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    Cooper, Sheri L. Pelly, Fiona E. and Lowe, John B. 2016. Construct and criterion-related validation of nutrient profiling models: A systematic review of the literature. Appetite, Vol. 100, p. 26.


    Jensen, J D and Ronit, K 2015. The EU pledge for responsible marketing of food and beverages to children: implementation in food companies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 69, Issue. 8, p. 896.


    Ronit, K and Jensen, J D 2014. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing: a literature review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, Issue. 7, p. 753.


    Scrinis, Gyorgy and Parker, Christine 2016. Front-of-Pack Food Labeling and the Politics of Nutritional Nudges. Law & Policy, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 234.


    Sacco, Jocelyn E. Sumanac, Dunja and Tarasuk, Valerie 2013. Front-of-Package References to Fiber on Foods in Canadian Supermarkets Highlight the Need for Increased Nutrition Knowledge Among Consumers. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Vol. 45, Issue. 6, p. 518.


    White, Christine M. Lillico, Heather G. Vanderlee, Lana and Hammond, David 2016. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection. Preventive Medicine Reports, Vol. 4, p. 474.


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Choosing front-of-package food labelling nutritional criteria: how smart were ‘Smart Choices’?

  • Christina A Roberto (a1), Marie A Bragg (a1), Kara A Livingston (a2), Jennifer L Harris (a1), Jackie M Thompson (a1), Marissa J Seamans (a1) and Kelly D Brownell (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011000826
  • Published online: 16 May 2011
Abstract
AbstractObjective

The ‘Smart Choices’ programme was an industry-driven, front-of-package (FOP) nutritional labelling system introduced in the USA in August 2009, ostensibly to help consumers select healthier options during food shopping. Its nutritional criteria were developed by members of the food industry in collaboration with nutrition and public health experts and government officials. The aim of the present study was to test the extent to which products labelled as ‘Smart Choices’ could be classified as healthy choices on the basis of the Nutrient Profile Model (NPM), a non-industry-developed, validated nutritional standard.

Design

A total of 100 packaged products that qualified for a ‘Smart Choices’ designation were sampled from eight food and beverage categories. All products were evaluated using the NPM method.

Results

In all, 64 % of the products deemed ‘Smart Choices’ did not meet the NPM standard for a healthy product. Within each ‘Smart Choices’ category, 0 % of condiments, 8·70 % of fats and oils, 15·63 % of cereals and 31·58 % of snacks and sweets met NPM thresholds. All sampled soups, beverages, desserts and grains deemed ‘Smart Choices’ were considered healthy according to the NPM standard.

Conclusions

The ‘Smart Choices’ programme is an example of industries’ attempts at self-regulation. More than 60 % of foods that received the ‘Smart Choices’ label did not meet standard nutritional criteria for a ‘healthy’ food choice, suggesting that industries’ involvement in designing labelling systems should be scrutinized. The NPM system may be a good option as the basis for establishing FOP labelling criteria, although more comparisons with other systems are needed.

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Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email christina.roberto@yale.edu
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2.EA Finkelstein , JG Trogdon , JW Cohen (2009) Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer- and service-specific estimates. Health Aff (Millwood) 28, 822831.

5.US Government Accountability Office (2008) Food Labeling: FDA Needs to Better Leverage Resources, Improve Oversight, and Effectively Use Available Data to Help Consumers Select Healthy Foods. Report to the Chair, Sub-committee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office.

6.JR Lupton , DA Balentine , RM Black (2010) The Smart Choices front-of-package nutrition labeling program: rationale and development of the nutrition criteria. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1078S1089S.

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  • ISSN: 1368-9800
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