Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Development of healthy and sustainable food-based dietary guidelines for the Netherlands

  • Elizabeth Brink (a1), Caroline van Rossum (a2), Astrid Postma-Smeets (a1), Annette Stafleu (a1), Danielle Wolvers (a1), Corné van Dooren (a1), Ido Toxopeus (a2), Elly Buurma-Rethans (a2), Marjolein Geurts (a2) and Marga Ocké (a2)...

Abstract

Objective:

To derive healthy and sustainable food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) for different target groups in the Netherlands and describe the process.

Design:

Optimised dietary patterns for children, adolescents, adults and the elderly were calculated using an optimisation model. Foods high in saturated and trans-fatty acids, salt and sugar, and low in dietary fibre, were excluded. The dietary patterns resembled the current food consumption as closely as possible, while simultaneously meeting recommendations for food groups, nutrients, maximum limits for foods with a high environmental impact, and within 85 % of the energy requirement. Recommended daily amounts of food groups were based on the optimised dietary patterns and expert judgement.

Setting:

The Netherlands.

Participants:

FBDG were derived for Dutch people with different ages, genders, activity levels and food preferences.

Results:

For most target groups the optimisation model provided dietary patterns that complied with all requirements. For some food groups, the optimised amounts varied largely between target groups. For consistent messages to consumers, the optimised dietary patterns were adjusted to uniform recommendations per target group. Recommendations were visualised in the Wheel of Five. The advice is to eat the recommended amounts of foods according to the Wheel of Five and limit consumption of other foods.

Conclusions:

Based on an optimisation model, scientific evidence, information on dietary patterns and expert knowledge, we derived FBDG for different target groups. The Wheel of Five is a key food-counselling model that can help Dutch consumers to make their diets healthier and more environmentally sustainable.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Development of healthy and sustainable food-based dietary guidelines for the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Development of healthy and sustainable food-based dietary guidelines for the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Development of healthy and sustainable food-based dietary guidelines for the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email brink@voedingscentrum.nl

References

Hide All
1. GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators (2017) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 390, 13451422.
2. European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (2010) Scientific opinion on establishing food-based dietary guidelines. EFSA J 8, 42.
3. Montagnese, C, Santarpia, L, Buonifacio, M et al. (2015) European food-based dietary guidelines: a comparison and update. Nutrition 31, 908915.
4. Sandstrom, B (2001) A framework for food-based dietary guidelines in the European Union. Public Health Nutr 4, 293305.
5. Reynolds, CJ, Buckley, JD, Weinstein, P et al. (2014) Are the dietary guidelines for meat, fat, fruit and vegetable consumption appropriate for environmental sustainability? A review of the literature. Nutrients 6, 22512265.
6. Konde, AB, Bjerselius, R, Haglund, L et al. (2015) Swedish Dietary Guidelines – Risk and Benefit Management Report. Livsmedelsverkets Rapportserie nr 5/2015. Uppsala: Livsmedelsverkets, National Food Agency.
7. Gonzales Fischer, C & Garnett, T (2016) Plates, Pyramids and Planets; Development in National Healthy and Sustainable Dietary Guidelines: A State of Play Assessment. Rome: FAO and Oxford University.
8. Versele, V & Neven, L (2017) Substantiation of the Vision on Nutrition and Sustainability. Background Document with Renewed Guidelines and Visual Representation of the Food Triangle (in Flemish). Brussels: Vlaams Instituut Gezond Leven.
9. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations & World Health Organization (1998) Preparation and Use of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines. Geneva: FAO/WHO.
10. Netherlands Nutrition Centre (2011) Guidelines Food Choices (in Dutch). The Hague: Netherlands Nutrition Centre.
11. Britten, P, Marcoe, K, Yamini, S et al. (2006) Development of food intake patterns for the MyPyramid Food Guidance system. J Nutr Educ Behav 38, S7892.
12. Kersting, M, Alexy, U & Clausen, K (2005) Using the concept of Food Based Dietary Guidelines to develop an optimized mixed diet (OMD) for German children and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40, 301308.
13. Okubo, H, Sasaki, S, Murakami, K et al. (2015) Designing optimal food intake patterns to achieve nutritional goals for Japanese adults through the use of linear programming optimization models. Nutr J 14, 57.
14. National Health and Medical Research Council (2011) A Modelling System to Inform the Revison of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
15. Maillot, M, Vieux, F, Amiot, MJ et al. (2010) Individual diet modeling translates nutrient recommendations into realistic and individual-specific food choices. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 421430.
16. Ferguson, EL, Darmon, N, Briend, A et al. (2004) Food-based dietary guidelines can be developed and tested using linear programming analysis. J Nutr 134, 951957.
17. Buttriss, JL, Briend, A, Darmon, N et al. (2014) Diet modelling: how it can inform the development of dietary recommendations and public health policy. Nutr Bull 39, 115125.
18. Dantzig, GB & Thapa, MN (2003) Linear Programming 2. Theory Extensions. New York: Springer.
19. Wilson, N, Nghiem, N, Ni Mhurchu, C et al. (2013) Foods and dietary patterns that are healthy, low-cost, and environmentally sustainable: a case study of optimization modeling for New Zealand. PLoS One 8, e59648.
20. Kromhout, D, Spaaij, CJ, de Goede, J et al. (2016) The 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines. Eur J Clin Nutr 70, 869878.
21. Health Council of the Netherlands (2014) Temporary Dietary Reference Values (in Dutch). https://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/documenten/adviezen/2015/11/04/tijdelijke-voedingsnormen (accessed March 2018).
22. Van Rossum, CTM, Fransen, HP, Verkaik-Kloosterman, J et al. (2011) Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010: Diet of Children and Adults Aged 7 to 69 Years. RIVM-report no. 350070006. Bilthoven: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.
23. Ocké, MC, Buurma-Rethans, EJM, De Boer, EJ et al. (2013) Diet of Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Dutch National Food Consumption Survey Older Adults 2010–2012. RIVM-report no. 050413001/2013. Bilthoven: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.
24. Ocké, MC, Van Rossum, CTM, Fransen, HP et al. (2008) Dutch National Food Consumption Survey Young Children 2005/2006. RIVM-report no. 350070001. Bilthoven: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.
25. de Boer, EJ, Brants, HAM, Beukers, M et al. (2015) Diet of Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Native Dutch in Amsterdam (in Dutch). RIVM report no. 2015-099. Bilthoven: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.
26. Health Council of the Netherlands (2011) Guidelines for a Healthy Diet: The Ecological Perspective. Den Haag: Gezondheidsraad.
27. European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Committee on Food & Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2006) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. Parma: EFSA.
28. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (2013) NEVO-online version 2013/4.0. https://nevo-online.rivm.nl/ (accessed October 2015).
29. Kennis en adviescentrum voor de bakkerij (2016) Sixth National Sample Salt Content in Bread 2015 (in Dutch). In opdracht van NVB Wageningen. http://www.nedverbak.nl/nieuwsbericht.htm?nieuwsItem_WebID%3D392%26nieuws_WebID%3D9 (accessed January 2016).
30. Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (2014) Monitoring Salt Content of Meat Replacers (in Dutch). The Hague: NVWA.
31. Health Council of the Netherlands (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Proteins, Fats and Digestible Carbohydrates (in Dutch). Publication no. 2001/19R. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands.
32. Health Council of the Netherlands (2003) Overweight and Obesity (in Dutch). Publication no. 2003/07. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands.
33. Schonbeck, Y, Talma, H, van Dommelen, P et al. (2011) Increase in prevalence of overweight in Dutch children and adolescents: a comparison of nationwide growth studies in 1980, 1997 and 2009. PLoS One 6, e27608.
34. Schonbeck, Y, Talma, H, van Dommelen, P et al. (2013) The world’s tallest nation has stopped growing taller: the height of Dutch children from 1955 to 2009. Pediatr Res 73, 371377.
35. Montgomery, C, Reilly, JJ, Jackson, DM et al. (2004) Relation between physical activity and energy expenditure in a representative sample of young children. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 591596.
36. Ekelund, U, Yngve, A, Brage, S et al. (2004) Body movement and physical activity energy expenditure in children and adolescents: how to adjust for differences in body size and age. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 851856.
37. Spadano, JL, Bandini, LG, Must, A et al. (2005) Longitudinal changes in energy expenditure in girls from late childhood through midadolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 11021109.
38. Brink, L, Postma-Smeets, A, Stafleu, A et al. (2016) Guidelines Wheel of Five (in Dutch). The Hague: Netherlands Nutrition Centre.
39. Westhoek, H, Lesschen, JP, Rood, T et al. (2014) Food choices, health and environment: effects of cutting Europe’s meat and dairy intake. Glob Environ Change 26, 196205.
40. World Cancer Research Fund & American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR.
41. Health Council of the Netherlands (2012) Evaluation of the Dietary Reference Values for Vitamin D (in Dutch). Publication no. 2012/15. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands.
42. Van Dooren, C, Tyszler, M, Kramer, G et al. (2015) Low climate impact and high nutritional value in one shopping basket through diet optimization by linear programming. Sustainability 7, 12837.
43. Kramer, GHB (2015) The Menu of Tomorrow (in Dutch). Gouda: Blonk Consultants.
44. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2016) Population to migration background (in Dutch). https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/achtergrond/2016/47/bevolking-naar-migratieachtergrond (accessed April 2018).
45. Geurts, M, Toxopeus, I, Van Rossum, C et al. (2016) Background Data of Reference Diets for the Guidelines of the Wheel of Five 2016 (in Dutch). Bilthoven: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.
46. den Hartog, C & van Schaik, TFSM (1953) A new way of food education (in Dutch). Voeding 14, 251.
47. European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2015) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for iron. EFSA J 13, 4254.
48. Health Council of the Netherlands (2008) Towards an Optimal Use of Folic Acid (in Dutch). Publication no. 2008/02. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands.
49. Milieucentraal (2015) Calender of vegetables and fruit (in Dutch). https://groentefruit.milieucentraal.nl/ (accessed March 2018).
50. Montagnese, C, Santarpia, L, Iavarone, F et al. (2017) North and South American countries food-based dietary guidelines: a comparison. Nutrition 42, 5163.
51. Hess, R, Visschers, VH & Siegrist, M (2012) Effectiveness and efficiency of different shapes of food guides. J Nutr Educ Behav 44, 442447.
52. Van Rossum, C, Buurma-Rethans, E, Vennemann, F et al. (2017) Food Consumption 2012–2014 Compared with the Wheel of Five (in Dutch). MEMO-VCP 17-03. Bilthoven: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.
53. Estruch, R, Ros, E, Salas-Salvado, J et al. (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 368, 12791290.
54. Public Health England (2016) The Eatwell Guide – How does it Differ to the Eatwell Plate and Why? London: Public Health England.
55. Garnett, T (2011) Where are the best opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the food system (including the food chain)? Food Policy 36, Suppl. 1, S23S32.
56. Tilman, D, Cassman, KG, Matson, PA et al. (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418, 671677.
57. Pauly, D, Christensen, V, Guénette, S et al. (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418, 689695.
58. Van Dooren, C, Aiking, H & Vellinga, P (2017) In search of indicators to assess the environmental impact of diets. Int J Life Cycle Assess 23, 12971314.
59. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013) Food Wastage Footprint; Impacts on Natural Resources. Rome: FAO.
60. Jones, AD, Hoey, L, Blesh, J et al. (2016) A systematic review of the measurement of sustainable diets. Adv Nutr 7, 641664.
61. Van de Kamp, ME, Van Dooren, C, Hollander, A et al. (2018) Healthy diets with reduced environmental impact? The greenhouse gas emissions of various diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines. Food Res Int 104, 1424.
62. Temme, EH, Toxopeus, IB, Kramer, GF et al. (2015) Greenhouse gas emission of diets in the Netherlands and associations with food, energy and macronutrient intakes. Public Health Nutr 18, 24332445.
63. Macdiarmid, JI, Kyle, J, Horgan, GW et al. (2012) Sustainable diets for the future: can we contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eating a healthy diet? Am J Clin Nutr 96, 632639.
64. Perignon, M, Masset, G, Ferrari, G et al. (2016) How low can dietary greenhouse gas emissions be reduced without impairing nutritional adequacy, affordability and acceptability of the diet? A modelling study to guide sustainable food choices. Public Health Nutr 19, 26622674.
65. Garnett, T (2006) Fruit & Vegetables & UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Exploring the Relationship; Working Paper Produced as Part of the Work of the Food Climate Research Network. Guildford: University of Surrey.
66. Mertens, E, van’t Veer, P, Hiddink, GJ et al. (2017) Operationalising the health aspects of sustainable diets: a review. Public Health Nutr 20, 739757.
67. Van Dooren, C (2018) A review of the use of linear programming to optimize diets, nutritiously, economically and environmentally. Front Nutr 5, 48.
68. Gerdessen, JC & de Vries, JH (2015) Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions. Eur J Clin Nutr 69, 12721278.
69. Willett, W, Rockström, J, Loken, B et al. (2019) Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 393, 447492.
70. Brown, KA, Timotijevic, L, Barnett, J et al. (2011) A review of consumer awareness, understanding and use of food-based dietary guidelines. Br J Nutr 106, 1526.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Brink et al. supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (54 KB)
54 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed