1. Yach, D, Hawkes, C, Gould, CL et al. (2004) The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control. JAMA 291, 2616–2622.
2. Boeing, H, Wahrendorf, J & Becker, N (1999) EPIC-Germany: a source for studies into diet and risk of chronic diseases. European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Ann Nutr Metab 43, 195–204.
3. Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 3–9.
4. Hu, FB, Rimm, E, Smith-Warner, SA et al. (1999) Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 243–249.
5. Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ et al. (2000) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 912–921.
6. Jacques, PF & Tucker, KL (2001) Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease? Am J Clin Nutr 73, 1–2.
7. Slattery, ML (2008) Defining dietary consumption: is the sum greater than its parts? Am J Clin Nutr 88, 14–15.
8. Fung, TT, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ et al. (2001) Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med 161, 1857–1862.
9. Fung, TT, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE et al. (2004) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and stroke risk in women. Stroke 35, 2014–2019.
10. Lutsey, PL, Steffen, LM & Stevens, J (2008) Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 117, 754–761.
11. Newby, PK, Muller, D, Hallfrisch, J et al. (2004) Food patterns measured by factor analysis and anthropometric changes in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 504–513.
12. Handa, K & Kreiger, N (2002) Diet patterns and the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Public Health Nutr 5, 757–767.
13. Kant, AK (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 615–635.
14. Williams, DE, Prevost, AT, Whichelow, MJ et al. (2000) A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr 83, 257–266.
15. Panagiotakos, DB, Pitsavos, C, Skoumas, Y et al. (2007) The association between food patterns and the metabolic syndrome using principal components analysis: The ATTICA Study. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 979–987.
16. Van Dam, RM, Rimm, EB, Willett, WC et al. (2002) Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in US men. Ann Intern Med 136, 201–209.
17. Fung, TT, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ et al. (2001) Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med 161, 1857–1862.
18. Jacques, PF & Tucker, KL (2001) Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease? Am J Clin Nutr 73, 1–2.
19. Nishida, C, Uauy, R, Kumanyika, S et al. (2004) The joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: process, product and policy implications. Public Health Nutr 7, 245–250.
20. de Oliveira, MC, Sichieri, R & Venturim Mozzer, R (2008) A low-energy-dense diet adding fruit reduces weight and energy intake in women. Appetite 51, 291–295.
21. Ello-Martin, JA, Roe, LS, Ledikwe, JH et al. (2007) Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 465–1477.
22. Central Administration of Statistics (2004) The National Survey of Household Living Conditions. Beirut: CAS.
23. IPAQ Research Committee (2005) Guidelines for Data Processing and Analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) – Short and Long Forms.
24. Michels, KB & Schulze, MB (2005) Can dietary patterns help us detect diet-disease associations? Nutr Res Rev 18, 241–248.
25. Kerver, JM, Yang, EJ, Bianchi, L et al. (2003) Dietary patterns associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 1103–1110.
26. Paradis, AM, Godin, G, Perusse, L et al. (2009) Associations between dietary patterns and obesity phenotypes. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 1419–1426.
27. Terry, P, Hu, FB, Hansen, H et al. (2001) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in women. Am J Epidemiol 154, 1143–1149.
28. Paradis, AM, Perusse, L & Vohl, MC (2006) Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3, 38.
29. Tucker, KL (2010) Dietary patterns, approaches, and multicultural perspective. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 211–218.
30. Newby, PK, Muller, D & Tucker, KL (2004) Associations of empirically derived eating patterns with plasma lipid biomarkers: a comparison of factor and cluster analysis methods. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 759–767.
31. Maskarinec, G, Novotny, R & Tasaki, K (2000) Dietary patterns are associated with body mass index in multiethnic women. J Nutr 130, 3068–3072.
32. Yang, EJ, Kerver, JM & Song, WO (2005) Dietary patterns of Korean Americans described by factor analysis. J Am Coll Nutr 2, 115–121.
33. Esmaillzadeh, A & Azadbakht, L (2008) Food intake patterns may explain the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women. J Nutr 138, 1469–1475.
34. Esmaillzadeh, A & Azadbakht, L (2008) Major dietary patterns in relation to general obesity and central adiposity among Iranian women. J Nutr 138, 358–363.
35. Slattery, ML (2010) Analysis of dietary patterns in epidemiological research. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 207–210.
36. Rezazadeh, A, Rashidkhani, B & Omidvar, N (2010) Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors of adult women living in Tehran, Iran. Nutrition 26, 337–341.
37. Park, SY, Murphy, SP, Wilkens, LR et al. (2005) Dietary patterns using the Food Guide Pyramid groups are associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors: the multiethnic cohort study. J Nutr 135, 843–849.
38. Sanchez-Villegas, A, Delgado-Rodriguez, M, Martinez-Gonzalez, MA et al. (2003) Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 285–292.
39. Fung, TT, Schulze, M, Manson, JE et al. (2004) Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Arch Intern Med 164, 2235–2240.
40. Villegas, R, Salim, A, Collins, MM et al. (2004) Dietary patterns in middle-aged Irish men and women defined by cluster analysis. Public Health Nutr 7, 1017–1024.
41. Winkvist, A, Hornell, A, Hallmans, G et al. (2009) More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey. Nutr J 19, 8–12.
42. Randall, E, Marshall, JR, Graham, S et al. (1991) High-risk health behaviors associated with various dietary patterns. Nutr Cancer 16, 135–151.
43. Perrin, AE, Dallongeville, J, Ducimetiere, P et al. (2005) Interactions between traditional regional determinants and socio-economic status on dietary patterns in a sample of French men. Br J Nutr 93, 109–114.
44. Veltsista, A, Laitinen, J, Sovio, U et al. (2010) Relationship between eating behavior, breakfast consumption, and obesity among Finnish and Greek adolescents. J Nut Educ Behav 42, 417–421.
45. Kent, LM & Worsley, A (2010) Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women. Nutr Res 30, 240–245.
46. Szajewska, H & Ruszczynski, M (2010) Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50, 113–119.
47. Kourlaba, G, Panagiotakos, DB, Mihas, K et al. (2009) Dietary patterns in relation to socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics among Greek adolescents: a multivariate analysis. Public Health Nutr 12, 1366–1372.
48. Vereecken, CA & Maes, L (2006) Television viewing and food consumption in Flemish adolescents in Belgium. Soz Praventivmed 51, 311–317.
49. Harris, JL & Bargh, JA (2009) Television viewing and unhealthy diet: implications for children and media interventions. Health Commun 24, 660–673.
50. Custers, K & Van den Bulck, J (2010) Television viewing, computer game play and book reading during meals are predictors of meal skipping in a cross-sectional sample of 12-, 14- and 16-year-olds. Public Health Nutr 13, 537–543.
51. Zimmerman, FJ & Bell, JF (2010) Associations of television content type and obesity in children. Am J Public Health 100, 334–340.
52. Langsetmo, L, Poliquin, S, Hanley, DA et al. (2010) Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 11, 20.
53. Esmaillzadeh, A, Kimiagar, M, Mehrabi, Y et al. (2007) Dietary patterns, insulin resistance, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 910–918.
54. Cunha, DB, de Almeida, RM, Sichieri, R et al. (2010) Association of dietary patterns with BMI and waist circumference in a low-income neighbourhood in Brazil. Br J Nutr 27, 1–6.
55. Willett, W (1998) Nutrition Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
56. Khani, BR, Ye, W, Terry, P et al. (2004) Reproducibility and validity of major dietary patterns among Swedish women assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. J Nutr 134, 1541–1545.
57. Caan, BJ, Lanza, E, Schatzkin, A et al. (1999) Does nutritionist review of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire improve data quality? Public Health Nutr 2, 565–569.
58. Martinez, ME, Marshall, JR & Sechrest, L (1998) Invited commentary: factor analysis and the search for objectivity. Am J Epidemiol 148, 17–19.
59. Schulze, MB, Hoffmann, K, Kroke, A et al. (2001) Dietary patterns and their association with food and nutrient intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. Br J Nutr 85, 363–373.