World Health Organization (2002) Women and the Rapid Rise of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva: WHO.
Alwan, A (2011) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010. Geneva: WHO.
Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly (2004) WHA 57.17. Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity. Geneva: WHO.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2010) Scientific Opinion on Establishing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines. Parma: EFSA.
Jacobs, DR Jr, Gross, MD & Tapsell, LC (2009) Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr
89, issue 5, 1543S–1548S.
Michels, KB & Schulze, MB (2005) Can dietary patterns help us detect diet–disease associations?
Nutr Res Rev
Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol
Newby, PK & Tucker, KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev
Moeller, SM, Reedy, J, Millen, AE
et al. (2007) Dietary patterns: challenges and opportunities in dietary patterns research an Experimental Biology workshop, April 1, 2006. J Am Diet Assoc
Harlow, SD, Gass, M, Hall, JE
STRAW 10 Collaborative Group (2012) Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop+10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Melby, MK, Sievert, LL, Anderson, D
et al. (2011) Overview of methods used in cross-cultural comparisons of menopausal symptoms and their determinants: guidelines for Strengthening the Reporting of Menopause and Aging (STROMA) studies. Maturitas
Hofvind, SS, Wang, H & Thoresen, S (2003) The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program: re-attendance related to the women’s experiences, intentions and previous screening result. Cancer Causes Control
Hofvind, S, Geller, B, Vacek, PM
et al. (2007) Using the European guidelines to evaluate the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Eur J Epidemiol
Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K, Johansson, LR
et al. (1999) Evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire with weighed records, fatty acids, and α-tocopherol in adipose tissue and serum. Am J Epidemiol
Carlsen, MH, Lillegaard, IT, Karlsen, A
et al. (2010) Evaluation of energy and dietary intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire using independent energy expenditure measurement and weighed food records. Nutr J
Hustvedt, BE, Christophersen, A, Johnsen, LR
et al. (2004) Description and validation of the ActiReg: a novel instrument to measure physical activity and energy expenditure. Br J Nutr
Carlsen, MH, Karlsen, A, Lillegaard, IT
et al. (2011) Relative validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated from an FFQ, using carotenoid and flavonoid biomarkers and the method of triads. Br J Nutr
Qureshi, SA, Ellingjord-Dale, M, Hofvind, S
et al. (2012) Physical activity and mammographic density in a cohort of postmenopausal Norwegian women; a cross-sectional study. Springerplus
Dallal, CM, Sullivan-Halley, J, Ross, RK
et al. (2007) Long-term recreational physical activity and risk of invasive and in situ breast cancer: the California teachers study. Arch Intern Med
Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Whitt, MC
et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc
32, 9 Suppl., S498–S504.
Tabachnick, BG & Fidell, LS (2007) Using Multivariate Statistics, 5th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Publications.
Hutcheson, G & Sofroniou, N (1999) The Multivariate Social Scientist. London: SAGE.
Flood, A, Rastogi, T, Wirfalt, E
et al. (2008) Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans. Am J Clin Nutr
Sanchez-Villegas, A, Delgado-Rodriguez, M, Martinez-Gonzalez, MA
et al. (2003) Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Eur J Clin Nutr
Chocano-Bedoya, PO, O’Reilly, EJ, Lucas, M
et al. (2013) Prospective study on long-term dietary patterns and incident depression in middle-aged and older women. Am J Clin Nutr
Kim, MK, Sasaki, S, Otani, T
et al. (2005) Dietary patterns and subsequent colorectal cancer risk by subsite: a prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer
Terry, P, Hu, FB, Hansen, H
et al. (2001) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in women. Am J Epidemiol
Knudsen, VK, Matthiessen, J, Biltoft-Jensen, A
et al. (2014) Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population. Eur J Clin Nutr
Konstantinova, SV, Tell, GS, Vollset, SE
et al. (2008) Dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients as predictors of plasma choline and betaine in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr
Hu, FB, Rimm, E, Smith-Warner, SA
et al. (1999) Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr
Engeset, D, Hofoss, D, Nilsson, LM
et al. (2015) Dietary patterns and whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries – differences and similarities. The HELGA project. Public Health Nutr
Raberg Kjollesdal, MK, Holmboe-Ottesen, G & Wandel, M (2010) Associations between food patterns, socioeconomic position and working situation among adult, working women and men in Oslo. Eur J Clin Nutr
Bentzen, J & Smith, V (2004) Are the fluctuations in the consumption of alcohol pro- or counter-cyclical? Empirical evidence from the Scandinavian countries using long-run time series data. Paper presented at the VDQS Oenometri XI Conference, Dijon, France, 21–22 May 2004.
Engeset, D, Alsaker, E, Ciampi, A
et al. (2005) Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors in the Norwegian EPIC cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study. Eur J Clin Nutr
Mishra, GD, McNaughton, SA, Ball, K
et al. (2010) Major dietary patterns of young and middle aged women: results from a prospective Australian cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr
Markussen, MS, Veierod, MB, Sakhi, AK
et al. (2015) Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers. Br J Nutr
Charreire, H, Kesse-Guyot, E, Bertrais, S
et al. (2011) Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults. Br J Nutr
van Dam, RM, Grievink, L, Ocke, MC
et al. (2003) Patterns of food consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr
Kant, AK (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc
Nordic Council of Ministers (2014) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012: Integrating Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5th ed. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråd.
Kesse-Guyot, E, Bertrais, S, Peneau, S
et al. (2009) Dietary patterns and their sociodemographic and behavioural correlates in French middle-aged adults from the SU.VI.MAX cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr
Harrington, JM, Dahly, DL, Fitzgerald, AP
et al. (2014) Capturing changes in dietary patterns among older adults: a latent class analysis of an ageing Irish cohort. Public Health Nutr
Mishra, GD, Prynne, CJ, Paul, AA
et al. (2004) The impact of inter-generational social and regional circumstances on dietary intake patterns of British adults: results from the 1946 British Birth Cohort. Public Health Nutr
Hart, CL, Davey Smith, G, Upton, MN
et al. (2009) Alcohol consumption behaviours and social mobility in men and women of the Midspan Family study. Alcohol Alcohol
Mashta, O (2009) Middle classes in Britain drink most alcohol, but smoking is at lowest recorded level. BMJ
Connor Gorber, S & Tremblay, MS (2010) The bias in self-reported obesity from 1976 to 2005: a Canada–US comparison. Obesity (Silver Spring)
Hebert, JR, Clemow, L, Pbert, L
et al. (1995) Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures. Int J Epidemiol
Scagliusi, FB, Polacow, VO, Artioli, GG
et al. (2003) Selective underreporting of energy intake in women: magnitude, determinants, and effect of training. J Am Diet Assoc
Rothman, KJ, Greenland, S & Lash, TL (2008)
, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Patterson, RE, Kristal, AR, Tinker, LF
et al. (1999) Measurement characteristics of the Women’s Health Initiative food frequency questionnaire. Ann Epidemiol
Neuhouser, ML, Tinker, L, Shaw, PA
et al. (2008) Use of recovery biomarkers to calibrate nutrient consumption self-reports in the Women’s Health Initiative. Am J Epidemiol
Northstone, K, Ness, AR, Emmett, PM
et al. (2008) Adjusting for energy intake in dietary pattern investigations using principal components analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr
Smith, AD, Emmett, PM, Newby, PK
et al. (2013) Dietary patterns obtained through principal components analysis: the effect of input variable quantification. Br J Nutr