Skip to main content
×
Home

Selenium in cancer prevention: a review of the evidence and mechanism of action

  • Margaret P. Rayman (a1)
Abstract

Se is an unusual trace element in having its own codon in mRNA that specifies its insertion into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (SeCys), by means of a mechanism requiring a large SeCys-insertion complex. This exacting insertion machinery for selenoprotein production has implications for the Se requirements for cancer prevention. If Se may protect against cancer, an adequate intake of Se is desirable. However, the level of intake in Europe and some parts of the world is not adequate for full expression of protective selenoproteins. The evidence for Se as a cancer preventive agent includes that from geographic, animal, prospective and intervention studies. Newly-published prospective studies on oesophageal, gastric-cardia and lung cancer have reinforced previous evidence, which is particularly strong for prostate cancer. Interventions with Se have shown benefit in reducing the risk of cancer incidence and mortality in all cancers combined, and specifically in liver, prostate, colo-rectal and lung cancers. The effect seems to be strongest in those individuals with the lowest Se status. As the level of Se that appears to be required for optimal effect is higher than that previously understood to be required to maximise the activity of selenoenzymes, the question has been raised as to whether selenoproteins are involved in the anti-cancer process. However, recent evidence showing an association between Se, reduction of DNA damage and oxidative stress together with data showing an effect of selenoprotein genotype on cancer risk implies that selenoproteins are indeed implicated. The likelihood of simultaneous and consecutive effects at different cancer stages still allows an important role for anti-cancer Se metabolites such as methyl selenol formed from γ-glutamyl-selenomethyl-SeCys and selenomethyl-SeCys, components identified in certain plants and Se-enriched yeast that have anti-cancer effects. There is some evidence that Se may affect not only cancer risk but also progression and metastasis. Current primary and secondary prevention trials of Se are underway in the USA, including the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) relating to prostate cancer, although a large European trial is still desirable given the likelihood of a stronger effect in populations of lower Se status.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Selenium in cancer prevention: a review of the evidence and mechanism of action
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Selenium in cancer prevention: a review of the evidence and mechanism of action
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Selenium in cancer prevention: a review of the evidence and mechanism of action
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr Margaret Rayman, fax +44 1483 686481, email M.Rayman@surrey.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Akbaraly NT, Arnaud J, Hininger-Favier I, Gourlet V, Roussel A-M & Berr C (2005) Selenium and mortality in the elderly: results from the EVA study Clinical Chemistry (In the Press).
Alberts DS, Martinez ME, Roe DJ, Guillen-Rodriguez JM, Marshall , van Leeuwen JB et al. (2000) Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians' Network. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 11561162
Allan CB, Lacourciere GM & Stadtman TC (1999) Responsiveness of selenoproteins to dietary selenium. Annual Review of Nutrition 19, 116
Apostolou S, Klein JO, Mitsuuchi Y, Shetler JN, Poulikakos PI, Jhanwar SC, Kruger WD & Testa (2004) Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in mesothelioma cells by selenium and dependence on selenoprotein SEP15 genotype. Oncogene 23, 50325040
Arteel GE, Briviba K & Sies H (1999) Protection against peroxynitrite. FEBS Letters 445, 226230
Behne D, Kyriakopoulos A, Kalcklosch M, Weiss-Nowak C, Pfeifer H, Gessner H & Hammel C (1997) Two new selenoproteins found in the prostatic glandular epithelium and in the spermatid nuclei. Biomedical and Environmental Science 10, 340345
Berry MJ, Banu L, Chen YY, Mandel SJ, Kieffer JD, Harney JW & Larsen PR (1991) Recognition of UGA as a selenocysteine codon in type I deiodinase requires sequences in the 3' untranslated region. Nature 353, 273276
Berry MJ, Banu L, Harney JW & Larsen PR (1993) Functional characterization of the eukaryotic SECIS elements which direct selenocysteine insertion at UGA codons. The EMBO Journal 12, 33153322
Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG & Gluud C (2004) Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 364, 12191228
Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, Guo W, Dawsey S, Wang GQ, Yang CS, Zheng SF, Gail M, Li GY, et al. (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 14831492
Broadley MR, Meacham MC, Bowen HC, Johnson SE, White PJ, Breward N, Johnson CC, Bryson RJ, Harriman M & Tucker M (2006) Agronomic approaches for the enrichment of food crops with selenium Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (In the Press).
Brooks JD, Metter EJ, Chan DW, Sokoll LJ, Landis P, Nelson WG, Muller D, Andres R & Carter HB (2001) Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. Journal of Urology 166, 20342038
Brown KM & Arthur (2001) Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review. Public Health Nutrition 4, 593599
Brown KM, Pickard K, Nicol F, Beckett GJ, Duthie GG & Arthur (2000) Effects of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenoenzyme activity in blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, platelets and erythrocytes. Clinical Science (London) 98, 593599.
Burk RF, Hill KE & Motley AK (2003) Selenoprotein metabolism and function: evidence for more than one function for selenoprotein P. Journal of Nutrition 133, Suppl. 1 1517S1520S.
CancerStats (2004a) Mortality UK. http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/ (accessed February 2004)
CancerStats (2004b) Cancer in the EU. http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/geographic/cancerineu/ (accessed November 2004)
Calvo A, Xiao N, Kang J, Best CJ, Leiva I, Emmert-Buck MR, Jorcyk C & Green JE (2002) Alterations in gene expression profiles during prostate cancer progression: functional correlations to tumorigenicity and down-regulation of selenoprotein-P in mouse and human tumors. Cancer Research 62, 53255335
Caruso C, Lio D, Cavallone L & Franceschi C (2004) Aging, longevity, inflammation, and cancer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1028, 113
Clark LC, Cantor KP & Allaway WH (1991) Selenium in forage crops and cancer mortality in U.S. counties. Archives of Environmental Health 46, 3742
Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Chalker DK, Chow J et al. (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Association 276, 19571963
Clark LC, Dalkin B, Krongrad A, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, Slate EH et al. (1998) Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. British Journal of Urology 81, 730734
Combs GF (2001) Selenium in global food systems. British Journal of Nutrition 85, 517547
Combs GF (2005) Current evidence and research needs to support a health claim for selenium and cancer prevention. Journal of Nutrition 135, 343347
Combs GF, Gray WP (1998) Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacological Therapy 79, 179192
Combs GF, J Jr (2001) Selenium as a cancer preventive agent. In Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health, pp. 205218 [Hatfield DL, editors]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Davis CD & Finley JW (2003) Chemical versus food forms of selenium in cancer prevention. In Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in Cancer Prevention1, pp. 5585 [Watson RR, editors]. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press.
Davis CD & Uthus EO (2003) Dietary folate and selenium affect dimethylhydrazine-induced aberrant crypt formation, global DNA methylation and one-carbon metabolism in rats. Journal of Nutrition 133, 29072914
Davis CD, Uthus EO & Finley JW (2000) Dietary selenium and arsenic affect DNA methylation in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in rat liver and colon. Journal of Nutrition 130, 29032909
Diplock AT (1993) Indexes of selenium status in human populations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, Suppl.. 256S258S.
Diwadkar-Navsariwala V & Diamond AM (2004) The link between selenium and chemoprevention: a case for selenoproteins. Journal of Nutrition 134, 28992902
Dong Y, Zhang H, Hawthorn L, Ganther HE & Ip C (2003) Delineation of the molecular basis for selenium-induced growth arrest in human prostate cancer cells by oligonucleotide array. Cancer Research 63, 5259
Duffield AJ, Thomson CD, Hill KE & Williams S (1999) An estimation of selenium requirements for New Zealanders. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 896903
Duffield-Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Jacobs ET, Marshall & Clark LC (2003a) Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. British Journal of Urology 91, 608612
Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Combs GF, Slate , EH Fischbach, LA Marshall, Clark LC (2002) Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 11, 630639
Duffield-Lillico AJ, Slate E, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Wilkins PA, Combs GF et al. (2003b) Selenium supplementation and secondary prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a randomised trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 95, 14771481
Fiala ES, Staretz ME, Pandya GA, El-Bayoumy K & Hamilton SR (1998) Inhibition of DNA cytosine methyltransferase by chemopreventive selenium compounds, determined by an improved assay for DNA cytosine methyltransferase and DNA cytosine methylation. Carcinogenesis 19, 597604
Frausto da, Silva JJR & Williams RJP (2001) The Biological Chemistry of the Elements : The Inorganic Chemistry of Life, 2nd ed. 498. Oxford Oxford: University Press.
Ghosh J & Myers CE (1998) Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95, 1318213187
Gladyshev VN, Factor VM, Housseau F & Hatfield DL (1998) Contrasting patterns of regulation of the antioxidant selenoproteins, thioredoxin reductase, and glutathione peroxidase, in cancer cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 251, 488493
Goenaga Infante, H O'Connor, G Rayman, M Wahlen, R Entwisle, J Norris, P Hearn, R Catterick T (2004) Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched supplements by HPLC with ultrasonic nebulisation ICP-MS and electrospray MS/MS detection. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 19, 15291538
Goenaga Infante, H O'Connor, G Rayman, M Wahlen, R Spalholz, J Norris, P Hearn, R Catterick T (2005) Identification of water-soluble γ-glutamyl-CH3SeCys in yeast-based Se supplements by HPLC with ICP-MS and electrospray tandem MS. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 20, 864870
Goodman GE, Schaffer S, Bankson DD, Hughes MP, Omenn GS the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) Co-Investigators (2001) Predictors of serum in cigarette smokers and the lack of association with lung and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 10, 10691076
Gopalakrishna R & Gundimeda U (2002) Antioxidant regulation of protein kinase C in cancer prevention. Journal of Nutrition 132, 3819S3823S
Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Tosteson TD, Freeman DH, Beck GJ, Bond JH et al. (1994) A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. Polyp Prevention Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 331, 141147
Hatfield DL & Gladyshev VN (2002) How selenium has altered our understanding of the genetic code. Molecular and Cell Biology 22, 35653576
Helzlsouer KJ, Huang H-Y, Alberg AJ, Hoffman S, Burke A, Norkus EP, Morris JS & Comstock GW (2000) Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92, 20182023
Hsieh CL, Oakley-Girvan I, Balise RR, Halpern J, Gallagher RP, Wu AH, et al. (2001) A Genome screen of families with multiple cases of prostate cancer: evidence of genetic heterogeneity. American Journal of Human Genetics 69, 148158
Hu YJ & Diamond AM (2003) Role of glutathione peroxidase 1 in breast cancer: loss of heterozygosity and allelic differences in the response to selenium. Cancer Research 63, 33473351
Hu YJ, Dolan ME, Bae R, Yee H, Roy M, Glickman R, Kiremidjian-Schumacher L & Diamond AM (2004) Allelic loss at the GPx-1 locus in cancer of the head and neck. Biological Trace Element Research 101, 97106
Hu YJ, Korotkov KV, Mehta R, Hatfield DL, Rotimi CN, Luke A, et al. (2001) Distribution and functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region of the human Sep15 gene. Cancer Research 61, 23072310
Ichimura Y, Habuchi T, Tsuchiya N, Wang L, Oyama C, Sato K, Nishiyama H, Ogawa O & Kato T (2004) Increased risk of bladder cancer associated with a glutathione peroxidase 1 codon 198 variant. Journal of Urology 172, 728732
Ip C (1998) Lessons from basic research in selenium and cancer prevention. Journal of Nutrition 128, 18451854
Ip C, Birringer M, Block E, Kotrebai M, Tyson JF, Uden PC & Lisk DJ (2000) Chemical speciation influences comparative activity of selenium-enriched garlic and yeast in mammary cancer prevention. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 48, 20622070
Ip C, Dong Y & Ganther HE (2002) New concepts in selenium chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Reviews 21, 281289
Ip C & Lisk DJ (1997) Modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by selenium-enriched garlic in rats. Nutrition and Cancer 28, 184188
Jacobs ET, Jiang R, Alberts DS, Greenberg ER, Gunter EW, Karagas MR, et al. (2004) Selenium and colorectal adenoma: results of a pooled analysis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 96, 16691675
Jiang C, Ganther H & Lu J (2000) Monomethyl selenium-specific inhibition of MMP-2 and VEGF expression: implications for angiogenic switch regulation. Molecular Carcinogenesis 29, 236250
Jiang C, Jiang W, Ip C, Ganther H & Lu J (1999) Selenium-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in mammary cancer at chemopreventive levels of intake. Molecular Carcinogenesis 26, 213225
Jiang C, Kim KH, Wang Z & Lu J (2004) Methyl selenium-induced vascular endothelial apoptosis is executed by caspases and principally mediated by p38 MAPK pathway. Nutrition and Cancer 49, 174183
Jiang C, Wang Z, Ganther H & Lu J (2001) Caspases as key executors of methyl selenium-induced apoptosis (anoikis) of DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Cancer Research 61, 30623070
Kaeck M, Lu J, Strange R, Ip C, Ganther HE & Thompson HJ (1997) Differential induction of growth arrest inducible genes by selenium compounds. Biochemical Pharmacology 53, 921926
Karunasinghe N, Ryan J, Tuckey J, Masters J, Jamieson M, Clarke LC, Marshall JR & Ferguson LR (2004) DNA stability and serum selenium levels in a high-risk group for prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 13, 391397
Kim YS & Milner J (2001) Molecular targets for selenium in cancer prevention. Nutrition and Cancer 40, 5054
Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Glickman R, Schneider K, Rothstein S, Cooper J, Hochster H, Kim M & Newman R (2000) Selenium and immunocompetence in patients with head and neck cancer. Biological Trace Element Research 73, 97111
Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Wishe HI, Cohen MW & Stotzky G (1994) Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. Biological Trace Element Research 41, 115127
Klein EA (2004) Selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1031, 234241
Knekt P (2002) Selenium status and prevention of chronic diseases. In Handbook of Antioxidants, pp. 665687 [Cadenas E, Packer L, editors]. New York and Basel: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J, Alfthan G, Aaran RK, Hakama M, Hakulinen T, Peto R & Tepo L (1990) Serum selenium and subsequent risk of cancer among Finnish men and women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82, 864868
Knight JA, Onay UV, Wells S, Li H, Shi EJ, Andrulis IL & Ozcelik H (2004) Genetic variants of GPX1 and SOD2 and breast cancer risk at the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 13, 146149
Kok FJ, de Bruijn AM, Hofman A, Vermeeren R & Valkenburg HA (1987) Is serum selenium a risk factor for cancer in men only. American Journal of Epidemiology 125, 1216
Korotkov KV, Kumaraswamy E, Zhou Y, Hatfield DL & Gladyshev VN (2001) Association between the 15-kDa selenoprotein and UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 1533015336
Kotrebai M, Birringer M, Tyson JF, Block E & Uden PC (2000) Selenium speciation in enriched and natural samples by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS with perfluorinated carboxylic acid ion-pairing agents. Analyst 125, 7178
Kowalska E, Narod SA, Huzarski T, Zajaczek S, Huzarska J, Gorski B & Lubinski J (2005) Increased rates of chromosome breakage in BRCA1 carriers are normalized by oral selenium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 14, 13021306
Krishnaswamy K, Prasad MP, Krishna TP, Annapurna VV & Reddy GA (1995) A case study of nutrient intervention of oral precancerous lesions in India. European Journal of Cancer 31, B4148
Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigo R & Gladyshev VN (2003) Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science 300, 14391443
Kumaraswamy E, Malykh A, Korotkov KV, Kozyavkin S, Hu Y, Kwon SY, et al. (2000) Structure-expression relationships of the 15-kDa selenoprotein gene. Possible role of the protein in cancer etiology. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 3554035547
Lanfear J, Fleming J, Wu L, Webster G & Harrison PR (1994) The selenium metabolite selenodiglutathione induces p53 and apoptosis: relevance to the chemopreventive effects of selenium. Carcinogenesis 15, 13871392
Li H, Kantoff PW, Giovannucci E, Leitzmann MF, Gaziano JM, Stampfer MJ & Ma J (2005) Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism, prediagnostic antioxidant status, and risk of clinical significant prostate cancer. Cancer Research 65, 24982504
Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Morris JS, Willett WC, Gaziano JM & Ma J (2004) A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 96, 696703
Li W, Zhu Y, Yan X, Zhang Q, Li X, Ni Z, Shen Z, Yao H & Zhu J (2000) The prevention of primary liver cancer by selenium in high risk populations. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 34, 336338
Mark SD, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM, Wu YP, Katki H, Gunter EW, Fraumeni JF, Blot , WJ Dong, ZW Taylor PR (2000) Prospective study of serum selenium levels and incident esophageal and gastric cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92, 17531763
Marshall JR (2001) Larry Clark's legacy: randomized controlled, selenium-based prostate cancer chemoprevention trials. Nutrition and Cancer 40, 7477
Medina D & Morrison D (1988) Current ideas on selenium as a chemopreventive agent. Pathology and Immunopathology Research 7, 187199
Medina D, Thompson H, Ganther H & Ip C (2001) Se-methylselenocysteine: a new compound for chemoprevention of breast cancer. Nutrition and Cancer 40, 1217
Nakamuro K, Nakanishi K, Okuno T, Hasegawa T & Sayato Y (1997) Comparison of methylated selenium metabolites in rats after oral administration of various selenium compounds. Japanese Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 43, 14821489
Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Combs GF (2000) Serum selenium and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 883887
Okuno T, Motobayashi S, Ueno H & Nakamuro K (2005) Purification and characterization of mouse hepatic enzyme that converts selenomethionine to methylselenol by its alpha, gamma-elimination. Biological Trace Element Research 106, 7794
Overvad K (1998) Selenium and Cancer. In Role of Trace Elements for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, pp. 141149 [Sandstrom B, Walter P, editors]. Basel: Karger.
Platz EA & Helzlsouer KJ (2001) Selenium, zinc, and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 23, 93101
Prasad MP, Mukundan MA & Krishnaswamy K (1995) Micronuclei and carcinogen DNA adducts as intermediate end points in nutrient intervention trial of precancerous lesions in the oral cavity. European Journal of Cancer 31, B155159
Ratnasinghe D, Tangrea JA & Andersen JA (2000) Glutathione peroxidase codon 198 polymorphism variant increases lung cancer risk. Cancer Research 60, 63816383
Rayman MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356, 233241
Rayman MP (2002) The argument for increasing selenium intake. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61, 203215
Rayman MP (2004) The use of high-selenium yeast to raise selenium status: how does it measure up. British Journal of Nutrition 92, 557573
Salonen JT, Salonen R, Lappetelainen R, Maenpaa P, Alfthan G & Puska P (1985) Risk of cancer in relation to serum concentrations of selenium and vitamins A and E: matched case-control analysis of prospective data. British Medical Journal 290, 417420
Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Corle D, Lance P, Iber F, Caan B, et al. (2000) Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 11491155
Schrauzer GN, White DA & Schneider CJ (1977) Cancer mortality correlation studies. III. Statistical association with dietary selenium intakes. Bioinorganic Chemistry 7, 2331
Shamberger RJ & Frost DV (1969) Possible protective effect of selenium against human cancer. Canadian Medical Association Journal 100, 682
Smith ML, Lancia JK, Mercer TI & Ip C (2004) Selenium compounds regulate p53 by common and distinctive mechanisms. Anticancer Research 24, 14011408
Spallholz JE, Boylan LM & Larsen HS (1990) Advances in understanding selenium's role in the immune system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587, 123139
Spallholz JE, Palace VP & Reid TW (2004) Methioninase and selenomethionine but not Se-methylselenocysteine generate methylselenol and superoxide in an in vitro chemiluminescent assay: implications for the nutritional carcinostatic activity of selenoamino acids. Biochemical Pharmacology 67, 547554
Stratton MS, Reid ME, Schwartzberg G, Minter FE, Monroe BK, Alberts DS, Marshall JR, Ahmann FR. (2003a) Selenium and prevention of prostate cancer in high-risk men: the Negative Biopsy Study. Anticancer Drugs 14, 589594
Stratton MS, Reid ME, Schwartzberg G, Minter FE, Monroe BK, Alberts DS, Marshall JR & Ahmann FR (2003b) Selenium and inhibition of disease progression in men diagnosed with prostate carcinoma: study design and baseline characteristics of the ‘Watchful Waiting’ Study. Anticancer Drugs 14, 595600
Sunde RA (1997) Selenium. In Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements, pp. 493556 [O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Thomson CD, Robinson MF, Butler JA & Whanger PD (1993) Long-term supplementation with selenate and selenomethionine: selenium and glutathione peroxidase ( EC 1.11.1.9) in blood components of New Zealand women. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 577588
Unni E, Singh U, Ganther HE & Sinha R (2001) Se-methylselenocysteine activates caspase-3 in mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells in vitro. Biofactors 14, 169177
van den Brandt, PA Zeegers, MP Bode, P Goldbohm RA (2003) Toenail selenium levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 12, 866871
Villette S, Kyle JA, Brown KM, Pickard K, Milne JS, Nicol F, Arthur JR & Hesketh JE (2002) A novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of human glutathione peroxidase 4 influences lipoxygenase metabolism. Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases 29, 174178
Wang Z, Jiang C & Lu J (2002) Induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis and cell-cycle G1 arrest by selenium metabolite methylselenol. Molecular Carcinogenesis 34, 113120
Waters DJ, Shen S, Cooley DM, Bostwick DG, Qian J, Combs GF, Glickman , LT Oteham, C Schlittler, D Morris JS (2003) Effects of dietary selenium supplementation on DNA damage and apoptosis in canine prostate. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 95, 237244
Waters DJ, Shen S, Glickman LT, Cooley DM, Bostwick DG, Qian J, Combs GF, Morris JS (2005) Prostate cancer risk and DNA damage: translational significance of selenium supplementation in a canine model. Carcinogenesis 26, 12561262
Wei WQ, Abnet CC, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM, Dong ZW, Sun XD, Fan JH, Gunter EW, Taylor PR & Mark SD (2004) Prospective study of serum selenium concentrations and esophageal and gastric cardia cancer, heart disease, stroke, and total death. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 8085
Weingarten M, Zalmanovici A & Yaphe J (2005) Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 West Sussex John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Whanger PD (2004) Selenium and its relationship to cancer: an update. British Journal of Nutrition 91, 1128
Wiklund F, Gillanders EM, Albertus JA, Bergh A, Damber JE, Emanuelsson M, et al. (2003) Genome-wide scan of Swedish families with hereditary prostate cancer: Suggestive evidence of linkage at 5q11.2 and 19p13.3. The Prostate 57, 290297
Willett WC, Polk BF, Morris JS, Stampfer MJ, Pressel S, Rosner B, Taylor JO, Schneider K & Hames CG (1983) Prediagnostic serum selenium and risk of cancer. Lancet 16, 130134
Xia Y, Hill KE, Byrne DW, Xu J & Burk RF (2005) Effectiveness of selenium supplements in a low-selenium area of China. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, 829834
Yoon SO, Kim MM & Chung AS (2001) Inhibitory effect of selenite on invasion of HT1080 tumor cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 2008520092
Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, Stampfer MJ, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB & Giovanucci E (1998) Study of prediagnostic selenium levels in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 12191224
Yu MW, Horng IS, Hsu KH, Chiang YC, Liaw YF & Chen CJ (1999) Plasma selenium levels and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among men with chronic hepatitis virus infection. American Journal of Epidemiology 150, 367374
Yu SY, Zhu YJ & Li WG (1997) Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biological Trace Element Research 56, 117124
Zhuo H, Smith AH & Steinmaus C (2004) Selenium and lung cancer: a quantitative analysis of heterogeneity in the current epidemiological literature. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 13, 771778
Zu K & Ip C (2003) Synergy between selenium and vitamin E in apoptosis induction is associated with activation of distinctive initiator caspases in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Research 63, 69886995
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 901 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1190 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.