This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
3BL Heitmann , L Lissner . Dietary underreporting by obese individuals—is it specific or non-specific? British Medical Journal 1995; 311(7011): 986–9.
4PA Briss , S Zaza , M Pappaioanou , J Fielding , L Wright-De Aguero , BI Truman , Developing an evidence-based Guide to Community Preventive Services—methods. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000; 18(1): 35–43.
5L DiPietro . Physical activity, body weight, and adiposity: an epidemiologic perspective. Exercise and Sport Sciences Review 1995; 23: 275–303.
9JC Seidell . Obesity: a growing problem. Acta Paediatrica Supplement 1999; 88(428): 46–50.
10AC Bell , K Ge , BM Popkin . Weight gain and its predictors in Chinese adults. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2001; 25(7): 1079–86.
16BA Swinburn , SJ Ley , HE Carmichael , LD Plank . Body size and composition in Polynesians. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1999; 23(11): 1178–83.
18P Deurenberg , M Deurenberg-Yap , S Guricci . Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obesity Reviews 2002; 3(3): 141–6.
22A Drewnowski . Nutrition transition and global dietary trends. Nutrition 2000; 16(7–8): 486–7.
23RT Jung . Obesity as a disease. British Medical Bulletin 1997; 53(2): 307–21.
24JE Manson , WC Willett , MJ Stampfer , GA Colditz , DJ Hunter , SE Hankinson , Body weight and mortality among women. New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 333(11): 677–85.
25P Zimmet , KG Alberti , J Shaw . Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 2001; 414(6865): 782–7.
27PJ Savage , PH Bennett , RG Senter , M Miller . High prevalence of diabetes in young Pima Indians: evidence of phenotypic variation in a genetically isolated population. Diabetes 1979; 28(10): 937–42.
28AL Rosenbloom , JR Joe , RS Young , WE Winter . Emerging epidemic of type 2 diabetes in youth. Diabetes Care 1999; 22(2): 345–54.
30L Segal , R Carter , P Zimmet . The cost of obesity: the Australian perspective. Pharmacoeconomics 1994; 5(Suppl.): 45–52.
31B Swinburn , T Ashton , J Gillespie , B Cox , A Menon , D Simmons , Health care costs of obesity in New Zealand. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1997; 21(10): 891–6.
34G Egger , B Swinburn . An “ecological” approach to the obesity pandemic. British Medical Journal 1997; 315(7106): 477–80.
35SM Green , VJ Burley . The effects of snacking on energy intake and body weight. Nutrition Bulletin BNF 1996; 21: 103–7.
36C Zizza , AM Siega-Riz , BM Popkin . Significant increase in young adults' snacking between 1977–1978 and 1994–1996 represents a cause for concern! Preventive Medicine 2001; 32(4): 303–10.
38DJ Mela . Determinants of food choice: relationships with obesity and weight control. Obesity Research 2001; 9(Suppl. 5): S249–55.
39CF Smith , DA Williamson , GA Bray , DH Ryan . Flexible vs. rigid dieting strategies: relationship with adverse behavioural outcomes. Appetite 1999; 32(3): 295–305.
40SZ Yanovski , NG Sebring . Recorded food intake of obese women with binge eating disorder before and after weight loss. International Journal of Eating Disorders 1994; 15(2): 135–50.
41CH Schenck , MW Mahowald . Review of nocturnal sleep-related eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders 1994; 15(4): 343–56.
42SA French , M Story , RW Jeffery . Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annual Reviews of Public Health 2001; 22: 309–35.
44MA McCrory , PJ Fuss , NP Hays , AG Vinken , AS Greenberg , SB Roberts . Overeating in America: association between restaurant food consumption and body fatness in healthy adult men and women ages 19 to 80. Obesity Research 1999; 7(6): 564–71.
45RW Jeffery , SA French . Epidemic obesity in the United States: are fast foods and television viewing contributing? American Journal of Public Health 1998; 88(2): 277–80.
46JK Binkley , J Eales , M Jekanowski . The relation between dietary change and rising US obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 24(8): 1032–9.
47WH Dietz . Breastfeeding may help prevent childhood overweight. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285(19): 2506–7.
48O Stark , E Atkins , OH Wolff , JW Douglas . Longitudinal study of obesity in the National Survey of Health and Development. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Education) 1981; 283(6283): 13–7.
49NF Butte . The role of breastfeeding in obesity. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2001; 48(1): 189–98.
50R von Kries , B Koletzko , T Sauerwald , E von Mutius , D Barnert , V Grunert , Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 1999; 319(7203): 147–50.
51M Wadsworth , S Marshall , R Hardy , A Paul . Breast feeding and obesity. Relation may be accounted for by social factors. British Medical Journal 1999; 319(7224): 1576.
52MW Gillman , SL Rifas-Shiman , CA Camargo Jr, CS Berkey , AL Frazier , HR Rockett , Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285(19): 2461–7.
53ML Hediger , MD Overpeck , RJ Kuczmarski , WJ Ruan . Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285(19): 2453–60.
56DG Schroeder , R Martorell , R Flores . Infant and child growth and fatness and fat distribution in Guatemalan adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 149(2): 177–85.
63GM Reaven . Do high carbohydrate diets prevent the development or attenuate the manifestations (or both) of syndrome X? A viewpoint strongly against. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1997; 8(1): 23–7.
65A Garg , JP Bantle , RR Henry , AM Coulston , KA Griver , SK Raatz , Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 271(18): 1421–8.
74WC Willett . Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity: no. Obesity Reviews 2002; 3(2): 59–68.
75A Astrup , GK Grunwald , EL Melanson , WH Saris , JO Hill . The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 24(12): 1545–52.
76BA Swinburn , PA Metcalf , SJ Ley . Long term (5 year) effects of a reduced-fat diet intervention in individuals with glucose intolerance. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 619–24.
77JA Weststrate , KH van het Hof , H van den Berg , EJ Velthuis-te-Wierik , C de Graaf , NJ Zimmermanns , A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 52(6): 389–95.
79D Ornish , SE Brown , LW Scherwitz , JH Billings , WT Armstrong , TA Ports , Lifestyle changes and heart disease. Lancet 1990; 336(8717): 741–2.
86M Yao , SB Roberts . Dietary energy density and weight regulation. Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59(8 Pt 1): 247–58.
89JP Flatt . The difference in the storage capacities for carbohydrate and for fat, and its implications in the regulation of body weight. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1987; 499: 104–23.
90MK Hellerstein . De novo lipogenesis in humans: metabolic and regulatory aspects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 53(Suppl. 1): S53–65.
95AF Heini , RL Weinsier . Divergent trends in obesity and fat intake patterns: the American paradox. American Journal of Medicine 1997; 102(3): 259–64.
97BV Howard , WG Abbott , BA Swinburn . Evaluation of metabolic effects of substitution of complex carbohydrates for saturated fat in individuals with obesity and NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1991; 14(9): 786–95.
98EJ Schaeffer , AH Lichtenstein , S Lamon-Fava , JR McNamara , MM Schaefer , HM Rasmussen , Body weight and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes after consumption of a low-fat ad libitum diet. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 274: 1450–5.
100WH Saris , A Astrup , AM Prentice , HJ Zunft , X Formiguera , WP Verboeket-van de Venne , Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 24(10): 1310–8.
102SA Gibson . Consumption and sources of sugar in the diets of British school children. Are high sugar diets inferior? Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 1993; 6: 355–71.
104‘Dietary sugars and human disease’: conclusions and recommendations. British Dental Journal 1990; 168(2): 46.
105DJ Naismith , M Nelson , B Burley , S Gattenby . Does a high-sugar diet promote overweight in children and lead to nutrient deficiencies? Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 1995; 8: 249–54.
107F Bellisle , MF Rolland-Cachera . How sugar-containing drinks might increase adiposity in children. Lancet 2001; 357(9255): 490–1.
108A Drewnowski , C Kurth , J Holden-Wiltse , J Saari . Food preferences in human obesity: carbohydrates versus fats. Appetite 1992; 18(3): 207–21.
111A Raben , I Macdonald , A Astrup . Replacement of dietary fat by sucrose or starch: effects on 14d ad libitum energy intake, energy expenditure and body weight in formerly obese and never-obese subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1997; 21(10): 846–59.
112RD Mattes . Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. Physiology & Behavior 1996; 59(1): 179–87.
114L Harnack , J Stang , M Story . Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99(4): 436–41.
115DS Ludwig , KE Peterson , SL Gortmaker . Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 2001; 357(9255): 505–8.
116DS Ludwig , JA Majzoub , A Al-Zahrani , GE Dallal , I Blanco , SB Roberts . High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics 1999; 103(3): E26.
119S Holt , J Brand , C Soveny , J Hansky . Relationship of satiety to postprandial glycemic, insulin and cholecystokinin responses. Appetite 1992; 18(2): 129–41.
122LE Spieth , JD Harnish , CM Lenders , LB Raezer , MA Pereira , SJ Hangen , A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2000; 154(9): 947–51.
123SB Roberts . High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity: is there a connection? Nutrition Reviews 2000; 58(6): 163–9.
124MA Pereira , DS Ludwig . Dietary fiber and body-weight regulation. Observations and mechanisms. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2001; 48(4): 969–80.
125NC Howarth , E Saltzman , SB Roberts . Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59(5): 129–39.
128JD Latner , M Schwartz . The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-protein or balanced lunch upon later food intake and hunger ratings. Appetite 1999; 33(1): 119–28.
129SJ Long , AR Jeffcoat , DJ Millward . Effect of habitual dietary-protein intake on appetite and satiety. Appetite 2000; 35(1): 79–88.
134D Rose , SP Murphy , M Hudes , FE Viteri . Food energy remains constant with increasing alcohol intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1995; 95(6): 698–700.
135PM Suter , E Hasler , W Vetter . Effects of alcohol on energy metabolism and body weight regulation: is alcohol a risk factor for obesity? Nutrition Reviews 1997; 55(5): 157–71.
137EM Emery , TL Schmid , HS Kahn , PP Filozof . A review of the association between abdominal fat distribution, health outcome measures, and modifiable risk factors. American Journal of Health Promotion 1993; 7(5): 342–53.
138B Wansink . Can package size accelerate usage volume? Journal of Marketing 1996; 60(3): 1–22.
139BJ Rolls , D Engell , LL Birch . Serving portion size influences 5-year-old but not 3-year-old children's food intakes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2000; 100(2): 232–4.
140B Swinburn , G Egger , F Raza . Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Preventive Medicine 1999; 29(6 Pt 1): 563–70.
143SV Subramania , I Kawachi , BP Kennedy . Does the state you live in make a difference? Multilevel analysis of self-rated health in the US. Social Science & Medicine 2001; 53(1): 9–19.
144DD Reidpath , C Burns , J Garrard , M Mahoney , M Townsend . An ecological study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesogenic environments. Health and Place 2002; 8(2): 141–5.
146SL Gortmaker , K Peterson , J Wiecha , AM Sobol , S Dixit , MK Fox , Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1999; 153(4): 409–18.
148MD Hearn , T Baranowski , J Baranowski . Environmental influences on dietary behaviour among children: availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables enable consumption. Journal of Health Education 1998; 29(1): 26–32.
149SA Sullivan , L Birch . Pass the sugar, pass the salt: experience dictates preference. Developmental Psychology 1990; 26(546): 551.
151EL Gibson , J Wardle , CJ Watts . Fruit and vegetable consumption, nutritional knowledge and beliefs in mothers and children. Appetite 1998; 31(2): 205–28.
152J Borah-Giddens , GA Falciglia . A meta-analysis of the relationship in food preferences between parents and children. Journal of Nutrition Education 1993; 25: 102–7.
153J Skinner , BR Carruth , J Moran , K Houck , J Schmidhammer , A Reed , Toddler's food preferences: concordance with family member's preferences. Journal of Nutrition Education 1998; 30: 17–22.
156M Nestle , R Wing , L Birch , L DiSogra , A Drewnowski , S Middleton , Behavioral and social influences on food choice. Nutrition Reviews 1998; 56(5 Pt 2): S50–S64 Discussion S64–74.
157KM Hammond , A Wyllie , S Casswell . The extent and nature of televised food advertising to New Zealand children and adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 1999; 23(1): 49–55.
158P Feldwick . Food advertising and the nation's diet: what are the real issues? Business Strategy Reviews 1995; 6(1): 61–9.
159MK Lewis , AJ Hill . Food advertising on British children's television: a content analysis and experimental study with nine-year olds. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1998; 22(3): 206–14.
160HL Taras , JF Sallis , TL Patterson , PR Nader , JA Nelson . Television's influence on children's diet and physical activity. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1989; 10(4): 176–80.
163C Chu , T Driscoll , S Dwyer . The health-promoting workplace: an integrative perspective. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 1997; 21(4): 377–85.
164M Schmitz , J Fielding . Point-of-choice nutritional labeling—evaluation in a worksite cafeteria. Journal of Nutrition Education 1986; 18(1 Suppl.): 65s–8s.
165RA Winett , JL Wagner , JF Moore , WB Walker , LA Hite , M Leahy , An experimental evaluation of a prototype public access nutrition information system for supermarkets. Health Psychology 1991; 10(1): 75–8.
167T Marshall . Exploring a fiscal food policy: the case of diet and ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal 2000; 320(7230): 301–5.
170ML Neuhouser , AR Kristal , RE Patterson . Use of food nutrition labels is associated with lower fat intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99(1): 45–53.
173G Wang , SM Fletcher , DH Carley . Consumer utilization of food labeling as a source of nutrition information. Journal of Consumer Affairs 1995; 29(2): 368.
174GA Zarkin , N Dean , JA Mauskopf , R Williams . Potential health benefits of nutrition label changes. American Journal of Public Health 1993; 83(5): 717–24.
177LR Young , B Swinburn . The impact of the Pick the Tick food information programme on the salt content of food in New Zealand. Health Promotion International 2002; 17(1): 13–9.
182P Pietinen , A Nissinen , E Vartiainen , A Tuomilehto , U Uusitalo , A Ketola , Dietary changes in the North Karelia Project (1972–1982). Preventive Medicine 1988; 17(2): 183–93.
183RV Luepker , DM Murray , DR Jacobs Jr, MB Mittelmark , N Bracht , R Carlaw , Community education for cardiovascular disease prevention: risk factor changes in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84(9): 1383–93.
185RV Luepker , CL Perry , SM McKinlay , PR Nader , GS Parcel , EJ Stone , Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity: The child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health. CATCH collaborative group. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996; 275(10): 768–76.
187P Sahota , MC Rudolf , R Dixey , AJ Hill , JH Barth , J Cade . Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. British Medical Journal 2001; 323(7320): 1029–32.
188M Carter , B Swinburn . Measuring the impact of a school food programme on food sales in New Zealand. Health Promotion International 1999; 14(4): 307–16.
189TN Robinson . Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282(16): 1561–7.
192M Gilmore , D O'Driscoll , H Murphy . A pilot survey of an attempt to promote breastfeeding. Irish Journal of Medical Sciences 1979; 148(9–10): 272–5.
194JC Rossiter . The effect of a culture-specific education program to promote breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Sydney. International Journal of Nursing Studies 1994; 31(4): 369–79.
195SN van Wechem , J Brug , P van Assema , C Kistemaker , M Riedstra , MR Lowik . Fat Watch: a nationwide campaign in The Netherlands to reduce fat intake—effect evaluation. Nutrition and Health 1998; 12(2): 119–30.
196B Reger , MG Wootan , S Booth-Butterfield . Using mass media to promote healthy eating: a community-based demonstration project. Preventive Medicine 1999; 29(5): 414–21.
197G Turrell . Compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines in the early 1990's: have population-based health promotion programs been effective? Nutrition and Health 1997; 11(4): 271–88.
198CJ Geiger . Communicating dietary guidelines for Americans: room for improvement. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001; 101(7): 793–7.
201DA Galuska , JC Will , MK Serdula , ES Ford . Are health care professionals advising obese patients to lose weight? Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282(16): 1576–8.