Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Muller, Christo J.F. Malherbe, Christiaan J. Chellan, Nireshni Yagasaki, Kazumi Miura, Yutaka and Joubert, Elizabeth 2016. Potential of Rooibos, its MajorC-Glucosyl Flavonoids andZ-2-(β-D-Glucopyranoloxy)-3-phenylpropenoic acid in Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, p. 00.

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra Castañer, Olga Konstantinidou, Valentini Subirana, Isaac Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel Blanchart, Gemma Gaixas, Sonia de la Torre, Rafael Farré, Magí Sáez, Guillermo T Nyyssönen, Kristina Zunft, Hans Joachim Covas, Maria Isabel and Fitó, Montse 2015. Effect of olive oil phenolic compounds on the expression of blood pressure-related genes in healthy individuals. European Journal of Nutrition,

    Minich, Deanna and Brown, Benjamin 2015. Nutritional and Integrative Strategies in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Katengua-Thamahane, Emma Marnewick, Jeanine L Ajuwon, Olawale R Chegou, Novel N Szűcs, Gergő Ferdinandy, Péter Csont, Tamás Csonka, Csaba and Van Rooyen, Jacques 2014. The combination of red palm oil and rooibos show anti-inflammatory effects in rats. Journal of Inflammation, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,

    Yang, J. Mao, Q.-X. Xu, H.-X. Ma, X. and Zeng, C.-Y. 2014. Tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis update. BMJ Open, Vol. 4, Issue. 7, p. e005632.

    Basu, Arpita Lucas, Edralin A. Chen, Junping and Lyons, Timothy J. 2013. Tea in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Omori, Masashi and Chen, Ronggang 2013. Biochemical Sensors.

    Bøhn, Siv K Ward, Natalie C Hodgson, Jonathan M and Croft, Kevin D 2012. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk. Food & Function, Vol. 3, Issue. 6, p. 575.

    Patten, Glen S. Abeywardena, Mahinda Y. Head, Richard J. and Bennett, Louise E. 2012. Processed dietary plants demonstrate broad capacity for angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor binding inhibition in vitro. Journal of Functional Foods, Vol. 4, Issue. 4, p. 851.

    Persson, Ingrid A-L 2012. The Pharmacological Mechanism of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition by Green Tea, Rooibos and Enalaprilat - A Study on Enzyme Kinetics. Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 517.

    Schloms, Lindie Storbeck, Karl-Heinz Swart, Pieter Gelderblom, Wentzel C.A. and Swart, Amanda C. 2012. The influence of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos) and dihydrochalcones on adrenal steroidogenesis: Quantification of steroid intermediates and end products in H295R cells. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 128, Issue. 3-5, p. 128.

    Dong, Junjie Xu, Xinqing Liang, Yuerong Head, Richard and Bennett, Louise 2011. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity by polyphenols from tea (Camellia sinensis) and links to processing method. Food & Function, Vol. 2, Issue. 6, p. 310.

    Joubert, E. and de Beer, D. 2011. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) beyond the farm gate: From herbal tea to potential phytopharmaceutical. South African Journal of Botany, Vol. 77, Issue. 4, p. 869.

    Pantsi, W.G. Marnewick, J.L. Esterhuyse, A.J. Rautenbach, F. and van Rooyen, J. 2011. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) offers cardiac protection against ischaemia/reperfusion in the isolated perfused rat heart. Phytomedicine, Vol. 18, Issue. 14, p. 1220.

    Persson, Ingrid A.-L Persson, Karin Hägg, Staffan and Andersson, Rolf G G 2011. Effects of Cocoa Extract and Dark Chocolate on Angiotensin-converting Enzyme and Nitric Oxide in Human Endothelial Cells and Healthy Volunteers–A Nutrigenomics Perspective. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Vol. 57, Issue. 1, p. 44.

    Yokota, Junko Jobu, Kohei Yoshioka, Saburo Moriyama, Hironori Murata, Shuzo Oishi, Masao Ukeda, Hiroyuki and Miyamura, Mitsuhiko 2011. Effect of Goishi-tea on Adipocytokine Changes. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, Vol. 58, Issue. 8, p. 398.


Effects of green tea, black tea and Rooibos tea on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in healthy volunteers

  • Ingrid A-L Persson (a1), Karin Persson (a1), Staffan Hägg (a2) and Rolf GG Andersson (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 10 February 2010

Tea has been reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The aim of the current project was to investigate the effect of green tea (Japanese Sencha), black tea (Indian Assam B.O.P.) and Rooibos tea (South Africa) on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO).


Seventeen healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 400 ml green tea, black tea or Rooibos tea in a randomized, three-phase, crossover study. ACE activity and NO concentration were measured (at 0, 30, 60 and 180 min) in all phases. ACE activity was analysed by means of a commercial radioenzymatic assay. Nitrite was analysed as a marker of NO concentration. In addition, ACE genotype was determined using a PCR method.


Oral intake of a single dose of Rooibos tea significantly inhibited ACE activity after 30 min (P < 0·01) and after 60 min (P < 0·05). A significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen with green tea for the ACE II genotype 30 min after intake of the tea (P < 0·05) and for the ACE ID genotype 60 min after intake (P < 0·05). A significant inhibition of ACE activity was also seen with Rooibos tea for the ACE II genotype 60 min after intake (P < 0·05). No significant effect on NO concentration was seen.


These results suggest that green tea and Rooibos tea may have cardiovascular effects through inhibition of ACE activity.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of green tea, black tea and Rooibos tea on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in healthy volunteers
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of green tea, black tea and Rooibos tea on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in healthy volunteers
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of green tea, black tea and Rooibos tea on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in healthy volunteers
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.DA Balentine , SA Wiseman & LCM Bouwens (1997) The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37, 693704.

2.IA Hakim , MA Alsaif , M Alduwaihy (2003) Tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in Saudi adults: results from a Saudi national study. Prev Med 36, 6470.

3.KJ Mukamal , M Maclure , JE Muller (2002) Tea consumption and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 105, 24762481.

4.A Basu & EA Lucas (2007) Mechanisms and effects of green tea on cardiovascular health. Nutr Rev 65, 361375.

5.S Inami , M Takano , M Yamamoto (2008) Tea catechin consumption reduces circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Int Heart J 48, 725732.

6.JH O’Keefe , NM Gheewala & J O’Keefe (2008) Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, and cardiovascular health. J Am Coll Cardiol 51, 249255.

7.GL Tipoe , TM Leung , MW Hung (2007) Green tea polyphenols as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for cardiovascular protection. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 7, 135144.

8.SK Kim , HJ Kim , SE Choi (2008) Anti-oxidative and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (COX-2) production of flavonoids from seeds of Prunus tomentosa Thunberg. Arch Pharm Res 31, 424428.

9.S Ahmed , A Rahman , A Hasnain (2002) Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the IL-1β-induced activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human chondrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med 33, 10971105.

11.IA-L Persson , M Josefsson , K Persson (2006) Tea flavanols inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and increase nitric oxide production in human endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharmacol 58, 11391144.

12.L Bramati , F Aquiland & P Pietta (2003) Unfermented Rooibos tea. Quantitative characterization of flavonoids by HPLC-UV and determination of the total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 51, 74727474.

13.H Nishimura (2000) Angiotensin receptors – evolutionary overview and perspectives. Comp Biochem Physiol 128, 1130.

14.SC Benson , R Iguchi , CI Ho (2008) Inhibition of cardiovascular cell proliferation by angiotensin receptor blockers: are all molecules the same? J Hypertens 26, 973980.

15.R Fogari & A Zoppi (2006) Antihypertensive drugs and fibrinolytic function. Am J Hypertens 19, 12931299.

16.JW Rush & CD Aultman (2008) Vascular biology of angiotensin and the impact of physical activity. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33, 162172.

17.D Weiss , D Sorescu & WR Taylor (2001) Angiotensin II and atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol 87, 25C32C.

18.WH Birkenhäger & JA Staessen (2006) Progress in cardiovascular diseases: cognitive function in essential hypertension. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 49, 110.

19.PR Gard (2002) The role of angiotensin II in cognition and behavior. Eur J Pharmacol 438, 114.

21.R Reed , C Kolz , B Potter (2008) The mechanistic basis for the disparate effects of angiotensin II on coronary collateral growth. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28, 6167.

22.B Rigat , C Hubert , F Alhenc-Gelas (1990) An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. J Clin Invest 86, 13431346.

25.F Cambien , O Poirier , L Lecerf (1992) Deletion polymorphism in the gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme is a potent risk factor for myocardial infarction. Nature 359, 641644.

26.NJ Samani , JR Thompson , L O’Toole (1996) A meta-analysis of the association of the deletion allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene with myocardial infarction. Circulation 94, 708712.

27.LJ Millatt , EM Abdel-Rahman & HM Siragy (1999) Angiotensin II and nitric oxide: a question of balance. Regul Pept 81, 110.

28.MS Fernándes-Alfonso & C González (1999) Nitric oxide and the renin–angiotensin system. Is there a physiological interplay between the systems? J Hypertens 17, 13551361.

29.S Kurz , U Hink , G Nickenig (1999) Evidence for a causal role of the renin–angiotensin system in nitrate tolerance. Circulation 99, 31813187.

30.A Ackermann , MS Fernández-Alfonso , R Sánchez de Rojas (1998) Modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme by nitric oxide. Br J Pharmacol 124, 291298.

31.K Persson & RGG Andersson (1999) Nitric oxide modulates captopril-mediated angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in porcine iliac arteries. Eur J Pharmacol 385, 2127.

32.K Persson , PW Whiss , K Nyhlén (2000) Nitric oxide donors and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors act in concert to inhibit human angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and platelet aggregation in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 406, 1523.

33.T Lauer , M Preik , T Rassaf (2001) Plasma nitrite rather than nitrate reflects regional endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity but lacks intrinsic vasodilator action. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 1281412819.

34.KT Cheon , KH Choi , HB Lee (2000) Gene polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiotensin-converting enzyme in patients with lung cancer. Lung 178, 351360.

35.S Karakaya (2004) Bioavailability of phenolic compounds. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44, 453464.

36.F Cambien (1994) The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genetic polymorphism: its relationship with plasma ACE level and myocardial infarction. Clin Genet 46, 94101.

37.K Persson , ACE Säfholm , RGG Andersson (2005) Glyceryl trinitrate-induced angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in healthy volunteers is dependent on ACE genotype. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 83, 11171122.

38.AHJ Danser , WW Batenburg , AH van den Meiracker (2007) ACE phenotyping as a first step toward personalized medicine for ACE inhibitors. Why does ACE genotyping not predict the therapeutic efficacy of ACE inhibitors? Pharmacol Ther 113, 607618.

40.K Berecek & L Zhang (1995) Biochemistry and cell biology of angiotensin-converting enzyme and converting enzyme inhibitors. Adv Exp Med Biol 377, 141168.

42.D Grassi , TPJ Mulder , R Draijer (2009) Black tea consumption dose-dependently improves flow-mediated dilation in healthy males. J Hypertens 27, 774781.

45.CM Chen , W Zhao , Z Yang (2008) The role of dietary factors in chronic disease control in China. Obes Rev 9, Suppl. 1, 100103.

46.EP López , C Rice , DO Weddle (2008) The relationship among cardiovascular risk factors, diet patterns, alcohol consumption, and ethnicity among women aged 50 years and older. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 248256.

47.C Patterson , JW Feightner , A Garcia (2008) Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: risk assessment and primary prevention of Alzheimer disease. CMAJ 178, 548556.

48.LO Dragsted (2003) Antioxidant actions of polyphenols in humans. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 73, 112119.

49.PM Aron & JA Kennedy (2008) Flavan-3-ols: nature, occurrence and biological activity. Mol Nutr Food Res 52, 79104.

50.AW Boots , GRMM Haenen & A Bast (2008) Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical. Eur J Pharmacol 585, 325337.

51.J Hwang , J Wang , P Morazzoni (2003) The phytoestrogen equol increases nitric oxide availability by inhibiting superoxide production: an antioxidant mechanism for cell-mediated LDL modification. Free Radic Biol Med 34, 12711282.

53.AC Kaliora & GVZ Dedoussis (2007) Natural antioxidant compounds in risk factors for CVD. Pharmacol Res 56, 99109.

54.I Svarcova , J Heinrich & K Valentova (2007) Berry fruits as a source of biologically active compounds: the case of Lonicera caerulea. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 151, 163174.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *