Skip to main content

Integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders: barriers, developments and opportunities

  • David Sánchez-Carracedo (a1), Dianne Neumark-Sztainer (a2) and Gemma López-Guimerà (a1)

The serious consequences of obesity and eating disorders (ED), difficulties encountered in treatment and the high prevalence of these conditions are important reasons to develop efforts aimed at their prevention. The implementation of integrated interventions aimed at preventing risk factors for both obesity and ED constitutes a very exciting development. In the present paper we discuss and review the main reasons for an integrated approach to the spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anorexic and bulimic behaviours, unhealthy dieting practices, body dissatisfaction, binge-eating disorder, overweight and obesity. Given differences between the fields with regard to current perspectives and objectives, key barriers to an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. In order to show the possibilities of development of this approach, we review the main contributions made to date in the fields of both obesity and ED prevention. In particular, environmental approaches in the prevention of obesity and ED are reviewed, given their potential for preventing a broad spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems. Furthermore, several examples of initiatives that have utilized an integrated approach to prevention are discussed.


Narrative review.


We recommend a scenario in which the two fields share knowledge to enhance the difficult work of preventing and treating both ED and obesity.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders: barriers, developments and opportunities
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders: barriers, developments and opportunities
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders: barriers, developments and opportunities
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Hide All
1.Agras WS (2001) The consequences and costs of the eating disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 24, 371379.
2.Banegas JR, Lopez-Garcia E, Gutierrez-Fisac JLet al. (2003) A simple estimate of mortality attributable to excess weight in the European Union. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 201208.
3.Fairburn CG, Cooper Z, Doll HAet al. (2000) The natural course of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in young women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57, 659665.
4.Kiess W, Reich A, Muller Get al. (2001) Clinical aspects of obesity in childhood and adolescence – diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, Suppl. 1, S75S79.
5.Lewinsohn PM, Striegel-Moore RH & Seeley JR (2000) Epidemiology and natural course of eating disorders in young women from adolescence to young adulthood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39, 12841292.
6.Lobstein T, Rigby N & Leach R (2005) EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. London: International Obesity Task Force.
7.Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EHet al. (1999) The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 282, 15231529.
8.Must A & Strauss RS (1999) Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, Supp l. 2, S2S11.
9.National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute & North American Association for the Study of Obesity (2000) The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. NIH Publication no. 00-4084. Bethesda, MD: NIH.
10.Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RCet al. (2005) A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 352, 11381145.
11.Pi-Sunyer FX (2002) The obesity epidemic: pathophysiology and consequences of obesity. Obes Res 10, Suppl. 2, 97S104S.
12.Troiano RP, Frongillo EA, Sobal Jet al. (1996) The relationship between body weight and mortality: a quantitative analysis of combined information from existing studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20, 6375.
13.Chamay-Weber C, Narring F & Michaud PA (2005) Partial eating disorders among adolescents: a review. J Adolesc Health 37, 417427.
14.Newman DL, Moffitt TE, Caspi Aet al. (1996) Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. J Consult Clin Psychol 64, 552562.
15.Kopelman PG (2000) Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 404, 635643.
16.World Health Organization & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO/FAO.
17.Finkelstein EA, Trogdon JG, Cohen JWet al. (2009) Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer- and service-specific estimates. Health Aff (Millwood) 28, W822W831.
18.Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DFet al. (2004) Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 291, 12381245.
19.Wolf AM & Colditz GA (1998) Current estimates of the economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obes Res 6, 97106.
20.World Health Organization (2007) WHO European Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity. Conference Report. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
21.Yach D, Stuckler D & Brownell KD (2006) Epidemiologic and economic consequences of the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Nat Med 12, 6266.
22.Laron Z (2004) Increasing incidence of childhood obesity. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 1, 443447.
23.Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LRet al. (2006) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 295, 15491555.
24.World Health Organization (2008) Obesity. Geneva: WHO.
25.Ogden CL, Carroll MD & Flegal KM (2008) High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA 299, 24012405.
26. Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (2005) Estrategia para la nutrición, actividad física y prevención de la obesidad (NAOS). (accessed August 2010).
27. Estevez Santiago R, Martinez Galdeano L, Beltran de Miguel B, et al. (2010) Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en los participantes en el programa nacional Thao-salud infantil (Prevalence of overweight and obesity in participants of the Thao-Childhood Health national program). Presented at Hacia una alimentación responsable, II Congreso de la Federación Española de Sociedades de Nutrición, Alimentación y Dietética (FESNAD), Barcelona, Spain, 3–5 March 2010. (accessed February 2012).
28.Treasure J, Claudino AM & Zucker N (2010) Eating disorders. Lancet 375, 583593.
29.Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HGet al. (2007) The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Biol Psychiatry 61, 348358.
30.Morande G, Celada J & Casas JJ (1999) Prevalence of eating disorders in a Spanish school-age population. J Adolesc Health 24, 212219.
31.Peláez Fernandez MA, Labrador FJ & Raich RM (2007) Prevalence of eating disorders among adolescent and young adult scholastic population in the region of Madrid (Spain). J Psychosom Res 62, 681690.
32.Rodriguez-Cano T, Beato-Fernandez L & Belmonte-Llario A (2005) New contributions to the prevalence of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents: detection of false negatives. Eur Psychiatry 20, 173178.
33.Rojo L, Livianos L, Conesa Let al. (2003) Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorders: a two-stage epidemiologic study in a Spanish population aged 12–18 years. Int J Eat Disord 34, 281291.
34. Grupo de trabajo de la guía sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la obesidad infantojuvenil, Centro Cochrane Iberoamericano (coordinador) (2009) Guía de práctica clínica sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la obesidad infantojuvenil. Guía de práctica clínica (Clinical practice guideline on the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. Clinical guideline). AATRM no. 2007/25. Barcelona: Agència d'Avaluació de Tecnologia/Recerca Mèdiques de Cataluña.
35.Austin SB, Ziyadeh NJ, Forman Set al. (2008) Screening high school students for eating disorders: reports of a national initiative. Prev Chronic Dis 5, 110.
36. Sánchez-Carracedo D, Fauquet J, López-Guimerà G, et al. (2010) Proyecto MABIC: Conductas de control del peso en adolescentes (The MABIC Project: control weight behaviors in adolescents). Presented at VII Congreso Iberoamericano de Psicología, Oveido, Spain, 20–24 July 2010.
37.Calado M, Lameiras M, Sepulveda ARet al. (2010) The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students. Eur Eat Disord Rev 18, 417427.
38.Haines J & Neumark-Sztainer D (2006) Prevention of obesity and eating disorders: a consideration of shared risk factors. Health Educ Res 21, 770782.
39.Neumark-Sztainer D (2003) Obesity and eating disorder prevention: an integrated approach? Adolesc Med 14, 159173.
40.Neumark-Sztainer D (2005) Can we simultaneously work toward the prevention of obesity and eating disorders in children and adolescents? Int J Eat Disord 38, 220227.
41.Neumark-Sztainer D (2009) Preventing obesity and eating disorders in adolescents: what can health care providers do? J Adolesc Health 44, 206213.
42. BodyWise and BodyWorks, US Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health (2005) Eating Disorders and Obesity: How Are They Related? (accessed June 2010).
43.Shaw H, Ng J & Stice E (2007) Integrating eating disorder and obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Prev Res 143, 1820.
44.Fairburn CG, Welch SL, Doll HAet al. (1997) Risk factors for bulimia nervosa – a community-based case–control study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54, 509517.
45.Field AE, Austin SB, Taylor CBet al. (2003) Relation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents. Pediatrics 112, 900906.
46.Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJet al. (2002) Weight-related concerns and behaviors among overweight and nonoverweight adolescents: implications for preventing weight-related disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156, 171178.
47.Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Guo Jet al. (2006) Obesity, disordered eating, and eating disorders in a longitudinal study of adolescents: how do dieters fare 5 years later? J Am Diet Assoc 106, 559568.
48.Neumark-Sztainer DR, Wall MM, Haines JIet al. (2007) Shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating in adolescents. Am J Prev Med 33, 359369.
49.Day J, Ternouth A & Collier DA (2009) Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the same coin? Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 18, 96100.
50.Hill AJ (2007) Obesity and eating disorders. Obes Rev 8, 151155.
51.Neumark-Sztainer D (2007) Addressing the spectrum of adolescent weight-related problems: engaging parents and communities. Prev Res 14, 1114.
52.van den Berg P & Neumark-Sztainer D (2007) Fat ‘n happy 5 years later: is it bad for overweight girls to like their bodies? J Adolesc Health 41, 415417.
53.O'Dea JA (2005) Prevention of child obesity: ‘first, do no harm’. Health Educ Res 20, 259265.
54.Kurzer P & Cooper A (2011) Hold the croissant! The European Union declares war on obesity. J Eur Soc Policy 21, 107119.
55.Throsby K (2009) The war on obesity as a moral project: weight loss drugs, obesity surgery and negotiating failure. Sci Cult 18, 201216.
56.Schwartz MB & Brownell KD (2007) Actions necessary to prevent childhood obesity: creating the climate for change. J Law Med Ethics 35, 7889.
57.Neumark-Sztainer D, Levine MP, Paxton SJet al. (2006) Prevention of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: what next? Eat Disord 14, 265285.
58.Striegel-Moore RH (2001) The impact of pediatric obesity treatment on eating behavior and psychologic adjustment. J Pediatr 139, 1314.
59. Guilliatt R (2009) Off the scale. The Weekend Australian Magazine 9–10 May, 19–24.
60.Westwood M, Fayter D, Hartley Set al. (2007) Childhood obesity: should primary school children be routinely screened? A systematic review and discussion of the evidence. Arch Dis Child 92, 416422.
61.Whitlock EP, Williams SB, Gold Ret al. (2005) Screening and interventions for childhood overweight: a summary of evidence for the US preventive services task force. Pediatrics 116, E125E144.
62.Chomitz VR, Collins J, Kim Jet al. (2003) Promoting healthy weight among elementary school children via a health report card approach. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157, 765772.
63.Ikeda JP, Crawford PB & Woodward-Lopez G (2006) BMI screening in schools: helpful or harmful. Health Educ Res 21, 761769.
64.Nihiser AJ, Lee SM, Wechsler Het al. (2007) Body mass index measurement in schools. J Sch Health 77, 651671.
65.Scheier LM (2004) Potential problems with school health report cards. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 525527.
66.Scheier LM (2004) School health report cards attempt to address the obesity epidemic. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 341344.
67.Schwartz MB & Henderson KE (2009) Does obesity prevention cause eating disorders? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48, 784786.
68.Carter FA & Bulik CM (2008) Childhood obesity prevention programs: how do they affect eating pathology and other psychological measures? Psychosom Med 70, 363371.
69.Irving LM & Neumark-Sztainer D (2002) Integrating the prevention, of eating disorders and obesity: feasible or futile? Prev Med 34, 299309.
70.Fingeret MC, Warren CS, Cepeda-Benito Aet al. (2006) Eating disorder prevention research: a meta-analysis. Eat Disord 14, 191213.
71.Pratt BM & Woolfenden S (2002) Interventions for preventing eating disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev issue 2, CD002891.
72.Stice E & Shaw H (2004) Eating disorder prevention programs: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull 130, 206227.
73.Stice E, Shaw H & Marti CN (2007) A meta-analytic review of eating disorder prevention programs: encouraging findings. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 3, 207231.
74.Zabinski MF, Calfas KJ, Gehrman CAet al. (2001) Effects of a physical activity intervention on body image in university seniors: Project GRAD. Ann Behav Med 23, 247252.
75.Stice E, Shaw H, Burton Eet al. (2006) Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: a randomized efficacy trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 74, 263275.
76.Austin SB, Field AE, Wiecha Jet al. (2005) The impact of a school-based obesity prevention trial on disordered weight-control behaviors in early adolescent girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159, 225230.
77.Dalle Grave R, De Luca L & Campello G (2001) Middle school primary prevention program for eating disorders: a controlled study with a twelve-month follow-up. Eat Disord 9, 327337.
78.Killen JD, Taylor CB, Hammer LDet al. (1993) An attempt to modify unhealthful eating attitudes and weight regulation practices of young adolescent girls. Int J Eat Disord 13, 369384.
79.Wade TD, Davidson S & O'Dea JA (2003) A preliminary controlled evaluation of a school-based media literacy program and self-esteem program for reducing eating disorder risk factors. Int J Eat Disord 33, 371383.
80.Favaro A, Zanetti T, Huon Get al. (2005) Engaging teachers in an eating disorder preventive intervention. Int J Eat Disord 38, 7377.
81.O'Dea JA & Abraham S (2000) Improving the body image, eating attitudes, and behaviors of young male and female adolescents: a new educational approach that focuses on self-esteem. Int J Eat Disord 28, 4357.
82.Buddeberg-Fischer B, Klaghofer R, Gnam Get al. (1998) Prevention of disturbed eating behaviour: a prospective intervention study in 14- to 19-year-old Swiss students. Acta Psychiatr Scand 98, 146155.
83.Lopez-Guimera G & Sanchez-Carracedo D (2010) Prevención de las alteraciones alimentarias: Fundamentos teóricos y recursos prácticos (Disordered Eating Prevention: Theoretical Basis and Practical Resources). Madrid: Pirámide.
84.Stock S, Miranda C, Evans Set al. (2007) Healthy Buddies: a novel, peer-led health promotion program for the prevention of obesity and eating disorders in children in elementary school. Pediatrics 120, E1059E1068.
85.Haines J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Perry CLet al. (2006) VIK (Very Important Kids): a school-based program designed to reduce teasing and unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Health Educ Res 21, 884895.
86.Neumark-Sztainer D, Butler R & Palti H (1995) Eating disturbances among adolescent girls: evaluation of a school-based primary prevention program. J Nutr Educ 27, 2431.
87.Summerbell CD, Waters E, Edmunds LDet al. (2005) Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev issue 3, CD001871.
88.Stice E, Shaw H & Marti CN (2006) A meta-analytic review of obesity prevention programs for children and adolescents: the skinny on interventions that work. Psychol Bull 132, 667691.
89.Gortmaker SL, Peterson K, Wiecha Jet al. (1999) Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth – Planet Health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 153, 409418.
90.Robinson TN (1999) Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity – a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 282, 15611567.
91.Sahota P, Rudolf MCJ, Dixey Ret al. (2001) Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 323, 10291032.
92.Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HCet al. (2003) Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: The Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 13, Suppl. 1, S1-65–S1-77.
93.Stice E, Orjada K & Tristan J (2006) Trial of a psychoeducational eating disturbance intervention for college women: a replication and extension. Int J Eat Disord 39, 233239.
94.Stice E & Regan J (2002) A controlled evaluated of an eating disturbance psychoeducational intervention. Int J Eating Disord 39, 159171.
95.Story M, Sherwood NE, Obarzanek Eet al. (2003) Recruitment of African-American pre-adolescent girls into an obesity prevention trial: The GEMS pilot studies. Ethn Dis 13, Suppl. 1, S1-78–S1-87.
96.Doak CM, Visscher TLS, Renders CMet al. (2006) The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obes Rev 7, 111136.
97.Brown T, Kelly S & Summerbell C (2007) Prevention of obesity: a review of interventions. Obes Rev 8, 127130.
98.National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2006) Obesity: The Prevention, Identification, Assessment and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults and Children. NICE Clinical Guideline no. 43. London: NICE.
99.Brown T & Summerbell C (2009) Systematic review of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to prevent childhood obesity: an update to the obesity guidance produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Obes Rev 10, 110141.
100.Gonzalez-Suarez C, Worley A, Grimmer-Somers Ket al. (2009) School-based interventions on childhood obesity a meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med 37, 418427.
101.Katz DL, O'Connell M, Njike VYet al. (2008) Strategies for the prevention and control of obesity in the school setting: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 17801789.
102.Sharma M (2007) International school-based interventions for preventing obesity in children. Obes Rev 8, 155167.
103.O'Dea JA (2005) School-based health education strategies for the improvement of body image and prevention of eating problems: an overview of safe and effective interventions. Health Educ 105, 1133.
104.Piran N (2005) Prevention of eating disorders: a review outcome evaluation research. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 42, 172177.
105.McVey G, Tweed S & Blackmore E (2007) Healthy Schools–Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program. Body Image 4, 115136.
106.Neumark-Sztainer D, Sherwood NE, Coller Tet al. (2000) Primary prevention of disordered eating among preadolescent girls: feasibility and short-term effect of a community-based intervention. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 14661473.
107.Piran N (1999) The reduction of preoccupation with body weight and shape in schools: a feminist approach. In Preventing Eating Disorders: A Handbook of Interventions and Special Challenges, pp. 148159 [N Piran, MP Levine and C Steiner-Adair, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
108.Varnado-Sullivan PJ, Zucker N, Williamson DAet al. (2001) Development and implementation of the body logic program for adolescents: a two-stage prevention program for eating disorders. Cogn Behav Pract 8, 248259.
109.Paxton SJ (2012) Public policy approaches to prevention of body image problems. In Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, vol. 2, pp. 680–685 [T Cash, editor]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
110.Paxton SJ (2012) Public health interventions for body dissatisfaction and eating disorders: learning from Victoria. In Preventing Eating-Related and Weight-Related Disorders: Collaborative Research, Advocacy, and Policy Change [G McVey, MP Levine, N Piran et al., editors]. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press (In the Press).
111. Department of Human Services, State Government of Victoria (2007) Fad Diets Won't Work. (accessed May 2011).
112. Department of Planning and Community Development, Victorian State Government (2008) Voluntary Media Code of Conduct. (accessed February 2012).
113. National Advisory Group on Body Image (2009) A Proposed National Strategy on Body Image. (accessed February 2012).
114.Richardson SM, Paxton SJ & Thomson JS (2009) Is BodyThink an efficacious body image and self-esteem program? A controlled evaluation with adolescents. Body Image 6, 7582.
115. Department of Planning and Community Development, Victorian State Government (2010) Positive Body Image Small Grants 2010. (accessed May 2011).
116.Levine MP & Smolak L (2006) The Prevention of Eating Problems and Eating Disorders: Theory, Research, and Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
117.Neumark-Sztainer D (2005) “I'm, Like, SO Fat!”: Helping Your Teen Make Healthy Choices about Eating and Exercise in a Weight Obsessed World. New York: The Guilford Press.
118.Neumark-Sztainer D (2009) The interface between the eating disorders and obesity fields: moving toward a model of shared knowledge and collaboration. Eat Weight Disord 14, 5158.
119.O'Dea JA (2007) Everybody's Different: A Positive Approach to Teaching about Health, Puberty, Body Image, Nutrition, Self-esteem and Obesity Prevention. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.
120.Brownell KD, Kersh R, Ludwig DSet al. (2010) Personal responsibility and obesity: a constructive approach to a controversial issue. Health Aff (Millwood) 29, 379387.
121.McKinnon RA, Orleans T, Kumanyika SKet al. (2009) Considerations for an obesity policy research agenda. Am J Prev Med 36, 351357.
122.Lake A & Townshend T (2006) Obesogenic environments: exploring the built and food environments. J R Soc Promot Health 126, 262267.
123.Ritchie LD, Crawford PB, Hoelscher DMet al. (2006) Position of the American Dietetic Association: individual-, family-, school-, and community-based interventions for pediatric overweight. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 925945.
124. American Psychological Association (2008) Written Statement from the American Psychological Association for the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, & Pensions Subcommittee on Children and Families on Childhood Obesity: The Declining Health of America's Next Generation. (accessed August 2010).
125.Sallis JF & Glanz K (2006) The role of built environments in physical activity, eating, and obesity in childhood. Future Child 16, 89108.
126.Katan MB (2009) Weight-loss diets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. N Engl J Med 360, 923925.
127.Romon M, Lommez A, Tafflet Met al. (2009) Downward trends in the prevalence of childhood overweight in the setting of 12-year school- and community-based programmes. Public Health Nutr 12, 17351742.
128.Westley H (2007) Thin living. BMJ 335, 12361237.
129.Aranceta J, Perez-Rodrigo C, Serra-Majem Let al. (2007) Prevention of overweight and obesity: a Spanish approach. Public Health Nutr 10, 11871193.
130.Lau DCW, Douketis JD, Morrison KMet al. 2006 (2007) Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary]. CMAJ 176, S1–S13.
131.Kohn M, Rees JM, Brill Set al. (2006) Preventing and treating adolescent obesity: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health 38, 784787.
132.Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJet al. (2003) New Moves: a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent girls. Prev Med 37, 4151.
133.Austin SB, Kim J, Wiecha Jet al. (2007) School-based overweight preventive intervention lowers incidence of disordered weight-control behaviors in early adolescent girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161, 865869.
134.Neumark-Sztainer DR, Friend SE, Flattum CFet al. (2010) New Moves – preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls a group-randomized study. Am J Prev Med 39, 421432.
135.Austin B (2011) The blind spot in the drive for childhood obesity prevention: bringing eating disorders prevention into focus as a public health priority. Am J Public Health 101, e1e4.
136. American Psychological Association (2008) APA Government Relations, Public Interest Policy: Eating Disorders and Obesity Prevention Advocacy Activities. (accessed August 2010).
137. APA Public Interest Government Relations Office (2008) Recommendations to Prevent Youth Obesity and Disordered Eating. (accessed February 2012).
138. Adair CE, McVey G, de Groot J, et al. (2008) Obesity and Eating Disorders: Seeking Common Ground to Promote Health. A national meeting of researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. Final Discussion Document. (accessed February 2012).
139. McVey G, Adair E, de Groot J et al. (2007) Obesity and Eating Disorders: Seeking Common Ground to Promote Health. A national meeting of researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. Final Report. (accessed February, 2012).
140.Santonastaso P, Zanetti T, Ferrara Set al. (1999) A preventive intervention program in adolescent schoolgirls: a longitudinal study. Psychother Psychosom 68, 4650.
141.Jerome IW (1991) Primary intervention for bulimia: the evaluation of a media presentation for an adolescent population. Dissertation Abstracts International B: The Sciences & Engineering 52, 3296B.
142.Olmsted MP, Daneman D, Rydall ACet al. (2002) The effects of psychoeducation on disturbed eating attitudes and behavior in young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Int J Eat Disord 32, 230239.
143. López-Guimerà G (2007) Efecto de un programa preventivo administrado en la escuela, dirigido a mejorar las actitudes alimentarias y a reducir la influencia del modelo estético corporal en una muestra de chicas adolescentes (Effect of a school-based preventive program aimed at improving eating attitudes and reduce the influence of body aesthetic model in a sample of adolescent girls). Doctoral Dissertation, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
144.Lopez-Guimera G, Sanchez-Carracedo D, Fauquet Jet al. (2011) Impact of a school-based disordered eating prevention program in adolescent girls: general and specific effects depending on adherence to the interactive activities. Span J Psychol 14, 293303.
145.Pokrajac-Bulian A, Zivcic-Becirevic I, Calugi Set al. (2006) School prevention program for eating disorders in Croatia: a controlled study with six months of follow-up. Eat Weight Disord 11, 171178.
146.Smolak L & Levine MP (2001) A two-year follow-up of a primary prevention program for negative body image and unhealthy weight regulation. Eat Disord 9, 313325.
147.Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPTet al. (2009) Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Chippenham: Wiley.
148.Hunter JE & Schmidt FL (2004) Methods of Meta-Analysis. Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
149.Rush AJ, Firset MB & Blacker D (2008) Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. Washington, DC: APA.
150.Cohen J (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
151.Mo-suwan L, Pongprapai S, Junjana Cet al. (1998) Effects of a controlled trial of a school-based exercise program on the obesity indexes of preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 10061011.
152.Flores R (1995) Dance for health – improving fitness in African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Public Health Rep 110, 189193.
153.James J, Thomas P, Cavan Det al. (2004) Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 328, 12371239.
154.Danielzik S, Pust S & Mueller MJ (2007) School-based interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in prepubertal children: process and 4-years outcome evaluation of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Acta Paediatr 96, 1925.
155.James J, Thomas P & Kerr D (2007) Preventing childhood obesity: two year follow-up results from the Christchurch obesity prevention programme in schools (CHOPPS). BMJ 335, 762.
156.Kafatos A, Manios Y, Moschandreas Jet al. (2005) Health and nutrition education in primary schools of Crete: follow-up changes in body mass index and overweight status. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 10901092.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 160
Total number of PDF views: 428 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 888 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.