1. Food, Nutrition, and
Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective.
Washington, DC: American
Institute for Cancer Research, 1997.
2Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Vupputuri S, Myers L, et al. . Fruit and
vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up
Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76: 93–9.
3Key TJ, Schatzkin A, Willett WC, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC. Diet, nutrition and the prevention
of cancer. Public Health Nutrition 2004; 7:
4Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Fruit and vegetable consumption
and diabetes mellitus incidence among US adults.
Preventive Medicine 2001; 32: 33–9.
. Diet and cancer.
Oncologist 2000; 5:
6. Diabetes Statistics
for African Americans. Alexandria,
VA: American Diabetes Association,
Statistics. Dallas, TX:
American Heart Association, 2006.
8. Cancer Facts and Figures for
African Americans 2005–2006. Atlanta,
GA: American Cancer Society,
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data.
Atlanta, GA: US Department of
Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and
10. Development of the
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 6th ed.
Washington DC: US Department of
Health and Human Services, US Department of Agriculture,
11. Behavioral Risk Factor
Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta,
GA: US Department of Health and Human Services,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003.
12Subar AF, Heimendinger J, Patterson BH, Krebs-Smith SM, Pivonka E, Kessler R. Fruit and vegetable intake in the
United States: the baseline survey of the Five A Day for Better Health
Program. American Journal of Health Promotion 1995; 9: 352–60.
13Morland K, Wing S, Roux AD. The contextual effect of the local
food environment on residents' diets: the Atherosclerosis Risk in
Communities Study. American Journal of Public
Health 2002; 92: 1761–8.
14Devine CM, Wolfe WS, Frongillo EA, Bisogni CA. Life-course events and
experiences: association with fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic
groups. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99: 309–14.
15Gary T, Baptiste-Roberts K, Gregg EW, Williams DE, Beckles GL, Miller EJ, et al. . Fruit,
vegetable and fat intake in a population-based sample of African
Americans. Journal of the National Medical
Association 2004; 12: 1599–605.
16Fuemmeler B, Masse LC, Yaroch AL, Resnicow K, Campbell MK, Carr C, et al. . Psychosocial
mediation of fruit and vegetable consumption in the body and soul effectiveness
trial. Health Psychology 2006; 25: 474–83.
17Campbell MK, Demark-Wahnefried W, Symons M, Kalsbeek WD, Dodds J, Cowan A, et al. . Fruit and
vegetable consumption and prevention of cancer: the Black Churches United for
Better Health project. American Journal of Public
Health 1999; 89: 1390–6.
18Shankar S, Klassen A. Influences on fruit and vegetable
procurement and consumption among urban African-American public housing
residents, and potential strategies for intervention.
Family Economics and Nutrition Review 2001; 13:
19Pomerleau J, Lock K, Knai C, McKee M. Interventions designed to increase
adult fruit and vegetable intake can be effective: a systematic review of the
literature. Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135: 2486–95.
20Resnicow K, Campbell MK, Carr C, McCarty F, Wang T, Periasamy S, et al. . Body and soul:
a dietary intervention conducted through African-American
churches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004; 27:
21Kristal AR, Patterson RE, Glanz K, Heimendinger J, Hebert JR, Feng ZD, et al. . Psychosocial
correlates of healthful diets: baseline results from the Working Well
Study. Preventive Medicine 1995; 24: 221–8.
22Van Duyn MA, Kristal AR, Dodd K, Campbell MK, Subar AF, Stables G, et al. . Association of
awareness, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and stage of dietary change
with fruit and vegetable consumption: a national survey.
American Journal of Health Promotion 2001; 16:
23Moser RP, Green V, Weber D, Doyle C. Psychosocial correlates of fruit
and vegetable consumption among African American men.
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2005; 37: 306–14.
24Green LW, Kreuter MW. The PRECEDE–PROCEED
planning model. In: Glanz K, Lewis F, Rimer B, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education:
Theory, Research, and Practice, 2nd ed.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
25Gielen AC, McDonald EM. The PRECEDE–PROCEED
planning model. In: Glanz K, Lewis F, Rimer B, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education:
Theory, Research, and Practice, 3rd ed.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Inc., 2002; 409–36.
26Satia JA, Galanko JA, Rimer BK. Methods and strategies to recruit
African Americans into cancer prevention surveillance studies.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2005; 14: 718–21.
27Kristal AR, Curry SJ, Shattuck AL, Feng Z, Li S. A randomized trial of a tailored,
self-help dietary intervention: the Puget Sound Eating Patterns
Study. Preventive Medicine 2000; 31: 380–9.
28Ulrich C, Kristal AR, White E, Hunt JR, Durfy SJ, Potter JD. Genetic testing for cancer risk: a
population survey on attitudes and intention.
Community Geneticist 1998; 1: 213–22.
29. Clinical guidelines on the identification,
evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: executive
summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 68:
30Thompson FE, Kipnis V, Subar AF, Krebs-Smith SM, Kahle LL, Midthune D, et al. . Evaluation of
2 brief instruments and a food-frequency questionnaire to estimate daily number
of servings of fruit and vegetables. American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 71: 1503–10.
31Warneke CL, Davis M, De Moor C, Baranowski T. A 7-item versus 31-item food
frequency questionnaire for measuring fruit, juice, and vegetable intake among a
predominantly African-American population.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001; 101: 774–9.
32Havas S, Heimendinger J, Damron D, Nicklas TA, Cowan A, Beresford SA, et al. . 5 A Day for
better health – nine community research projects to increase fruit
and vegetable consumption. Public Health Reports 1995; 110:
33Curran PJ, West SG, Finch JF. The robustness of test statistics
to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor
analysis. Psychological Methods 1996; 1:
34. Census Summary File 4 –
North Carolina. Technical Documentation. Washington,
DC: Us Census Bureau,
35Trudeau E, Kristal AR, Li S, Patterson RE. Demographic and psychosocial
predictors of fruit and vegetable intakes differ: implications for dietary
interventions. Journal of the American Dietetic
Association 1998; 98: 1412–7.
36Satia-Abouta JA, Patterson RE, Kristal AR, Teh C, Tu S-P. Psychosocial predictors of diet
and acculturation in Chinese American and Chinese Canadian
women. Ethnicity & Health 2002; 7:
37Satia JA, Kristal AR, Patterson RE, Neuhouser ML, Trudeau E. Psychosocial factors and dietary
habits associated with vegetable consumption.
Nutrition 2002; 18: 247–54.
38Glanz K, Basil M, Maibach E, Goldberg J, Snyder D. Why Americans eat what they do:
taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences
on food consumption. Journal of the American
Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 1118–26.
39Havas S, Treiman K, Langenberg P, Ballesteros M, Anliker J, Damron D, et al. . Factors
associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among women participating in
WIC. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 1141–8.
40Kloek GC, van Lenthe FJ, van Nierop PWM, Mackenbach JP. Stages of change for fruit and
vegetable consumption in deprived neighborhoods.
Health Education & Behavior 2004; 31: 223–41.
41Kelsey K, Kirkley B, DeVellis R, Earp J, Ammerman A, Keyserling T, et al. . Social support
as a predictor of dietary change in a low-income population.
Health Education Research 1996; 11: 383–95.
42Gallant MP, Dorn GP. Gender and race differences in the
predictors of daily health practices among older adults.
Health Education Research 2001; 16:
43Henry H, Reimer K, Smith C, Reicks M. Associations of decisional
balance, processes of change, and self-efficacy with stages of change for
increased fruit and vegetable intake among low-income, African-American
mothers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006; 106: 841–9.
44Kristal AR, Hedderson MM, Patterson RE, Neuhouser M. Predictors of self-initiated,
healthful dietary change. Journal of the American
Dietetic Association 2001; 101: 762–6.
45Neuhouser M, Kristal AR, Patterson RE. Use of food nutrition labels is
associated with lower fat intake. Journal of the
American Dietetic Association 1999; 99:
46Patterson R, Kristal AR, White E. Do beliefs, knowledge, and
perceived norms about diet and cancer predict dietary change? American Journal of Public Health 1996; 86: 1394–400.
. Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd
ed. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1998.
48Natarajan L, Flatt SW, Sun X, Gamst AC, Major JM, Rock CL, et al. . Validity and
systematic error in measuring carotenoid consumption with dietary self-report
instruments. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 163: 770–8.
49Black AE, Cole TJ. Biased over- or under-reporting is
characteristic of individuals whether over time or by different assessment
methods. Journal of the American Dietetic
Association 2001; 101: