1.Anderson, SA (1990) Core indicators of nutritional status for difficult-to-sample populations. J Nutr 120, 62.
2.Radimer, KL, Olson, CM & Campbell, CC (1990) Development of indicators to assess hunger. J Nutr 120(Suppl 11): 1544–1548.
3.Wehler, CA, Scott, RI & Anderson, JJ (1992) The community childhood hunger identification project: a model of domestic hunger-demonstration project in Seattle, Washington. J Nutr Educ Behav 24, 29S–35S.
5.Hamelin, AM, Beaudry, M & Habicht, JP (2002) Characterization of household food insecurity in Quebec: food and feelings. Soc Sci Med 54, 119–132.
6.Runnels, VE, Kristjansson, E & Calhoun, M (2011) An investigation of adults’ everyday experiences and effects of food insecurity in an urban area in Canada. Can J Commun Ment Health 30, 157–172.
7.Williams, PL, MacAulay, RB, Anderson, BJ et al. (2012) “I would have never thought that I would be in such a predicament”: voices from women experiencing food insecurity in Nova Scotia, Canada. J Hunger Environ Nutr 7, 253–270.
8.Coates, J, Frongillo, EA, Rogers, BL et al. (2006) Commonalities in the experience of household food insecurity across cultures: what are measures missing? J Nutr 136, 1438–1448.
9.Wunderlich, GS & Norwood, JL (editors) (2006) Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States: An Assessment of the Measure. Washington, DC: National Research Countil of the National Academies.
10.United States Department of Agriculture (2017) Food security in the U.S.: Measurement. Washington: United States Department of Agriculture.
11.Ashby, S, Kleve, S, McKechnie, R et al. (2016) Measurement of the dimensions of food insecurity in developed countries: a systematic literature review. Public Health Nutr 19, 2887–2896.
12.Tarasuk, V (2001) Discussion Paper on Household and Individual Food Insecurity. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada.
13.Coleman-Jensen, AJ, Rabbitt, MP, Gregory, CA et al. (2017) Household Food Security in the United States in 2016. Washington: Economic Research Service.
14.Tarasuk, V, Mitchell, A & Dachner, N (2014) Household Food Insecurity in Canada: 2012. Toronto: University of Toronto.
15.Alvares, L & Amaral, TF (2014) Food insecurity and associated factors in the Portuguese population. Food Nutr Bull 35, 395–402.
17.Bates, B, Roberts, C, Lepps, H et al. (2017) The Food & You Survey Wave 4. London: Crown Copyright.
18.Lansley, S & Mack, J (2015) Breadline Britain: The Rise of Mass Poverty. London: Oneworld Publications.
20.Rose, D & Oliveira, V (1997) Nutrient intakes of individuals from food-insufficient households in the United States. Am J Public Health 87, 1956–1961.
21.Bhattacharya, J, Currie, J & Haider, S (2004) Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults. J Health Econ 23, 839–862.
22.Kirkpatrick, SI & Tarasuk, V (2008) Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacies among Canadian adults and adolescents. J Nutr 138, 604–612.
23.Nelson, M, Erens, B, Bates, B et al. (2007) Low income diet and nutrition survey, Volume 3: Nutritional Status, Physical Activity, Economic, Social and Other Factors. London: The Stationery Office.
24.Tarasuk, V, Dachner, N & Li, J (2005) Homeless youth in Toronto are nutritionally vulnerable. J Nutr 135, 1926–1933.
25.Tarasuk, V, Beaton, GH, Geduld, J et al. (1998) Assessment of Dietary Adequacy and Food Security of Women in Food Bank Families in Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto. Contract No.: NHRDP Project Report No. 6606-5609-201.
26.Tarasuk, VS & Beaton, GH (1999) Women's dietary intakes in the context of household food insecurity. J Nutr 129, 672–679.
27.Seligman, HK & Schillinger, D (2010) Hunger and socioeconomic disparities in chronic disease. N Engl J Med 363, 6–9.
28.Dinour, LM, Bergen, D & Yeh, M-C (2007) The food insecurity-obesity paradox: a review of the literature and the role food stamps may play. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1952–1961.
29.Parker, ED, Widome, R, Nettleton, JA et al. (2010) Food security and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults and adolescents: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2006. Ann Epidemiol 20, 364–370.
30.Larson, NI & Story, MT (2011) Food insecurity and weight status among US children and families a review of the literature. Am J Prev Med 40, 166–173.
31.Franklin, B, Jones, A, Love, D et al. (2012) Exploring mediators of food insecurity and obesity: a review of recent literature. J Community Health 37, 253–264.
32.Seligman, HK, Laraia, BA & Kushel, MB (2010) Food insecurity is associated with chronic disease among low-income NHANES participants. J Nutr 140, 304–310.
33.Gowda, C, Hadley, C & Aiello, AE (2012) The association between food insecurity and inflammation in the US adult population. Am J Public Health 102, 1579–1586.
34.Vozoris, NT & Tarasuk, VS (2003) Household food insufficiency is associated with poorer health. J Nutr 133, 120–126.
35.Carter, KN, Krus, K, Blakely, T et al. (2011) The association of food security with psychological distress in New Zealand and any gender differences. Soc Sci Med 72, 1463–1471.
36.Muldoon, KA, Duff, PK, Fielden, S et al. (2013) Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 48, 795–803.
37.Heflin, CM, Corcoran, ME & Siefert, KA (2007) Work trajectories, income changes, and food insufficiency in a Michigan welfare population. Soc Serv Rev 81, 3–25.
38.Huddleston-Casas, C, Charnigo, R & Simmons, LA (2009) Food insecurity and maternal depression in rural, low-income families: a longitudinal investigation. Public Health Nutr 12, 1133–1140.
39.Heflin, CM, Siefert, K & Williams, DR (2005) Food insufficiency and women's mental health: findings from a 3-year panel of welfare recipients. Soc Sci Med 61, 1971–1982.
40.Ashiabi, GS & O'Neal, KK (2007) Children's health status: examining the associations among income poverty, material hardship, and parental factors. PLoS ONE 2, e940.
41.Bronte-Tinkew, J, Zaslow, M, Capps, R et al. (2007) Food insecurity works through depression, parenting, and infant feeding to influence overweight and health in toddlers. J Nutr 137, 2160–2165.
42.Fram, MS, Frongillo, EA, Jones, SJ et al. (2011) Children are aware of food insecurity and take responsibility for managing food resources. J Nutr 141, 1114–1119.
43.Connell, CL, Lofton, KL, Yadrick, K et al. (2005) Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being. J Nutr 135, 1683–1690.
44.Kirkpatrick, SI, McIntyre, L & Potestio, ML (2010) Child hunger and long-term adverse consequences for health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 164, 754–762.
45.Bartfeld, J & Dunifon, R (2006) State-level predictors of food insecurity among households with children. J Policy Anal Manage 25, 921–942.
46.Gundersen, C, Kreider, B & Pepper, J (2011) The economics of food insecurity in the United States. Appl Econ Perspect Policy 33, 281–303.
47.Guo, G (2011) Household assets and food security: evidence from the survey of program dynamics. J Fam Econ Issues 32, 98–110.
48.Huang, J, Guo, B & Kim, Y (2010) Food insecurity and disability: do economic resources matter? Soc Sci Res 39, 111–124.
49.Leete, L & Bania, N (2010) The effect of income shocks on food insufficiency. Rev Econ Househ 8, 505–526.
50.Loopstra, R & Tarasuk, V (2013) Severity of household food insecurity is sensitive to change in household income and employment status among low-income families. J Nutr 143, 1316–1323.
51.Sriram, U & Tarasuk, V (2016) Economic predictors of household food insecurity in Canadian metropolitan areas. J Hunger Environ Nutr 11, 1–13.
52.Tarasuk, V, Mitchell, A, McLaren, L et al. (2013) Chronic physical and mental health conditions among adults may increase vulnerability to household food insecurity. J Nutr 143, 1785–1793.
53.Iceland, J & Bauman, KJ (2007) Income poverty and material hardship: how strong is the association? J Socio Econ 36, 376–396.
54.McIntyre, L, Bartoo, AC & Emery, JH (2013) When working is not enough: food insecurity in the Canadian labour force. Public Health Nutr 17, 49–57.
55.Rainville, B & Brink, S (2001) Food security in Canada: 1998–1999. In [Policy ARBoS, editor]. Ottawa, ON: Human Resources Development Canada.
56.Tarasuk, V & Vogt, J (2009) Household food insecurity in Ontario. Can J Public Health 100, 184–188.
57.Willows, ND, Veugelers, P, Raine, K et al. (2009) Prevalence and sociodemographic risk factors related to household food security in Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Public Health Nutr 12, 1150–1156.
58.Weiser, SD, Bangsberg, DR, Kegeles, S et al. (2009) Food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed individuals living with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco. AIDS Behav 13, 841–848.
59.Whitbeck, LB, Chen, X & Johnson, KD (2006) Food insecurity among homeless and runaway adolescents. Public Health Nutr 9, 47–52.
60.Strike, C, Rudzinski, K, Patterson, J et al. (2012) Frequent food insecurity among injection drug users: correlates and concerns. BMC Public Health 12, 1058.
61.Tarasuk, V, Dachner, N, Poland, B et al. (2009) Food deprivation is integral to the ‘hand to mouth’ existence of homeless youths in Toronto. Public Health Nutr 12, 1437–1442.
62.Loopstra, R & Lalor, D (2017) Financial insecurity, food insecurity, and disability: the profile of people receiving emergency food assistance from The Trussell Trust Foodbank Network in Britain. London: The Trussell Trust.
63.Loopstra, R & Tarasuk, V (2012) The relationship between food banks and household food insecurity among low income Toronto families. Can Public Policy 38, 497–514.
64.Neter, JE, Dijkstra, SC, Visser, M et al. (2014) Food insecurity among Dutch food bank recipients: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 16.
65.Tarasuk, VS & Beaton, GH (1999) Household food insecurity and hunger among families using food banks. Can J Public Health 90, 109–113.
66.Ippolito, MM, Lyles, CR, Prendergast, K et al. (2017) Food insecurity and diabetes self-management among food pantry clients. Public Health Nutr 20, 183–189.
67.Fletcher, JM, Andreyeva, T & Busch, SH (2009) Assessing the effect of changes in housing costs on food insecurity. J Child Poverty 15, 79–93.
68.Kirkpatrick, SI & Tarasuk, V (2011) Housing circumstances are associated with household food access among low-income urban families. J Urban Health 88, 284–296.
69.Reeves, A, Loopstra, R & Stuckler, D (2017) The growing disconnect between food prices and wages in Europe: cross-national analysis of food deprivation and welfare regimes in twenty-one EU countries, 2004–2012. Public Health Nutr 20, 1414–1422.
70.Zhang, Q, Jones, S, Ruhm, CJ et al. (2013) Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children. J Nutr 143, 1659–1665.
71.Engler-Stringer, R, Stringer, B & Haines, T (2011) Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women. Can J Diet Pract Res 72, 133–136.
72.Gundersen, CG & Garasky, SB (2012) Financial management skills are associated with food insecurity in a sample of households with children in the United States. J Nutr 142, 1865–1870.
73.Kirkpatrick, SI & Tarasuk, V (2009) Food insecurity and participation in community food programs among low-income Toronto families. Can J Public Health 100, 135–139.
74.McLaughlin, C, Tarasuk, V & Kreiger, N (2003) An examination of at-home food preparation activity among low-income, food-insecure women. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 1506–1512.
75.Dachner, N, Ricciuto, L, Kirkpatrick, SI et al. (2010) Food purchasing and food insecurity among low-income families in Toronto. Can J Diet Pract Res 71, 126.
76.Huisken, A, Orr, SK & Tarasuk, V (2017) Adults’ food skills and use of gardens are not associated with household food insecurity in Canada. Can J Public Health 107, e526–e32.
77.Carter, MA, Dubois, L & Tremblay, MS (2014) Place and food insecurity: a critical review and synthesis of the literature. Public Health Nutr 17, 94–112.
78.Smith, D & Cummins, S (2012) Food deserts. In The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Obesity pp. 452–462 [Cawley, J, editor]. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
79.Kirkpatrick, SI & Tarasuk, V (2010) Assessing the relevance of neighbourhood characteristics to the household food security of low-income Toronto families. Public Health Nutr 13, 1139–1148.
80.Tarasuk, V, Mitchell, A & Dachner, N. (2013) Household Food Insecurity in Canada: 2011. Toronto: University of Toronto.
81.Block, JP & Subramanian, SV (2015) Moving beyond “food deserts”: reorienting United States policies to reduce disparities in diet quality. PLoS Med 12, e1001914.
83.Bartfeld, JS & Ahn, H-M (2011) The school breakfast program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children. J Nutr 141, 470–475.
84.Lambie-Mumford, H & Sims, L (2018) Feeding hungry children: the growth of charitable breakfast clubs and holiday hunger projects in the UK. Child Soc (In the Press).
85.Campbell, AD, Godfryd, A, Buys, DR et al. (2015) Does participation in home-delivered meals programs improve outcomes for older adults? Results of a systematic review. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr 34, 124–167.
86.Ralston, K (2017) Children’ food security and USDA Child Nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic information bulletin number 174.
87.Pettes, T, Dachner, N, Gaetz, S et al. (2016) An examination of charitable meal programs in five Canadian cities. J Health Care Poor Underserved 27, 1303–1315.
88.Power, EM, Little, MH & Collins, PA. (2015) Should Canadian health promoters support a food stamp-style program to address food insecurity? Health Promot Int 30: 184–193.
89.Wilde, PE (2007) Measuring the effect of food stamps on food insecurity and hunger: research and policy considerations. J Nutr 137, 307–310.
90.Ratcliffe, C, McKernan, S-M & Zhang, S (2011) How much does the supplemental nutrition assistance program reduce food insecurity? Am J Agric Econ 93, 1082–1098.
91.Yen, ST, Andrews, M, Chen, Z et al. (2008) Food stamp program participation and food insecurity: an instrumental variables approach. Am J Agric Econ 90, 117–132.
92.Mykerezi, E & Mills, B (2010) The impact of food stamp program participation on household food insecurity. Am J Agric Econ 92, 1379–1391.
93.Nord, M (2012) How much does the supplemental nutrition assistance program alleviate food insecurity? Evidence from recent programme leavers. Public Health Nutr 15, 811–817.
94.Mabli, J & Ohls, J (2015) Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation is associated with an increase in household food security in a national evaluation. J Nutr 145, 344–351.
95.Edwards, M, Heflin, C, Mueser, P et al. (2016) The great recession and SNAP caseloads: a tale of two states. J Poverty 20, 261–277.
96.Ionescu-Ittu, R, Glymour, MM & Kaufman, JS (2015) A difference-in-differences approach to estimate the effect of income-supplementation on food insecurity. Prev Med 70, 108–116.
97.Milligan, K & Stabile, M (2011) Do child tax benefits affect the well-being of children? Evidence from Canadian child benefit expansions. Am Econ J 3, 175–205.
98.Li, N, Dachner, N & Tarasuk, V (2016) The impact of changes in social policies on household food insecurity in British Columbia, 2005–2012. Prev Med 93, 151–158.
99.Loopstra, R, Dachner, N & Tarasuk, V (2015) An exploration of the unprecedented decline in the prevalence of household food insecurity in Newfoundland and Labrador, 2007–2012. Can Public Policy 41.
100.Schmidt, L, Shore-Sheppard, L & Watson, T (2016) The effect of safety-net programs on food insecurity. J Hum Res 51, 589–614.
101.McIntyre, L, Dutton, DJ, Kwok, C et al. (2016) Reduction of food insecurity among low-income Canadian seniors as a likely impact of a guaranteed annual income. Can Public Policy 42, 274–286.
102.Loopstra, R, Reeves, A, McKee, M et al. (2016) Food insecurity and social protection in Europe: quasi-natural experiment of Europe's great recessions 2004–2012. Prev Med 89, 44–50.
103.Fafard St-Germain, A-A & Tarasuk, V (2017) High vulnerability to household food insecurity in a sample of Canadian renter households in government-subsidized housing. Can J Public Health 108, 6.
104.Tarasuk, V, Cheng, J, de Oliveira, C et al. (2015) Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs. CMAJ 187, 429–436.
105.Poppendieck, J (1998) Sweet Charity? Emergency Food and the End of Entitlement. New York: Penguin Group.
106.Riches, G. (1987) Feeding Canada's poor: the rise of the food banks and the collapse of the public safety net. In The Canadian Welfare State: Evolution and Transition, pp. 126–148 [Ismael, J, editor]. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
107.Riches, G (2002) Food banks and food security: welfare reform, human rights and social policy. Lessons from Canada? Soc Policy Adm 36, 16.
108.Lambie-Mumford, H (2017) Hungry Britain: The Rise of Food Charity. Bristol: Policy Press.
109.Simmet, A, Depa, J, Tinnemann, P et al. (2017) The nutritional quality of food provided from food pantries: a systematic review of existing literature. J Acad Nutr Diet 117, 577–588.
110.Baskin, CA, Guarisco, B, Koleszar-Gree, R et al. (2009) Struggles, strengths, solutions: exploring food security with young Aboriginal moms. Esurio: J Hung Poverty 1, 1–19.
111.Jacobs Starkey, L, Kuhnlein, HV & Gray-Donald, K (1998) Food bank users: sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics. CMAJ 158, 1143–1149.
112.Williams, PL, Watt, CG, Amero, M et al. (2012) Affordability of a nutritious diet for income assistance recipients in Nova Scotia (2002–2010). Can J Public Health 103, 183–188.
113.Roncarolo, F, Bisset, S & Potvin, L (2016) Short-term effects of traditional and alternative community interventions to address food insecurity. PLoS ONE 11, e0150250.
114.Riches, G & Silvasti, T (2014) First World Hunger Revisited: Food Charity or the Right to Food? 2nd ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
115.Tarasuk, V & Eakin, JM (2003) Charitable food assistance as symbolic gesture: an ethnographic study of food banks in Ontario. Soc Sci Med 56, 1505–1515.
116.Jacobs Starkey, L (1994) An evaluation of emergency food bags. J Can Diet Assoc 55, 4.
117.Bocskei, EM & Ostry, AS (2010) Charitable food programs in Victoria, BC. Can J Diet Pract Res 71, 46–48.
118.Irwin, JD, Ng, VK, Rush, TJ et al. (2007) Can food banks sustain nutrient requirements? A case study in Southwestern Ontario. Can J Public Health 98, 17–20.
119.Tarasuk, V & Eakin, JA (2005) Food assistance through “surplus” food: insights from an ethnographic study of food bank work. Agric Hum Values 22, 177–186.
120.Teron, AC & Tarasuk, VS (1999) Charitable food assistance: what are food bank users receiving? Can J Public Health 90, 382–384.
121.Gany, F, Bari, S, Crist, M et al. (2013) Food insecurity: limitations of emergency food resources for our patients. J Urban Health 90, 552–558.
122.Hobbs, K, MacEachern, W, McIvor, A et al. (1993) Waste of a nation: poor people speak out about charity. Can Rev Soc Policy 31, 11.
123.Garthwaite, K (2016) Stigma, shame and ‘people like us’: an ethnographic study of foodbank use in the UK. J Poverty Soc Justice 24, 277–289.
124.Loopstra, R & Tarasuk, V (2015) Food bank usage is a poor indicator of food insecurity: insights from Canada. Soc Pol Soc 14, 443–455.
125.Hamm, MW & Bellows, AC (2003) Community food security: background and future directions. J Nutr Educ Behav 35, 37–43.
126.Martin, KS, Wu, R, Wolff, M et al. (2013) A novel food pantry program: food security, self-sufficiency, and diet-quality outcomes. Am J Prev Med 45, 569–575.
127.Tarasuk, V (2001) A critical examination of community-based responses to household food insecurity in Canada. Health Educ Behav 28, 487–499.
128.Iacovou, M, Pattieson, DC, Truby, H et al. (2013) Social health and nutrition impacts of community kitchens: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr 16, 535–543.
129.Engler-Stringer, R & Berenbaum, S (2007) Exploring food security with collective kitchens participants in three Canadian cities. Qual Health Res 17, 75–84.
130.Rivera, RL, Maulding, MK, Abbott, AR et al. (2016) SNAP-Ed (supplemental nutrition assistance program-education) increases long-term food security among Indiana households with children in a randomized controlled study. J Nutr 146, 2375–2382.
132.Miewald, C, Holben, D & Hall, P (2012) Role of a food box program in fruit and vegetable consumption and food security. Can J Diet Pract Res 73, 59–65.
133.Loopstra, R & Tarasuk, V (2013) Perspectives on community gardens, community kitchens and the good food box program in a community-based sample of low-income families. Can J Public Health 104, e55–e59.
134.Allen, P (1999) Reweaving the food security safety net: mediating entitlement and entrepreneurship. Agric Hum Values 16, 13.
135.Dowler, E & Caraher, M (2003) Local food projects: the new philanthropy? Polit Q 74, 57–65.
136.Hamelin, AM, Mercier, C & Bedard, A (2010) Discrepancies in households and other stakeholders viewpoints on the food security experience: a gap to address. Health Educ Res 25, 401–412.
137.Johnston, J & Baker, L (2005) Eating outside the box: FoodShare's good food box and the challenge of scale. Agric Hum Values 22, 13.
138.Rose, G (1985) Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol 14, 32–38.
139.Davis, O & Geiger, BB (2017) Did food insecurity rise across Europe after the 2008 crisis? An analysis across welfare regimes. Soc Pol Soc 16, 343–360.