Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Satiety: have we neglected dietary non-nutrients?

  • Robert W. Welch (a1)

Satiety, which is the inhibition of eating following the end of a meal, is influenced by a number of food characteristics, including compositional and structural factors. An increased understanding of these factors and the mechanisms whereby they exert their effects on satiety may offer a food-based approach to weight management. Water and gas, which are often neglected in nutrition, are major components of many foods and contribute to volume, and to sensory and other characteristics. A review of previous short-term studies that evaluated the effects of water or gas in foods on satiety showed that while satiety was generally increased, effects on subsequent intakes were not always apparent. These studies were diverse in terms of design, timings and food matrices, which precludes definitive conclusions. However, the results indicate that solids may be more effective at increasing satiety than liquids, but gas may be as effective as water. Although increased gastric distension may be the main mechanism underlying these effects, pre-ingestive and ingestive impacts on cognitive, anticipatory and sensory responses also appear to be involved. Furthermore, there is limited evidence that water on its own may be effective at increasing satiety and decreasing intakes when drunk before, but not with, a meal. Longer-term extrapolation suggests that increasing food volumes with water or gas may offer weight-management strategies. However, from a practical viewpoint, the effects of water and gas on satiety may be best exploited by using these non-nutrients to manipulate perceived portion sizes, without increasing energy contents.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Satiety: have we neglected dietary non-nutrients?
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Satiety: have we neglected dietary non-nutrients?
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Satiety: have we neglected dietary non-nutrients?
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Professor Robert W. Welch, fax +44 02870124965, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3. J Blundell , C de Graaf , T Hulshof (2010) Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods. Obes Rev 11, 251270.

5. N Delzenne , J Blundell , F Brouns (2010) Gastrointestinal targets of appetite regulation in humans. Obes Rev 11, 234250.

9. M Veldhorst , A Smeets , S Soenen (2008) Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiol Behav 94, 300307.

10. AG Nieuwenhuizen , AH Hochstenbach-Waelen , MAB Veldhorst (2009) Acute effects of breakfasts containing alpha-lactalbumin, or gelatin with or without added tryptophan, on hunger, ‘satiety’ hormones and amino acid profiles. Br J Nutr 101, 18591866.

12. AA Burns , MBE Livingstone , RW Welch (2000) Short-term effects of yoghurt containing a novel fat emulsion on energy and macronutrient intakes in non-obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond) 24, 14191425.

13. MMJW Kamphuis , MPGM Lejeune , WHM Saris (2003) Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on appetite and food intake in overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 12681274.

14. J Maljaars , EA Romeyn , E Haddeman (2009) Effect of fat saturation on satiety, hormone release, and food intake. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 10191024.

15. L Marciani , R Faulks , MSJ Wickham (2009) Effect of intragastric acid stability of fat emulsions on gastric emptying, plasma lipid profile and postprandial satiety. Br J Nutr 101, 919928.

17. MA Pereira & DS Ludwig (2001) Dietary fiber and body-weight weight regulation – observations and mechanisms. Pediatr Clin North Am 48, 969980.

21. SA Moorhead , RW Welch , MBE Livingstone (2006) The effects fibre content and physical structure of carrots on satiety and subsequent intakes when eaten as part of a mixed meal. Br J Nutr 96, 587595.

22.EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) (2010) Scientific Opinion on Dietary reference values for water. EFSA Journal 8, 1459. [48 pp.]. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1459. Available online at

23. GM Campbell & E Mougeot (1999) Creation and characterisation of aerated food products. Trends Food Sci Technol 10, 283296.

25. RW Gray , SJ French , TM Robinson (2002) Dissociation of the effects of preload volume and energy content on subjective appetite and food intake. Physiol Behav 76, 5764.

26. RW Gray , SJ French , TM Robinson (2003) Increasing preload volume with water, reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal. Nutr Neurosci 6, 2937.

28. BJ Rolls & LS Roe (2002) Effect of the volume of liquid food infused intragastrically on satiety in women. Physiol Behav 76, 623631.

29. JD Latner , JK Rosewall & AM Chisholm (2009) Food volume effects on intake and appetite in women with binge-eating disorder and weight-matched controls. Int J Eat Disord 42, 6875.

34. G de Graaf & T Hulshof (1996) Effects of weight and energy content of preloads on subsequent appetite and food intake. Appetite 26, 139151.

35. GNM Norton , AS Anderson & MM Hetheringtonm (2006) Volume and variety: relative effects on food intake. Physiol Behav 87, 714722.

36. SA Moorhead , MBE Livingstone , A Dunne (2008) The level of carbonation of a sugar-sweetened beverage preload affects satiety and short-term energy and food intakes. Br J Nutr 99, 13621369.

37. KM Osterholt , DS Roe & BJ Rolls (2007) Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake. Appetite 48, 351358.

38. AJ Weber , SC King & HL Meiselman (2004) Effects of social interaction, physical environment and food choice freedom on consumption in a meal-testing environment. Appetite 42, 115118.

39. E Almiron-Roig & A Drewnowski (2003) Hunger, thirst, and energy intakes following consumption of caloric beverages. Physiol Behav 79, 767773.

41. DM DellaValle , LS Roe & BJ Rolls (2005) Does the consumption of caloric and non-caloric beverages with a meal affect energy intake? Appetite 44, 187–93.

42. ER Dove , JM Hodgson , IB Puddey (2009) Skim milk compared with a fruit drink acutely reduces appetite and energy intake in overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 7075.

43. A Himaya & J Louis-Sylvestre (1998) The effect of soup on satiation. Appetite 30, 199210.

45. P Pouderoux , N Friedman , P Shirazi (1997) Effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution. Dig Dis Sci 42, 3439.

46. R Cuomo , G Sarnelli , MF Savarese (2009) Carbonated beverages and gastrointestinal system: between myth and reality. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 683689.

47. P Burton & HJ Lightowler (2006) Influence of bread volume on glycaemic response and satiety. Br J Nutr 96, 877882.

48. EA Bell , LS Roe & BJ Rolls (2003) Sensory-specific satiety is affected more by volume than by energy content of a liquid food. Physiol Behav 78, 593600.

49. N Read , S French & K Cunningham (1994) The role of the gut in regulating food-intake in man. Nutr Rev 52, 110.

50. ET Rolls (2007) Understanding the mechanisms of food intake and obesity. Obes Rev 8, Suppl. 1, 6772.

51. A Geliebter (1988) Gastric distension and gastric capacity in relation to food intake in humans. Physiol Behav 44, 665668.

52. DY Kim , M Camilleri , JA Murray (2001) Is there a role for gastric accommodation and satiety in asymptomatic obese people? Obes Res 9, 655661.

53. I Imaz , C Martinez-Cervell , EE Garcia-Alvarez (2008) Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis. Obes Surg 18, 841846.

54. JE Cecil , J Francis & NW Read (1998) Relative contributions of intestinal, gastric, oro-sensory influences and information to changes in appetite induced by the same liquid meal. Appetite 31, 377390.

55. SJ French & JE Cecil (2001) Oral, gastric and intestinal influences on human feeding. Physiol Behav 74, 729734.

57. EL Van Walleghen , JS Orr , CL Gentile (2007) Pre-meal water consumption reduces meal energy intake in older but not younger subjects. Obesity 15, 9399.

58. BM Davy , EA Dennis , AL Dengo (2008) Water consumption reduces energy intake at a breakfast meal in obese older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 12361239.

59. GK Grunwald , HM Seagle , JC Peters (2001) Quantifying and separating the effects of macronutrient composition and non-macronutrients on energy density. Br J Nutr 86, 265276.

60. A Drewnowski (1998) Energy density, palatability, and satiety: implications for weight control. Nutr Rev 56, 347353.

61. BJ Rolls (2010) Dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 69, 7079.

63. KD Hall (2008) What is the required energy deficit per unit weight loss? Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 573576.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 46 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 138 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.