This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1. ED Hibbard & RW Smithells (1965) Folic acid metabolism and human embryopathy. Lancet 285, 1254.
2. RW Smithells , S Sheppard & CJ Schorah (1976) Vitamin deficiencies and neural tube defects. Arch Dis Child 51, 944–950.
3. RW Smithells , S Sheppard , CJ Schorah et al. (1981) Apparent prevention of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. Arch Dis Child 56, 911–918.
4. AE Czeizel & I Dudas (1992) Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamins supplementation. N Engl J Med 327, 1832–1835.
5.MRC Vitamin Study Research Group (1991) Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 338, 131–137.
6. MM Werler , S Shapiro & AA Mitchell (1993) Periconceptional folic acid exposure and risk of occurrent neural tube defects. JAMA 269, 1257–1261.
7. GM Shaw , D Schaffer , EM Velie et al. (1995) Periconceptional vitamin use, dietary folate, and the occurrence of neural tube defects. Epidemiology 6, 219–226.
11. T Wolff , CT Witkop , T Miller et al. (2009) Folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects: an update of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 150, 632–639.
15. MA Honein , LJ Paulozzi , TJ Mathews et al. (2001) Impact of folic acid fortification of the US food supply on the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA 285, 2981–2986.
17. P De Wals , ID Rusen , NS Lee et al. (2003) Trend in prevalence of neural tube defects in Quebec. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 67, 919–923.
18. LT Chen & MA Rivera (2004) The Costa Rican experience: reduction of neural tube defects following food fortification programs. Nutr Rev 62, Suppl. 1, S40–S43.
19. CJ Simmons , BS Mosley , CA Fulton-Bond et al. (2004) Birth defects in Arkansas: is folic acid fortification making a difference? Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 70, 559–564.
60. E Hertrampf & F Cortés (2004) Folic acid fortification of wheat flour: Chile. Nutr Rev 62, Suppl. 1, S44–S48.
21. P De Wals , F Tairou , MI Van Allen et al. (2007) Reduction in neural-tube defects after folic acid fortification in Canada. N Engl J Med 357, 135–142.
22. AR Sayed , D Bourne , R Pattinson et al. (2008) Decline in the prevalence of neural tube defects following folic acid fortification and its cost–benefit in South Africa. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 82, 211–216.
23. BH Chen , SL Carmichael , S Selvin et al. (2008) NTD prevalences in central California before and after folic acid fortification. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 82, 547–552.
24. SS Pacheco , C Braga , AI Souza et al. (2009) Effects of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of neural tube defects. Rev Saude Publica 43, 565–571.
25. JS López-Camelo , EE Castilla , IM Orioli et al. (2010) Folic acid flour fortification: impact on the frequencies of 52 congenital anomaly types in three South American countries. Am J Med Genet A 152A, 2444–2458.
26. JS Collins , KK Atkinson , JH Dean et al. (2011) Long term maintenance of neural tube defects prevention in a high prevalence state. J Pediatr 159, 143–149. e2.
27. ZO Amarin & AZ Obeidat (2010) Effect of folic acid fortification on the incidence of neural tube defects. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 24, 349–351.
29. Z Abdollahi , I Elmadfa , A Djazayery et al. (2011) Efficacy of flour fortification with folic acid in women of childbearing age in Iran. Ann Nutr Metab 58, 188–196.
32. LJ Williams , CT Mai , LD Edmonds et al. (2002) Prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly during the transition to mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States. Teratology 66, 33–39.
34. MA Canfield , JS Collins , LD Botto et al. (2005) Changes in the birth prevalence of selected birth defects after grain fortification with folic acid in the United States: findings from a multi-state population-based study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 73, 679–689.
36. LJ Williams , SA Rasmussen , A Flores et al. (2005) Decline in the prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly by race/ethnicity: 1995–2002. Pediatrics 116, 580–586.
37. LM Besser , LJ Williams & JD Cragan (2007) Interpreting changes in the epidemiology of anencephaly and spina bifida following folic acid fortification of the US grain supply in the setting of long-term trends, Atlanta, Georgia, 1968–2003. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 79, 730–736.
38. P De Wals , F Tairou , MI Van Allen et al. (2008) Spina bifida before and after folic acid fortification in Canada. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 82, 622–626.
40. SL Boulet , Q Yang , C Mai et al. (2008) Trends in the postfortification prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in the United States. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 82, 527–532.
41. IM Orioli , R Lima do Nascimento , JS López-Camelo et al. (2011) Effects of folic acid fortification on spina bifida prevalence in Brazil. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 91, 831–835.
44. SD Grosse , NJ Waitzman , PS Romano et al. (2005) Reevaluating the benefits of folic acid fortification in the United States: economic analysis, regulation, and public health. Am J Public Health 95, 1917–1922.
45. A Llanos , E Hertrampf , F Cortes et al. (2007) Cost-effectiveness of a folic acid fortification program in Chile. Health Policy 83, 295–303.
46. RM Cabrera , GM Shaw , JL Ballard et al. (2008) Autoantibodies to folate receptor during pregnancy and neural tube defect risk. J Reprod Immunol 79, 85–92.
48. LI Al-Gazalo , R Padmanabhan & S Melnyk (2001) Abnormal folate metabolism and genetic polymorphism of the folate pathway in a child with Down syndrome and neural tube defect. Am J Med Genet 103, 128–132.
49. HJ Blom , GM Shaw & M den Heijer (2006) Neural tube defects and folate. Nat Rev Neurosci 7, 724–731.
50. JG Ray , MJ Vermeulen , SC Boss et al. (2002) Increased red cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age after Canadian folic acid food fortification. Epidemiology 13, 238–240.
53. NJ Wald , MR Law , JK Morris et al. (2001) Quantifying the effect of folic acid. Lancet 358, 2069–2073.
54. RJ Berry , Z Li , JD Erickson et al. (1999) Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. China–US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defect Prevention. N Engl J Med 341, 1485–1490.
56. LD Botto & Q Yang (2000) 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants and congenital anomalies: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol 151, 862–877.
57. RM Cabrera , DS Hill , AJ Etheredge et al. (2004) Investigations into the etiology of neural tube defects. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 72, 330–344.
58. DK Waller , GM Shaw , SA Rasmussen et al. (2007) Prepregnancy obesity as a risk factor for structural birth defects. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161, 745–750.
59. J Nazer , J López-Carmelo & E Castilla (2001) Estudio de 30 años de vigilancia epidemiológica de defectos de tubo neural en Chile y en Latinoamérica. Rev Med Chile 129, 531–539.
52. S Daly , JL Mills , AM Molloy et al. (1997) Minimum effective dose of folic acid for food fortification to prevent neural-tube defects. Lancet 350, 1666–1669.
65. MD Thompson , DE Cole & JG Ray (2009) Vitamin B-12 and neural tube defects: the Canadian experience. Am J Clin Nutr 89, issue 2, S697–S701.
66. O Dary (2009) Nutritional interpretation of folic acid interventions. Nutr Rev 67, 235–244.
69. LE Daly , PN Kirke , A Molloy et al. (1995) Folate levels and neural tube defects: implications for prevention. JAMA 274, 1698–1702.
70. YI Kim (2007) Folate and colorectal cancer: an evidence-base critical review. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 267–292.
71. J Selhub , MS Morris , PF Jaques et al. (2009) Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 89, issue 2, S702–S706.
72. JB Mason (2009) Folate, cancer risk, and the Greek god, Proteus: a tale of two chameleons. Nutr Rev 67, 206–212.
73. LL Moore , ML Bradlee , MR Singer et al. (2003) Folate intake and the risk of neural tube defects: an estimation of dose–response. Epidemiology 14, 200–205.
74. YI Kim (2008) Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: point. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 2220–2225.
75. BF Cole , JA Baron , RS Sandler et al. (2007) Polyp Prevention Study Group. Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 297, 2351–2359.
76. JB Mason , A Dickstein , PF Jacques et al. (2007) A temporal association between folic acid fortification and an increase in colorectal cancer rates may be illuminating important biological principles: a hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 1325–1329.
77. MS Morris , PF Jacques , IH Rosenberg et al. (2010) Circulating unmetabolized folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive test performance in American seniors. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1733–1744.