This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1. H Bartsch , M Rojas , U Nair , J Nair & K Alexandrov (1999) Genetic cancer susceptibility and DNA adducts: studies in smokers, tobacco chewers, and coke oven workers. Cancer Detect Prev 23, 445–453.
3. JF Tsai , JE Jeng , LY Chuang (2003) Habitual betel quid chewing as a risk factor for cirrhosis: a case–control study. Medicine (Baltimore) 82, 365–372.
4. JF Tsai , LY Chuang , JE Jeng , MS Ho , MY Hsieh , ZY Lin & LY Wang (2001) Betel quid chewing as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: a case–control study. Br J Cancer 84, 709–713.
5. LY Wang , SL You , SN Lu , HC Ho , MH Wu , CA Sun , HI Yang & C Chien-Jen (2003) Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and habits of alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking: a cohort of 2416 HBsAg-seropositive and 9421 HBsAg-seronegative male residents in Taiwan. Cancer Causes Control 14, 241–250.
6. CA Sun , DM Wu , CC Lin , SN Lu , SL You , LY Wang , MH Wu & CJ Chen (2003) Incidence and cofactors of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study of 12,008 men in Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol 157, 674–682.
8. S Raisuddin & JK Misra (1991) Aflatoxin in betel nut and its control by use of food preservatives. Food Addit Contam 8, 707–712.
9. THH Chen , YH Chiu , DL Luh Taiwan Community-Based Integrated Screening Group (2004) Community-based multiple screening model: design, implementation, and analysis of 42,387 participants. Cancer 100, 1734–1743.
10. THH Chen , CJ Chen , MF Yen , SN Lu , CA Sun , GT Huang , PM Yang , HS Lee & SW Duffy (2002) Ultrasound screening and risk factors for death from hepatocellular carcinoma in a high risk group in Taiwan. Int J Cancer 98, 257–261.
12. DW Hosmer & S Lemeshow (1992) Confidence interval estimation of interaction. Epidemiology 3, 452–456.
13. P Srivatanakul , DM Parkin , M Khlat , D Chenvidhya , P Chotiwan , S Insiripong , KA L'Abbé & CP Wild (1991) Liver cancer in Thailand. II. A case–control study of hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer 48, 329–332.
15. C Trivedy , S Meghji , KA Warnakulasuriya , NW Johnson & M Harris (2001) Copper stimulates human oral fibroblasts in vitro: a role in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Pathol Med 30, 465–470.
16. WM Tilakaratne , MF Klinikowski , T Saku , TJ Peters & S Warnakulasuriya (2006) Oral submucous fibrosis: review on aetiology and pathogenesis. Oral Oncol 42, 561–568.
17. YC Chang , SF Yang , KW Tai , MY Chou & YS Hsieh (2002) Increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression and inhibition of gelatinase A activity in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline as possible mechanisms for oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncol 38, 195–200.
18. R Lichtinghagen , D Michels , CI Haberkorn , B Arndt , M Bahr , P Flemming , MP Manns & KH Boeker (2001) Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are closely related to the fibroproliferative process in the liver during chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 34, 239–247.
20. DH Shieh , LC Chiang & TY Shieh (2003) Augmented mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline and safrole as a possible pathogenesis for oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncol 39, 728–735.
21. PM Timms , N Mannan , GA Hitman , K Noonan , PG Mills , D Syndercombe-Court , E Aganna , CP Price & BJ Boucher (2002) Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? QJM 95, 787–796.
22. R Bataller , P Sancho-Bru , P Gines & DA Brenner (2005) Liver fibrogenesis: a new role for the renin–angiotensin system. Antioxid Redox Signal 7, 1346–1355.
23. S Yokohama , Y Tokusashi , K Nakamura (2006) Inhibitory effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonist on hepatic stellate cell activation in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. World J Gastroenterol 12, 322–326.
24. H Yoshiji , J Yoshii , Y Ikenaka , R Noguchi , H Tsujinoue , T Nakatani , H Imazu , K Yanase , S Kuriyama & H Fukui (2002) Inhibition of renin–angiotensin system attenuates liver enzyme-altered preneoplastic lesions and fibrosis development in rats. J Hepatol 37, 22–30.
25. R Basak , R Bhattacharya & M Chatterjee (2001) 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits rat liver ultrastructural changes in diethylnitrosamine-initiated and phenobarbital promoted rat hepatocarcinogenesis. J Cell Biochem 81, 357–367.
26. AC Douds , MA Cox , TH Iqbal & BT Cooper (2003) Ethnic differences in cirrhosis of the liver in a British city: alcoholic cirrhosis in South Asian men. Alcohol Alcohol 38, 148–150.
27. EA Haworth , V Soni Raleigh & R Balarajan (1999) Cirrhosis and primary liver cancer amongst first generation migrants in England and Wales. Ethn Health 4, 93–99.
29. EM Awumey , DA Mitra , BW Hollis , R Kumar & NH Bell (1998) Vitamin D metabolism is altered in Asian Indians in the southern United States: a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 169–173.
30. CP Chiang , JS Huang , JT Wang , BY Liu , YS Kuo , LJ Hahn & MY Kuo (1999) Expression of p53 protein correlates with decreased survival in patients with areca quid chewing and smoking-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas in Taiwan. J Oral Pathol Med 28, 72–76.
32. YK Wong , TY Liu , KW Chang , SC Lin , TW Chao , PL Li & CS Chang (1998) p53 alterations in betel quid- and tobacco-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas from Taiwan. J Oral Pathol Med 27, 243–248.
33. R Baral , S Patnaik & BR Das (1998) Co-overexpression of p53 and c-myc proteins linked with advanced stages of betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas from eastern India. Eur J Oral Sci 106, 907–913.
34. MY Kuo , CY Lin , LJ Hahn , SJ Cheng & CP Chiang (1999) Expression of cyclin D1 is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with areca quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinomas in Taiwan. J Oral Pathol Med 28, 165–169.
35. CP Wen , SP Tsai , TY Cheng , CJ Chen , DT Levy , HJ Yang & MP Eriksen (2005) Uncovering the relation between betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking in Taiwan. Tob Control 14, Suppl. 1, i16–i22.
36. DA Leon & J McCambridge (2006) Liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Britain, 1950–2002, an analysis of routine data. Lancet 367, 52–56.
37. BJ Boucher & N Mannan (2002) Metabolic effects of the consumption of Areca catechu. Addict Biol 7, 103–110.