Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 80
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Mahanta, Tulika Goswami Mahanta, Bhupendra Narayan Joshi, Rajnish Gogoi, Pranab and Xavier, Denis 2016. Behavioural risk factors distribution of cardiovascular diseases and its association with normotension, prehypertension and hypertension amongst tea garden population in Dibrugarh district of Assam. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 45.

    Noori, Marzie Asgari Ghiasvand, Reza Maghsoudi, Zahra Feizi, Awat Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad Adibi, Peyman and Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh 2016. Evaluation of dietary pattern stability and physical activity in three consecutive generations of women. International Journal of Public Health, Vol. 61, Issue. 1, p. 29.

    2016. The Heart of Africa.

    Abderrazak, Amna Syrovets, Tatiana Couchie, Dominique El Hadri, Khadija Friguet, Bertrand Simmet, Thomas and Rouis, Mustapha 2015. NLRP3 inflammasome: From a danger signal sensor to a regulatory node of oxidative stress and inflammatory diseases. Redox Biology, Vol. 4, p. 296.

    Anand, Sonia S. Hawkes, Corinna de Souza, Russell J. Mente, Andrew Dehghan, Mahshid Nugent, Rachel Zulyniak, Michael A. Weis, Tony Bernstein, Adam M. Krauss, Ronald M. Kromhout, Daan Jenkins, David J.A. Malik, Vasanti Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A. Mozaffarian, Dariush Yusuf, Salim Willett, Walter C. and Popkin, Barry M. 2015. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 66, Issue. 14, p. 1590.

    Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana Cunningham-Myrie, Colette Fox, Kristin Kirton, Claremont Fraser, Raphael McLeod, Georgia and Forrester, Terrence 2015. Richer but fatter: the unintended consequences of microcredit financing on household health and expenditure in Jamaica. Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 67.

    Wang, Shengnan Petzold, Max Cao, Junshan Zhang, Yue and Wang, Weibing 2015. Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalizations for Cardiovascular Diseases in Shanghai, China. Medicine, Vol. 94, Issue. 20, p. e837.

    Ajay, Vamadevan S Tian, Maoyi Chen, Hao Wu, Yangfeng Li, Xian Dunzhu, Danzeng Ali, Mohammed K Tandon, Nikhil Krishnan, Anand Prabhakaran, Dorairaj and Yan, Lijing L 2014. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a simplified cardiovascular management program in Tibet, China and Haryana, India: study design and rationale. BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Oghagbon, Efosa K. and Giménez-Llort, Lydia 2014. Sustaining Increase in Life Expectancy in Africa Requires Active Preventive Measures against Non-Communicable Diseases. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 04, Issue. 05, p. 283.

    Gómez, Miguel I. Barrett, Christopher B. Raney, Terri Pinstrup-Andersen, Per Meerman, Janice Croppenstedt, André Carisma, Brian and Thompson, Brian 2013. Post-green revolution food systems and the triple burden of malnutrition. Food Policy, Vol. 42, p. 129.

    Gu, Danan Gerland, Patrick Andreev, Kirill F. Li, Nan Spoorenberg, Thomas and Heilig, Gerhard 2013. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia. Demographic Research, Vol. 29, p. 999.

    Hoile, Samuel P. Irvine, Nicola A. Kelsall, Christopher J. Sibbons, Charlene Feunteun, Aurélie Collister, Alex Torrens, Christopher Calder, Philip C. Hanson, Mark A. Lillycrop, Karen A. and Burdge, Graham C. 2013. Maternal fat intake in rats alters 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 status and the epigenetic regulation of Fads2 in offspring liver. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 24, Issue. 7, p. 1213.

    Mahanta, Tulika G. Joshi, Rajnish Mahanta, Bhupendra N. and Xavier, Denis 2013. Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea garden and general population in Dibrugarh, Assam, India. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 147.

    Mahmood, Dler Faieeq Darweesh Abderrazak, Amna El Hadri, Khadija Simmet, Thomas and Rouis, Mustapha 2013. The Thioredoxin System as a Therapeutic Target in Human Health and Disease. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Vol. 19, Issue. 11, p. 1266.

    Maziak, Wasim Critchley, Julia Zaman, Shahaduz Unwin, Nigel Capewell, Simon Bennett, Kathleen Unal, Belgin Husseini, Abdullatif Romdhane, Habiba Ben and Phillimore, Peter 2013. Mediterranean studies of cardiovascular disease and hyperglycemia: analytical modeling of population socio-economic transitions (MedCHAMPS)—rationale and methods. International Journal of Public Health, Vol. 58, Issue. 4, p. 547.

    Nuwaha, Fred and Musinguzi, Geofrey 2013. Pre-hypertension in Uganda: a cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Popkin, B.M. 2013. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition.

    Remais, J. V. Zeng, G. Li, G. Tian, L. and Engelgau, M. M. 2013. Convergence of non-communicable and infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 221.

    Tucker, Ian G Norris, Pauline T and Duffull, Stephen B 2013. What is the best way to deliver therapeutics and who decides?. Therapeutic Delivery, Vol. 4, Issue. 7, p. 763.

    Chaturvedi, Richa Singh, Nimali Boolchandani, Reshma and Chandra, Ram 2012. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on CHD in businessmen and patients. Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 42, Issue. 3, p. 148.


Cardiovascular diseases in the developing countries: dimensions, determinants, dynamics and directions for public health action

  • K Srinath Reddy (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 22 December 2006

The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, principally due to a sharp rise in the developing countries which are experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: demographic shifts with altered population age profiles; lifestyle changes due to recent urbanisation, delayed industrialisation and overpowering globalisation; probable effects of foetal undernutrition on adult susceptibility to vascular disease and possible gene–environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets and diminished physical activity are critical factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across developing regions with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must integrate policies and programmes that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of these diseases and provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives that espouse and enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health. An empowered community, an enlightened policy and and energetic coalition of health professionals must ensure that development is not accompanied by distored nutrition and disordered health.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cardiovascular diseases in the developing countries: dimensions, determinants, dynamics and directions for public health action
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cardiovascular diseases in the developing countries: dimensions, determinants, dynamics and directions for public health action
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cardiovascular diseases in the developing countries: dimensions, determinants, dynamics and directions for public health action
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

5KS Reddy , S Yusuf . Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Circulation 1998; 97: 569601.

6P Pais , J Pogue , H Gerstein , Risk factors for acute myocardial infaraction in Indians: a case control study. Lancet 1996; 348: 358–63.

10I Suh . Cardiovascular mortality in Korea: a country experiencing epidemiologic transition. Acta Cardiol. 2001; 56: 7581.

14DJP Barker , CN Martyn , C Osmond , Growth in utero and serum cholesterol concentrations in adult life. Br. Med J. 1993; 307: 1524–7.

15EA Enas , J Mehta . Malignant coronary artery disease in young Asian Indians. Thoughts on pathogenesis, prevention and therapy. Clin. Cardiol. 1995; 18: 131–5.

20S McMahon . Blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000; 342: 50–2.

22R Cooper , C Rotimi , J Kaufman , Hypertension treatment and control in sub-Sharan Africa: the epidemiological basis for policy. Br. Med. J. 1998; 316: 614–7.

23R Fuentes , N Ilmaniemi , E Laurikainen , Hypertension in developing economies: a review of population-based studies carried out from 1980 to 1998. J. Hypertens. 2000; 18: 521–9.

24P Arroyo , V Fernandez , A Loria , Hypertension in urban Mexico: the 1992–93 national survey of chronic disease. J. Hum. Hypertens. 1999; 13: 671–5.

25H King , RE Aubert , WH Herman . Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025. Prevalence, numeric estimates and projections. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 1414–31.

26A Ramachandran , C Snehlatha , E Latha , Rising prevalence of NIDDM in an urban population in India. Diabetologia 1997; 40: 232–7.

28A Ramachandran , C Snehlatha , D Dharmaraj , Prevalence of glucose intolerance in Asian Indians. Urban–rural difference and significance of upper body adiposity. Diabetes Care 1992; 15: 1348–55.

29G Rose . Sick individuals and sick populations. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1985; 14: 3284.

30J Stamler , R Stamler , JD Neaton . Blood pressure, systolic and diastolic and cardiovascular risks: US population data. Arch. Intern. Med. 1993; 153: 598615.

32GK Dowsen , H Gareboo , K George , Changes in population cholesterol concentrations and other cardiovascular risk factor levels after five years of non-communicable disease intervention programme in Mauritius. Br. Med J. 1995; 311: 1255–9.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *