytes: Evidence for an additional ketogenic tissue. Biochemistry International 19, 755767.
Curi R., Williams J. F. & Newsholme E. A. (1989 b). Formation of ketone bodies by resting lymphocytes. International Journal of Biochemistry 21, 11331136.
Deutz N. E. P., Reijven P. L. M., Athanasas G. & Soeters P. B. (1992). Post-operative changes in hepatic, intestinal, splenic and muscle fluxes of amino acids and ammonia in pigs. Clinical Science 83, 607614.
Durden D. L. & Distasio J. A. (1981). Characterisation of the effects of asparaginase from Escherichia coli and a glutaminase-free asparaginase from Vibrio succinogenes on specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity. International Journal of Cancer 27, 5965.
Endres S., Ghorbani R., Kelley V. E., Georgilis K., Lonnemann G., Van Der Meer J. M. W., Cannon J. G., Rogers T. S., Klempner M. S., Weber P. C., Schaeffer E. J., Wolff S. M. & Dinarello C. A. (1989). The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. New England Journal of Medicine 320, 265271.
Fujikawa M., Yamashita N., Yamazaki K., Sugiyama E., Suzuki H. & Hamazaki T. (1992). Eicosapent-aenoic acid inhibits antigen-presenting cell function of murine splenocytes. Immunology 75, 330335.
Goldberg D. I. & Khoo J. C. (1990). Secretion of the lysosomal acid triacylglycerol hydrolase precursor by J774 macrophages. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 960, 200209.
Griffiths M. & Keast D. (1990). The effect of glutamine on murine splenic leukocyte responses to T and B cell mitogens. Immunology and Cell Biology 68, 405408.
Hersh E. M. (1970). L-Glutaminase: suppression of lymphocyte blastogenic responses in vitro. Science 172, 736738.
Hersh E. M. & Brown B. W. (1971). Inhibition of immune response by glutamine antagonism: effect of azotomycin on lymphocyte blastogenesis. Cancer Research 31, 834840.
Hume D. A., Radik J. L., Ferber E. & Weidemann M. J. (1978). Aerobic glycolysis and lymphocyte transformation. Biochemical Journal 174, 703709.
Hwang D. (1989). Essential fatty acids and the immune response. FASEB Journal 2, 20532061.
Kafkewitz D. & Bendich A. (1983). Enzyme-induced asparagine and glutamine depletion and immune system dysfunction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 10251030.
Karnovsky M. L., Simmons S., Glass E. A., Shafer A. W. & D'Arcy Hart P. (1970). Metabolism of macrophages. In Mononuclear Phagocytes, pp. 103120 [van Furth R., editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Keast D. & Newsholme E. A. (1990). Effect of mitogens on the maximum activities of hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and glutaminase in rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes and splenocytes during the early period of culture. International Journal of Biochemistry 22, 133136.
Khoo J. C., Mahoney E. M. & Witztum J. L. (1981). Secretion of lipoprotein lipase by macrophages in culture. Journal of Biological Chemistry 256, 71057108.
Lengle E. E., Gustin N. C., Gonzalez F., Menahan L. A. & Kemp R. G. (1978). Energy metabolism in thymic lymphocytes of normal and leukemic AKR mice. Cancer Research 38, 11131119.
Lokesh B. R. & Wrann M. (1984). Incorporation of palmitic acid or oleic acid into macrophage membrane lipids exerts differential effects on the function of normal mouse peritoneal macrophages. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 792, 141148.
Lund J., Stjernstrom H., Bergholm U., Jorfeldt L., Vinnars E. & Wiklund L. (1986). The exchange of blood-borne amino acids in the leg during abdominal surgical trauma: effects of glucose infusion. Clinical Science 71, 487496.
McKeehan W. L. (1982). Glycolysis, glutaminolysis and cell proliferation. Cell Biology International Reports 6, 635650.
Mahoney E. M., Hamill A. L., Scott W. A. & Cohn Z. A. (1977). Response of endocytosis to altered fatty acyl composition of macrophage phospholipids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 74, 48954899.
Mahoney E. M., Khoo J. C. & Steinberg D. (1982). Lipoprotein lipase secretion by human monocytes and rabbit alveolar macrophages in culture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 79, 16391642.
Meydani S. N., Endres S., Woods M. M., Goldin B. R., Soo C., Morrill-Labrode A., Dinarello C. & Gorbach S. L. (1991). Oral (n-3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation: comparison between young and older women. Journal of Nutrition 121, 547555.
Newsholme E. A., Crabtree B. & Ardawi M. S. M. (1985). The role of high rates of glycolysis and glutamine utilisation in rapidly dividing cells. Bioscience Reports 5, 393400.
Newsholme E. A., Newsholme P., Curi R., Crabtree B. & Ardawi M. S. M. (1989). Glutamine metabolism in different tissues – Its physiological and pathological importance. In Perspectives in Clinical Nutrition, pp. 7198 [Kinney J. M. and Borum P. R., editors]. Baltimore: Urban & Schwarzenberg.
Newsholme P., Curi R., Gordon S. & Newsholme E. A. (1986). Metabolism of glucose, glutamine, long-chain fatty acids and ketone bodies by murine macrophages. Biochemical Journal 239, 121125.
Newsholme P., Gordon S. & Newsholme E. A. (1987). Rates of utilisation and fates of glucose, glutamine, pyruvate, fatty acids and ketone bodies by mouse macrophages. Biochemical Journal 242, 631636.
Newsholme P. & Newsholme E. A. (1989). Rates of utilisation of glucose, glutamine and oleate and formation of end products by mouse peritoneal macrophages in culture. Biochemical Journal 261, 211218.
O'Rourke A. M. & Rider L. C. (1989). Glucose, glutamine and ketone body utilisation by resting and concanavalin A activated rat splenic lymphocytes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1010, 342345.
Parry-Billings M., Baigrie R. J., Lamont P. M., Morris P. J. & Newsholme E. A. (1992 a). Effects of major and minor surgery on plasma glutamine and cytokine levels. Archives of Surgery 127, 12371240.
Parry-Billings M., Budgett R., Koutedakis Y., Blomstrand E., Brooks S., Williams C., Calder P. C., Pilling S., Baigrie R. & Newsholme E. A. (1992 b). Plasma amino acid concentrations in the overtraining syndrome: possible effects on the immune system. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24, 13531358.
Parry-Billings M., Evans J., Calder P. C. & Newsholme E. A. (1990). Does glutamine contribute to immunosuppression after major burns? Lancet 336, 523525.
Parry-Billings M., Matthews V. J., Newsholme E. A., Budgett R. & Koutedakis J. (1993). The overtraining syndrome: some biochemical aspects. In Intermittent High Intensity Exercise, pp. 215225 [MacLeod D. A. D., Maughan R. J., Williams C., Madeley C. R., Sharp J. C. M. and Nutton R. W., editors]. London: E. & F. N. Spon.
Roos D. & Loos J. A. (1973). Changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of mitogenically stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes. Experimental Cell Research 77, 127135.
Roth E., Funovics J., Muhlbacher F., Schemper M., Mauritz W., Sporn P. & Fritsch A. (1982). Metabolic disorders in severe abdominal sepsis: glutamine deficiency in skeletal muscle. Clinical Nutrition 1, 2541.
Santoli D., Phillips P. D., Colt T. L. & Zurier R. B. (1990). Suppression of interleukin 2-dependent human T cell growth in vitro by prostaglandin E (PGE) and their precursor fatty acids. Journal of Clinical Investigation 85, 424432.
Simberkoff M. S. & Thomas L. (1970). Reversal by L-glutamine of the inhibition of lymphocyte mitosis caused by E. coli asparaginase. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology 133, 642643.
Small C. A., Rogers M. P., Goodacre J. A. & Yeaman S. J. (1991). Phosphorylation and activation of hormone sensitive lipase in isolated macrophages. FEBS Letters 279, 323326.
Soyland E., Nenseter M. S., Braathen L. & Drevon C. A. (1993). Very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit proliferation of human T-lymphocytes in vitro. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 23, 112121.
Spolarics Z., Lang C. H., Bagby G. J. & Spitzer J. J. (1991). Glutamine and fatty acid oxidation are the main sources of energy in Kupffer and endothelial cells. American Journal of Physiology 261, G185G190.
Stray N., Letnes H. & Blomhoff J. P. (1990). Intracellular regulation of lipoprotein lipase in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1045, 280284.
Szondy Z. & Newsholme E. A. (1989). The effect of glutamine concentration on the activity of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase II and on the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA in rat mesenteric lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin. Biochemical Journal 261, 979983.
Tsang W. M., Weyman C. & Smith A. D. (1977). Effect of fatty acid mixtures on phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes from different species. Biochemical Society Transactions 5, 153154.
Wallace C. & Keast D. (1992). Glutamine and macrophage function. Metabolism 41, 10161020.
Watson J., Madhok R., Wijelath E., Capell H. A., Gillespie J., Smith J. & Byars B. L. (1990). Mechanism of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis. Biochemical Society Transactions 18, 284285.
Weyman C., Morgan S. J., Belin J. & Smith A. D. (1977). Phytohaemagglutinin stimulation of human lymphocytes: effect of fatty acids on uridine uptake and phosphoglyceride fatty acid profile. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 496, 155166.
Wu G., Field C. J. & Marliss E. B. (1991). Elevated glutamine metabolism in splenocytes from spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Biochemical Journal 274, 4954.
Yamashita N., Maruyama M., Yamazaki K., Hamazaki T. & Yano S. (1991). Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on natural killer cell activity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 59, 335345.
Yaqoob P. (1993). The effects of fatty acids on the composition and functions of lymphocytes. DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford.
Yaqoob P. & Calder P. C. (1993). The effects of fatty acids on lymphocyte functions. International Journal of Biochemistry 25, 17051714.
Yaqoob P., Newsholme E. A. & Calder P. C. (1994 a). Fatty acid oxidation by lymphocytes. Biochemical Society Transactions 22, 116S.
Yaqoob P., Newsholme E. A. & Calder P. C. (1994 b). The effect of dietary lipid manipulation on rat lymphocyte subsets and proliferation. Immunology 82, 603610.
Yaqoob P., Newsholme E. A. & Calder P. C. (1994 c). Inhibition of natural killer cell activity by dietary lipids. Immunology Letters 41, 241247.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 77 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 116 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.