Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases

  • I Darnton-Hill (a1), C Nishida (a2) and WPT James (a3)
Abstract
AbstractObjective:

To briefly review the current understanding of the aetiology and prevention of chronic diseases using a life course approach, demonstrating the life-long influences on the development of disease.

Design:

A computer search of the relevant literature was done using Medline-‘life cycle’ and ‘nutrition’ and reviewing the articles for relevance in addressing the above objective. Articles from references dated before 1990 were followed up separately. A subsequent search using Clio updated the search and extended it by using ‘life cycle’, ‘nutrition’ and ‘noncommunicable disease’ (NCD), and ‘life course’. Several published and unpublished WHO reports were key in developing the background and arguments.

Setting:

International and national public health and nutrition policy development in light of the global epidemic in chronic diseases, and the continuing nutrition, demographic and epidemiological transitions happening in an increasingly globalized world.

Results of review:

There is a global epidemic of increasing obesity, diabetes and other chronic NCDs, especially in developing and transitional economies, and in the less affluent within these, and in the developed countries. At the same time, there has been an increase in communities and households that have coincident under- and over-nutrition.

Conclusions:

The epidemic will continue to increase and is due to a lifetime of exposures and influences. Genetic predisposition plays an unspecified role, and with programming during fetal life for adult disease contributing to an unknown degree. A global rise in obesity levels is contributing to a particular epidemic of type 2 diabetes as well as other NCDs. Prevention will be the most cost-effective and feasible approach for many countries and should involve three mutually reinforcing strategies throughout life, starting in the antenatal period.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email idarntonhill@unicef.org
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3 J Epping-Jordan , R Bengoa , R Kawar , E Sabate . The challenge of chronic conditions: WHO responds. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 947–8.

5 A White , L Lockyer . Tackling coronary heart disease: a gender sensitive approach is needed. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 1016–7.

9 ES Ford , WH Giles , WH Dietz . Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002; 287: 356–9.

11 BM Popkin , S Horton , S Kim , A Mahal , J Shuigao . Trends in diet, nutritional status, and diet-related noncommunicable diseases in China and India: the economic costs of the transition. Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59: 379–90.

17 WPT James , C Chen , S Inoue . Appropriate Asian body mass indices? Obesity Review 2002; 3: 139232.

19 AJ Wilcox . On the importance—and the unimportance—of birthweight. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 1233–41.

20 JE Harding . The nutritional basis of the fetal origins of adult disease. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001(30): 1523.

21 DA Leon , HO Lithell , D Vagero , I Koupilova , R Mohsen , L Berglund , UB Lithell , PM McKeigue . Reduced fetal growth rate and increased risk of death from ischaemic heart disease: cohort study of 15000 Swedish men and women born 1915–29. British Medical Journal 1998; 317: 241–5.

22 JG Eriksson , T Forsén , J Tuomilehto , PD Winter , C Osmond . Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: a longitudinal study. British Medical Journal 1999; 318: 427–31.

23 T. Forsén , JG Eriksson , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond , DJP Barker . Growth in utero and during childhood in women who develop coronary heart disease: a longitudinal study. British Medical Journal 1999; 319: 1403–7.

24 DJP Barker , CN Hales , CHD Fall , C Osmond , K Phipps , PMS Clark . Type 2 (nNon-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (Syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 1993; 36: 62–7.

25 HO Lithell , PM McKeigue , L Berglund , R Mohsen , UB Lithell , DA Leon . Relation of size at birth to non-insulin dependent diabetes and insulin concentrations in men aged 50–60 years. British Medical Journal 1996; 312: 406–10.

27 T Forsén , J Eriksson , J Tuomilehto , A Reunanen , C Osmond , D Barker . The fetal and childhood growth of persons who develop type 2 diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000; 133(3): 176–82.

28 JW Rich-Edwards , GA Colditz , MJ Stampfer , WC Willett , MW Gillman , CH Hennekens , FE Speizer , JE Manson . Birth weight and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult women. Annals of Internal Medicine 1999; 130: 278–84.

29 CN Martyn , DJP Barker , C Osmond . Mother's pelvic size, fetal growth and death from stroke and coronary heart disease in men in the UK. Lancet 1996; 348: 1264–8.

30 JW Rich-Edwards , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson , B Rosner , SE Hankinson , GA Colditz , WC Willett , CH Hennekens . Birth weight and risk of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of women followed up since 1976. British Medical Journal 1997; 315: 396400.

31 DJP Barker . Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. British Medical Journal 1995; 311: 171–4.

32 TJ Roseboom , JHP Van der Meulen , C Osmond , DJP Barker , ACJ Ravelli , JM Schroeder-Tanka , GA van Montfrans , RPJ Michels , OP Bleker . Coronary heart disease after prenatal exposure to the Dutch Famine 1944–45. Heart 2000; 84(6): 595–8.

33 SA Stanner , K Bulmer , C Andrés , OE Lantsena , V Borodina , VV Poteen , JS Yudkin . Malnutrition in utero as a determinant of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adult life: the Leningrad Siege Study. British Medical Journal 1997; 315: 173–7.

35 CE Stein , CHD Fall , K Kunaran , C Osmond , V Cox , DJP Barker . Fetal growth and coronary heart disease in South India. Lancet 1996; 348: 1269–73.

36 CHD Fall , CE Stein , K Kumaran , V Cox , C Osmond , DJP Barker , CN Hales . Size at birth, maternal weight, and type 2 diabetes in South India. Diabetic Medicine 1998; 15: 220–7.

37 YB Cheung , L Low , C Osmond , D Barker , J Karlberg . Fetal growth and early postnatal growth are related to blood pressure in adults. Hypertension 2000; 36: 795800.

38 DJP Barker , CN Martyn , C Osmond , CN Hales , CHD Fall . Growth in utero and serum cholesterol concentrations in adult life. British Medical Journal 1993; 307: 1524–7.

40 J Mi , CM Law , K-L Zhang , C Osmond , CE Stein , DJP Barer . Effects of infant birthweight and maternal body mass index in pregnancy on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in China. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000; 132: 253–60.

41 A Bavdekar , CS Yajnik , CHD Fall , S Bapat , AN Pandit , V Deshpande , S Bhave , SD Kellingray , CV Joglekar . Insulin resistance in 8 year old Indian children. Diabetes 1999; 48: 2422–9.

42 TE Forrester , RJ Wilks , FI Bennett , D Simeon , C Osmond , M Allen , AM Chung , P Scott . Fetal growth and cardiovascular risk factors in Jamaican school children. British Medical Journal 1996; 312: 156–60.

43 CM Law , P Egger , O Dada , H Delgado , E Kylberg , P Lavin , G-H Tang , H von Hertzen , AW Shiell , DJP Barker . Body size at birth and blood pressure among children in Developing Countries. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 52–9.

44 MB Terry , E Susser . Commentary: the impact of fetal and infant exposures along the life course. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 95–6.

45 JG Eriksson , T Forsén , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond , DJP Barker . Early growth, adult income, and risk of stroke. Stroke 2000; 31: 869–74.

46 J Eriksson , T Forsén , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond , D Barker . Fetal and childhood growth and hypertension in adult life. Hypertension 2000; 36: 790.

47 DA Leon , M Johansson , F Rasmussen . Gestational age and growth rate of fetal mass are inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in young adults: an epidemiologic study of 165,136 Swedish men aged 18 years. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152: 597604.

48 R Huxley , A Neil , R Collins . Unravelling the fetal origins hypothesis: is there really an inverse association between birthweight and subsequent blood pressure? Lancet 2002; 360: 659–65.

49 NS Levitt , K Stern , T de Wet , C Morrell , R Edwards , GT Ellison , N Cameron . An inverse relation between blood pressure and birth weight among 6 year old children from Soweto, South Africa. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 1999; 53: 264–8.

50 DA Leon , I Koupilova , HO Lithell , L Berglund , R Mohsen , D Vagero , UB Lithell , PM McKeigue . Failure to realise growth potential in utero and adult obesity in relation to blood pressure in 50 year old Swedish men. British Medical Journal 1996; 312: 401–6.

51 DR McCance , DJ Pettitt , RL Hanson , LTH Jacobson , WC Knowler , PH Bennett . Birthweight and non-insulin dependent diabetes: thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype or surviving small baby genotype? British Medical Journal 1994; 308: 942–5.

53 AC Wilson , JS Forsyth , SA Greene , L Irving , C Hau , PW Howie . Relation of infant feeding to adult serum cholesterol concentration and death from ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal 1998(316): 21–5.

54 A Singhal , TJ Cole , A Lucas . Early nutrition in preterm infants and later blood pressure: two cohorts after randomized trials. Lancet 2001; 357: 413–9.

55 AC Ravelli , JH van der Meulen , C Osmond , DJP Barker , OP Bleker . Infant feeding and adult glucose tolerance, lipid profile, blood pressure, and obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2000; 82: 248–52.

56 MS Kramer . Do breastfeeding and delayed introduction of solid foods protect against subsequent obesity? Journal of Pediatrics 1981; 98: 883–7.

57 R von Kreis , B Koletzko , T Sauerwald , E von Mutius , D Barnert , V Grunert , Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 1999; 319: 147–50.

58 R von Kreis , Does breastfeeding protect against childhood obesity? Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2000; 478: 2939.

59 MW Gillman , SL Rifas-Shiman , CA Camargo , CS Berkey , L Frazier , HRH Rockett , AE Field , GA Colditz . Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285: 2461–7.

60 WH Dietz . Breastfeeding may help prevent childhood overweight. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285: 2506–7.

61 SB Roberts . Prevention of hypertension in adulthood by breastfeeding? Lancet 2001; 357: 406–7.

62 DL Wingard , MH Criqui , SL Edelstein , J Tucker , C Tomlinson-Keasey , JE Schwartz , HS Freidman . Is breastfeeding in infancy associated with adult longevity? American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84: 1458–62.

63 MK Davis . Breastfeeding and chronic disease in childhood and adolescence. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2001; 48(1): 125–41.

64 MH Labbock . Effects of breastfeeding on the mother. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2001; 48: 143–58.

66 J Eriksson , T Forsén , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond , DJP Barker . Early growth and coronary heart disease in later life: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal 2001; 322: 949–53.

68 SP Walker , P Gaskin , CA Powell , FI Bennett , TE Forrester , S Grantham-McGregor . The effects of birth weight and postnatal linear growth on blood pressure at age 11–12 years. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2001; 55: 394–8.

70 CS Yajnik . The insulin resistance epidemic in India: fetal origins, later lifestyle, or both? Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59: 19.

71 A Lucas , MS Fewtrell , TJ Cole . Fetal origins of adult disease—the hypothesis revisited. British Medical Journal 1999; 319: 245–9.

72 A Must , RD Lipman . Childhood energy intake and cancer mortality in adulthood. Nutrition Reviews 1999; 57(1): 21–4.

73 A Must , PF Jacques , GE Dallal , CJ Bajema , WH Dietz . Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study. New England Journal of Medicine 1992; 327: 1350–5.

74 S Frankel , DJ Gunnel , TJ Peters . Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the Body Orr cohort study. British Medical Journal 1998; 316: 499504.

76 DJ Gunnell , G Davey Smith , SJ Frankel , M Kemp , TJ Peters . Socio-economic and dietary influences on leg length and trunk length in childhood: a reanalysis of the Carnegie (Boyd Orr) survey of diet and health in prewar Britain (1937–39). Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 1998; 12(Suppl. 1): 96113.

77 CL Hart , DJ Hole , G Davey Smith . Influence of socioeconomic circumstances in early and later life on stroke risk among men in a Scottish cohort. Stroke 2000; 31: 2093–7.

78 P McCarron , R Greenwood , S Ebrahim , P Elwood , G Davey Smith . Adult height is inversely associated with ischaemic stroke. The Caerphilly and Speedwell Collaborative Studies. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2000; 54: 239–40.

79 MG Marmot , H Bosma , H Hemingway , E Brunner , S Stansfield . Contributions of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. Lancet 1997; 350: 235–9.

80 SG Wannamethee , AG Shaper , PH Whincup , M Walker . Adult height, stroke and coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 148(11): 1069–76.

81 P Jousilahti , J Tuomilehto , E Vartiainen , J Eriksson , P Puska . Relation of adult height to cause-specific and total mortality: a prospective follow-up study of 31,199 middle-aged men and women. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151(11): 1112–20.

82 T Forsén , J Eriksson , Q Qiao , M Tervahauta , A Nissinen , J Tuomilehto . Short stature and coronary heart disease: a 35 year follow-up of the Finnish Cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Journal of Internal Medicine 2000; 248: 326–32.

83 DJ Gunnell , G Davey Smith , S Frankel , K Nanchahal , FEM Braddon , J Pemberton , TJ Peters . Childhood leg length and adult mortality: follow up of the Carnegie (Boyd Orr) survey of diet and health in pre-war Britain. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 1998; 52: 142–52.

84 G Davey Smith , M Shipley , DA Leon . Height and mortality from cancer among men: prospective observational study. British Medical Journal 1998; 317: 1351–2.

85 G Davey Smith , C Hart , M Upton , D Hole , C Gillis , G Watt , V Hawthorne . Height and risk of death among men and women: aetiological implications of associations with cardiorespiratory disease and cancer mortality. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2000; 54: 97103.

86 M Bartley , R Fitzpatrick , D Firth , M Marmot . Social distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors: change among men 1984–1993. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2000; 54: 806–14.

87 M Marmot . Socioeconomic determinants of CHD mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology 1989; 18(Suppl. 1): S196–202.

88 RV Luepker , WD Rosamond , R Murphy , JM Sprafka , AR Folsom , PG McGovern , H Blackburn . Socioeconomic status and coronary heart risk factor trends. The Minnesota Heart Survey. Circulation 1993; 88: 2171–9.

89 JW Lynch , GA Kaplan , RD Cohen , J Tuomilehto , JT Salonen . Do cardiovascular risk factors explain the relation between socioeconomic status, risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and acute myocardial infarction? American Journal of Epidemiology 1996; 144: 934–42.

90 M Myllykangas , J Pekkanen , V Rasi , A Haukkala , E Vahtera , V Salomaa . Haemostatic and other cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status among middle-aged Finnish men. International Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 24: 1110–6.

92 HM Colhoun , H Hemingway , N Poulter . Socio-economic status and blood pressure: an overview analysis. Journal of Human Hypertension 1998; 12: 91110.

95 W Bao , SA Threefoot , SR Srinivasan , GS Berenson . Essential hypertension predicted by tracking of elevated blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Hypertension 1995; 8: 657–65.

96 AM Tershakovec , AF Jawad , VA Stallings , JA Cortner , BS Zemel , BM Shannon . Age-related changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors of hypercholesteraemic children. Journal of Pediatrics 1998; 132: 414–20.

97 F Tan , M Okamoto , A Suyama , T Miyatomo . Tracking of cardiovascular risk factors and a cohort study on hyperlipidemia in rural schoolchildren in Japan. Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 10: 255–61.

98 GS Berenson , SR Srinivasan , W Bao , WP Newman , RE Tracy , WA Wattigney . Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. New England Journal of Medicine 1998; 338: 1650–6.

99 M Okasha , P McCarron , J McEwen , G Davey Smith . Determinants of adolescent blood pressure: findings from the Glasgow University Student Cohort. Journal of Human Hypertension 2000; 14: 117–24.

100 R Martorell , L Kettel-Khan , ML Hughes , LM Gummer-Strawn . Overweight and obesity in preschool children from developing countries. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 24: 959–67.

101 WH Dietz . The obesity epidemic in young children. British Medical Journal 2001; 322: 313–4.

103 BM Psaty , CD Furberg , LH Kuller , M Cushman , PJ Savage , D Levine , DH O'Leary , RN Bryan , M Anderson , T Lumley . Association between blood pressure level and the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and total mortality: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001; 161: 1183–92.

104 RS Paffenbarger , JL Williams . Chronic disease in former college students vs. early precursors of fatal stroke. American Journal of Public Health 1967; 57: 1290–9.

107 K Miura , ML Daviglus , AR Dyer , K Liu , DB Garside , J Stamler , P Greenland . Relationship of blood pressure to 25-year mortality due to coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases and all causes in young adult men. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001; 161: 1501–8.

108 P McCarron , GD Smith , M Okasha , J McEwen . Blood pressure in young adulthood and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Lancet 2000; 355: 1430–1.

109 M Peltonen , B Stegmayr , K Asplund . Time trends in long-term survival after stroke: the Northern Sweden Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) Study, 1985–1994. Stroke 1998; 29: 1358–65.

110 AJ Dobson , A Evans , M Ferrario , KA Kuulasmaa , VA Moltchanov , S Sans , H Tunstall-Pedoe , JO Tuomilehto , H Wedel , J Yarnell . Changes in estimated coronary risk in the 1980s: data from 38 populations in the WHO MONICA Project. Annals of Medicine 1998; 30: 199205.

111 K Kuulasmaa , H Tunstall-Pedoe , A Dobson , S Fortmann , S Sana , H Tolonen , A Evans , M Ferrario , J Tuomilehto . Estimation of contribution of changes in classic risk factors to trends in coronary event rates across WHO MONICA Project populations. Lancet 2000; 355: 675–87.

112 R Fuentes , N Ilmaniemi , E Laurikainen , J Tuomilehto , A Nissinen . Hypertension in Developing Economies: a review of population-based studies carried out from 1980 to 1998. Journal of Hypertension 2000; 18: 521–9.

113 Z Yu , G Song , Z Guo , G Zheng , H Tian , E Vartiainen , P Puska , A Nissinen . Changes in blood pressure, body mass index and salt consumption in a Chinese population. Preventive Medicine 1999; 29: 165–7.

115 TG Pickering . Why is hypertension more common in African Americans? Journal of Clinical Hypertension 2001; 3: 50–2.

116 W Bao , SR Srinivasan , WA Wattigney , GS Berenson . Persistence of multiple cardiovascular risk clustering related to Syndrome X from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994; 154: 1842–7.

117 GS Berenson , SR Srinivasan , TA Nicklas . Atherosclerosis: a nutritional disease of childhood. American Journal of Cardiology 1998; 82: 22T39T.

118 GM Reaven . Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988; 37: 1595–607.

119 RA DeFronzo , E Ferrannini . Insulin resistance: a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 173–94.

120 MG Klag , DE Ford , LA Mead , J He , PK Whelton , KY Liang , DM Levine . Serum cholesterol in young men and subsequent cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1993; 328: 313–8.

121 RC Whitaker , JA Wright , MS Pepe , KD Seidel , WH Dietz . Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 1997; 337: 869–73.

123 CM Wright , L Parker , D Lamont , AW Craft . Implications of childhood obesity for adult health: findings from thousand families cohort study. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 1280–4.

124 TJ Parsons , C Power , O Manor . Fetal and early life growth and body mass index from birth to early adulthood in 1958 British cohort: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 1331–5.

126 RS Strauss . Adult functional outcome of those born small for gestational age: twenty-six-year follow-up of the 1970 British birth cohort. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 283: 625–32.

128 JI Mann . Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Lancet 2002; 360: 783–9.

129 M Elisaf . The treatment of coronary hear disease: an update. Part 1: an overview of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2001; 17: 1826.

130 S MacMahon , R Peto , J Cutler , R Collins , P Sorlie , J Neaton , R Abbott , J Godwin , A Dyer , J Stamler . Blood pressure, stroke and coronary heart disease. Part 1. prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990; 335: 765–74.

131 WB Kannel . Blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor: prevention and treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996; 275: 1571–6.

135 P Jousilahti , J Tuomilehto , E Vartiainen , J Pekkanen , P Puska . Body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary mortality. 15-year-follow-up of middle-aged men and women in Eastern Finland. Circulation 1996; 93: 1372–9.

136 SG Wannamethee , AG Shaper , M Walker . Changes in physical activity, mortality and incidence of coronary heart disease in older men. Lancet 1998; 351: 1603–8.

137 G Davey Smith , MJ Shipley , GD Batty , JN Morris , M Marmot . Physical activity and cause specific mortality in the Whitehall Study. Public Health 2000; 114: 308–15.

138 J Kauhanen , G Kaplan , DE Goldberg , JT Salonen . Beer binging and mortality. Results from the Kuoipo Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a prospective population-based study. British Medical Journal 1997; 315: 846–51.

140 IJ Perry , SG Wannamethee , AG Shaper , KGMM Alberti . Serum true insulin concentration and the risk of clinical non-insulin dependent diabetes during long-term follow-up. International Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 28: 735–44.

145 P Magnus , R Beaglehole . The real contribution of the major risk factors to the coronary epidemics: time to end the ‘only-50%’ myth. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001; 161: 2657–60.

146 A McConnachie , K Hunt , C Emslie , C Hart , G Watt . ‘Unwarranted survivals’ and ‘anomalous deaths’ from coronary heart disease: prospective survey of general population. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 1487–91.

147 RL Nelson . Iron and colorectal cancer risk: human studies. Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59: 140–8.

148 L Losier . Ambiocontrol as a primary factor of health. Social Science and Medicine 1993; 37: 735–43.

149 M Marmot . Aetiology of coronary heart disease. Fetal and infant growth and socioeconomic factors in adult life may act together. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 1261–2.

152 KG Manton , L Corder , E Stallard . Chronic disability trends in elderly United States populations: 1982–1994. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997; 94: 2593–8.

156 DM Gibson , J Goss . The coming crisis of Australian Aged Care: fact or fiction? Australasian Journal of Ageing 1999; 18(Suppl.).

157 PA Singer , KW Bowman . Quality care at the end of life. British Medical Journal 2002; 324: 1291–2.

161 GD Smith , F Song , TA Sheldon . Cholesterol lowering and mortality: the importance of considering initial level of risk. British Medical Journal 1993; 306: 1367–73.

163 S Frankel , P Elwood , P Sweetnam , J Yarnell , G Davey Smith . Birthweight, body mass index in middle age and incident coronary heart disease. Lancet 1996; 348: 1478–80.

164 CS Yajnik . The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity Reviews 2002; 3: 217–24.

167 DS Freedman , WH Dietz , SR Srinivasan , GS Berenson . The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 1999; 103: 1175–82.

168 DM Styne . Childhood and adolescent obesity: prevalence and significance. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2001; 48: 823–54.

169 M Vanhala , P Vanhala , E Kumpusalo , P Halonen , J Takala . Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population-based study. British Medical Journal 1998; 317: 319.

170 WC Willet . Diet and health: what should we eat? Science 1994; 264: 532–7.

171 P Bateson . Fetal experience and good adult design. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 928–34.

172 OT Raitakari , KV Porkka , JS Viikari , T Ronnema , HK Akerblom . Clustering of risk factors for coronary heart disease in children and adolescents. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Acta Paediatrica 1994; 83: 935–40.

173 JW Twisk , C Boreham , JM Cran Savage , J Strain , W van Mechelen . Clustering of biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the longitudinal relationship with lifestyle of an adolescent population: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 1999; 6: 355–62.

174 N Saha , CK Heng , BP Mozoomdar , EM Reuben , HT Soh , PS Low , JSH Tay , Y Liu , S Hong . Racial variation of factor VII activity and their correlates in healthy Chinese and Indians at low and high risk for coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 1995; 117: 3342.

177 DG Schroeder , R Martorell , R Flores . Infant and child growth and fatness and fat distribution in Guatemalan adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 149: 177–85.

181 G Davey Smith , S Harding , M Rosato . Relation between infants' birth weight and mothers' mortality: prospective observational study. British Medical Journal 2000; 320: 839–40.

183 LC Stene , P Magnus , RT Lie , O Sovik , G Joner . The Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Study Group. Maternal and paternal age at delivery, birth order, and risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: population based cohort study. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 69.

184 DJP Barker , AW Shiell , ME Barker , CM Law . Growth in utero and blood pressure levels in the next generation. Journal of Hypertension 2000; 18: 843–6.

186 E Kousta , NJ Lawrence , A Penny , BA Millauer , S Robinson , DG Johnston , MI McCarthy . Women with a history of gestational diabetes of European and South Asian origin are shorter than women with normal glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabetes 2000; 17: 792–7.

187 HC Jang , HK Min , HK Lee , NH Cho , BE Metzger . Short stature in Korean women: a contribution to the multifactorial predisposition to gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1998; 41: 778–83.

188 SM Montgomery , A Ekbom . Smoking during pregnancy and diabetes mellitus in a British longitudinal birth cohort. British Medical Journal 2002; 324: 26–7.

189 M Nestle , MF Jacobson . Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach. Public Health Reports 2000; 115: 1224.

190 B Popkin . The Nutrition Transition in Low Income Countries: an emerging crisis. Nutrition Reviews 1994; 52: 285–98.

191 KS Joseph , MS Kramer . Review of the evidence on fetal and early childhood antecedents of adult chronic disease. Epidemiology Reviews 1996; 18: 158–74.

192 MJ Stampfer , FB Hu . Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 343: 1622.

193 J Tuomilehto , J Lindstrom , JG Eriksson , TT Valle , H Hamalainen , P Ilanne-Parika , S Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi , M Laakso , A Louheranta , M Rastas , V Salminen , M Uusitupa , S Aunola , Z Cepaitis , V Moltchanov , M Hakumaki , M Mannelin , V Martikkala , J Sundvall . Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344: 1343–50.

195 JW Farquhar , SP Fortmann , JA Flora , CB Taylor , WL Haskell , PT Williams , Effects of community-wide education on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Stanford Five-City Project. Journal of the American Medical Association 1990; 264: 359–65.

196 E Vartiainen , P Puska , P Jousilahti , HJ Korhonen , J Tuomilehto , A Nissinen . Twenty-year trends in coronary risk factors in North karelia and in other areas of Finland. International Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 23: 495504.

198 B Reger , MGT Wootan , S Booth-Butterfield . Using mass media to promote healthy eating: a community-based demonstration project. Preventive Medicine 1999; 29: 414–21.

199 S Ebrahim , G Davey Smith . Exporting failure? Coronary heart disease and stroke in developing countries. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 201–5.

200 P Puska . Coronary heart disease and stroke in developing countries: time to act. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 1493–4.

204 KMV Narayan . Prevention of type 2 diabetes. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 63–4.

205 X Pan , G Li , Y Hu , J Wang , W Yang , Z An . Effects on diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the Da Qing IGT and diabetes study. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 537–44.

206 KF Eriksson , F Lindgrade . Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by diet and physical exercise: the 6-year Malmo feasibility study. Diabetologia 1991; 34: 891–8.

207 WC Knowler , KMV Narayan , RL Hanson , RG Nelson , PH Bennett , J Tumilehto . Preventing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1995; 44: 483–8.

209 FB Hu , JE Manson , MJ Stampfer , G Colditz , S Liu , CG Solomon , WC Willett . Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345: 790–7.

210 TJ Key , NE Allen , EA Spencer , RC Travis . The effect of diet on risk of cancer. Lancet 2002; 360: 861–8.

211 MR Law , NJ Wald , SG Thompson . By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? British Medical Journal 1994; 308: 367–72.

214 J Hippsley-Cox , M Pringle . General practice workload implications of the national service framework for coronary heart disease: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 269–70.

215 WPT James , M Nelson , A Ralph , S Leather . Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition inequalities in health. British Medical Journal 1997; 314: 1545–9.

216 DJP Barker , T Forsén , A Untela , C Osmond , JG Eriksson . Size at birth and resilience to effects of poor living conditions in adult life: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal 2001; 323: 1273.

219 MS Kramer . Association between restricted fetal growth and adult chronic disease: is it causal? Is it important? American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152(7): 605–8.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 556 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 672 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.