Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects

  • Barbara Fielding (a1)

Abstract

Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after single and multiple meals, with a focus on in vivo measurements of adipose tissue metabolism. When stable isotope tracers are combined with arteriovenous difference measurements, very specific measurements of metabolic flux across tissues can be made. We have found that adipose tissue is a net importer of dietary fat for 5 h following a single test meal and for most of the day during a typical three-meal eating pattern. When dietary fat is cleared from plasma, some fatty acids ‘spillover’ into the plasma and contribute up to 50% of postprandial plasma NEFA concentrations. Therefore, plasma NEFA concentrations after a meal reflect the balance between intracellular and extracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue. This balance is altered after the acute ingestion of fructose. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is a key modulator of fatty acid flux in adipose tissue and its rate of action is severely diminished in obese men. In conclusion, in vivo studies of human metabolism can quantify the way that adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking modulates plasma lipid concentrations. This has implications for the flux of fatty acids to tissues that are susceptible to ectopic fat deposition such as the liver and muscle.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author: Dr Barbara Fielding, fax +44 1865 857219, email barbara.fielding@ocdem.ox.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1.Zilversmit, DB (1979) Atherogenesis: a postprandial phenomenon. Circulation 60, 473485.
2.Karpe, F (1999) Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 246, 341355.
3.Goldberg, IJ, Kako, Y & Lutz, EP (2000) Responses to eating: lipoproteins, lipolytic products and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 11, 235241.
4.Karpe, F, Steiner, G, Uffelman, K et al. (1994) Postprandial lipoproteins and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 106, 8397.
5.Paglialunga, S & Cianflone, K (2007) Regulation of postprandial lipemia: an update on current trends. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32, 6175.
6.Virtue, S & Vidal-Puig, A (2007) Adipose tissue expandability, lipotoxicity and the metabolic syndrome: An allostatic perspective. Biochim Biophys Acta 1801, 338349.
7.Karpe, F, Steiner, G, Olivecrona, T et al. (1993) Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia. J Clin Invest 91, 748758.
8.Fielding, B & Frayn, K (1998) Lipoprotein lipase and the disposition of dietary fatty acids. Br J Nutr 80, 495502.
9.Sukonina, V, Lookene, A, Olivecrona, T et al. (2006) Angiopoietin-like protein 4 converts lipoprotein lipase to inactive monomers and modulates lipase activity in adipose tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 1745017455.
10.Beigneux, AP, Davies, BS, Bensadoun, A et al. (2009) GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein required for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 50, Suppl., S57S62.
11.Silva, KD, Wright, JW, Williams, CM et al. (2005) Meal ingestion provokes entry of lipoproteins containing fat from the previous meal: possible metabolic implications. Eur J Nutr 44, 377383.
12.Fielding, BA, Callow, J, Owen, M et al. (1996) Postprandial lipemia: the origin of an early peak studied by specific dietary fatty acid intake during sequential meals. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 3641.
13.Robertson, MD, Parkes, M, Warren, BF et al. (2003) Mobilisation of enterocyte fat stores by oral glucose in humans. Gut 52, 834839.
14.Frayn, KN (1992) Studies of human adipose tissue in vivo. In Energy Metabolism: Tissue Determinants and Cellular Corollaries, pp. 267298. [Kinney, JM & Tucker, HN]. Raven Press Ltd, New York.
15.Roust, LR & Jensen, MD (1993) Postprandial free fatty acid kinetics are abnormal in upper body obesity. Diabetes 42, 15671573.
16.Miles, JM, Park, YS, Walewicz, D et al. (2004) Systemic and forearm triglyceride metabolism: fate of lipoprotein lipase-generated glycerol and free fatty acids. Diabetes 53, 521527.
17.Summers, L, Barnes, S, Fielding, B et al. (2000) Uptake of individual fatty acids into adipose tissue in relation to their presence in the diet. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 14701477.
18.Ruge, T, Hodson, L, Cheeseman, J et al. (2009) Fasted to fed trafficking of fatty acids in human adipose tissue reveals a novel regulatory step for enhanced fat storage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 17811788.
19.Evans, K, Burdge, GC, Wootton, SA et al. (2008) Tissue-specific stable isotope measurements of postprandial lipid metabolism in familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Atherosclerosis 197, 164170.
20.Miles, JM & Nelson, RH (2007) Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. Horm Metab Res 39, 726729.
21.Coppack, SW, Fisher, RM, Gibbons, GF et al. (1990) Postprandial substrate deposition in human forearm and adipose tissues in vivo. Clin Sci 79, 339348.
22.McQuaid, SE, Manolopoulos, KN, Dennis, AL et al. (2010) Development of an arterio-venous difference method to study the metabolic physiology of the femoral adipose tissue depot. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 10551058.
23.Bickerton, AS, Roberts, R, Fielding, BA et al. (2007) Preferential uptake of dietary fatty acids in adipose tissue and muscle in the postprandial period. Diabetes 56, 168176.
24.Hodson, L, Skeaff, CM & Fielding, BA (2008) Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake. Prog Lipid Res 47, 348380.
25.Frayn, KN (2002) Adipose tissue as a buffer for daily lipid flux. Diabetologia 45, 12011210.
26.Romanski, SA, Nelson, RM & Jensen, MD (2000) Meal fatty acid uptake in human adipose tissue: technical and experimental design issues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279, E447E454.
27.Heath, RB, Karpe, F, Milne, RW et al. (2003) Selective partitioning of dietary fatty acids into the VLDL TG pool in the early postprandial period. J Lipid Res 44, 20652072.
28.Xiang, SQ, Cianflone, K, Kalant, D et al. (1999) Differential binding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to lipoprotein lipase. J Lipid Res 40, 16551663.
29.Koutsari, C, Dumesic, DA, Patterson, BW et al. (2008) Plasma free fatty acid storage in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in postabsorptive women. Diabetes 57, 11861194.
30.Chong, MF, Fielding, BA & Frayn, KN (2007) Metabolic interaction of dietary sugars and plasma lipids with a focus on mechanisms and de novo lipogenesis. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 5259.
31.Roberts, R, Bickerton, AS, Fielding, BA et al. (2008) Reduced oxidation of dietary fat after a short term high-carbohydrate diet. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 824831.
32.Hodson, L, McQuaid, SE, Humphreys, SM et al. (2010) Greater dietary fat oxidation in obese compared with lean men: an adaptive mechanism to prevent liver fat accumulation? Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299, E584E592.
33.Jensen, MD, Sarr, MG, Dumesic, DA et al. (2003) Regional uptake of meal fatty acids in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285, E1282E1288.
34.Cummings, MH, Watts, GF, Pal, C et al. (1995) Increased hepatic secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 in obesity: a stable isotope study. Clin Sci (Lond) 88, 225233.
35.Boquist, S, Hamsten, A, Karpe, F et al. (2000) Insulin and non-esterified fatty acid relations to alimentary lipaemia and plasma concentrations of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in healthy middle-aged men. Diabetologia 43, 185193.
36.Hodson, L, Bickerton, AS, McQuaid, SE et al. (2007) The contribution of splanchnic fat to VLDL-triglyceride is greater in insulin resistant than insulin sensitive men and women: studies in the postprandial state. Diabetes 56, 24332441.
37.McQuaid, SE, Hodson, L, Neville, MJ et al. (2011) Downregulation of adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking in obesity: a driver for ectopic fat deposition? Diabetes 60, 4755.
38.Karpe, F, Fielding, B, Ilic, V et al. (2002) Impaired postprandial adipose tissue blood flow response is related to aspects of insulin sensitivity. Diabetes 51, 24672473.
39.Williams, CM, Bateman, PA, Jackson, KG et al. (2004) Dietary fatty acids and chylomicron synthesis and secretion. Biochem Soc Trans 32, 5558.
40.Despres, JP, Lemieux, I, Bergeron, J et al. (2008) Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28, 10391049.
41.Frayn, KN (2000) Visceral fat and insulin resistance – causative or correlative? Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S71S77.
42.Miles, JM & Jensen, MD (2005) Counterpoint: visceral adiposity is not causally related to insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 28, 23262328.
43.Yusuf, S, Hawken, S, Ounpuu, S et al. (2005) Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27 000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. Lancet 366, 16401649.
44.Votruba, SB & Jensen, MD (2006) Sex-specific differences in leg fat uptake are revealed with a high-fat meal. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E1115E1123.
45.Jensen, MD (2008) Role of body fat distribution and the metabolic complications of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, S57S63.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed