Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 50
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bivolarska, Anelia Gatseva, Penka Nikolova, Julia Argirova, Mariana and Atanasova, Victoria 2016. Effect of Thiocyanate on Iodine Status of Pregnant Women. Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 172, Issue. 1, p. 101.

    Gebretsadikan, Tirhas M. and Troen, Aron M. 2016. Progress and challenges in eliminating iodine deficiency in Ethiopia: a systematic review. BMC Nutrition, Vol. 2, Issue. 1,

    Henjum, Sigrun Kjellevold, Marian Ulak, Manjeswori Chandyo, Ram Shrestha, Prakash Frøyland, Livar Strydom, Emmerentia Dhansay, Muhammad and Strand, Tor 2016. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 5, p. 255.

    Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo and Rubio, Ileana G.S. 2016. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric.

    Nazeri, Pantea Zarghani, Najmeh Hamzavi Mirmiran, Parvin Hedayati, Mehdi Mehrabi, Yadollah and Azizi, Fereidoun 2016. Iodine Status in Pregnant Women, Lactating Mothers, and Newborns in an Area with More Than Two Decades of Successful Iodine Nutrition. Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 172, Issue. 1, p. 79.

    Veltri, Flora Decaillet, Sarah Kleynen, Pierre Grabczan, Lidia Belhomme, Julie Rozenberg, Serge Pepersack, Thierry and Poppe, Kris 2016. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in women with iron deficiency during early pregnancy: is it altered?. European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 175, Issue. 3, p. 191.

    Giacobbe, Anna Maria Grasso, Roberta Triolo, Onofrio Tonni, Gabriele and Granese, Roberta 2015. Thyroid diseases in pregnancy: a current and controversial topic on diagnosis and treatment over the past 20 years. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 292, Issue. 5, p. 995.

    Jacob, Miguel and Brito, Nelson 2015. Suplementação de iodo na gravidez: qual a importância?. Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 107.

    Land, Charles E. Kwon, Deukwoo Hoffman, F. Owen Moroz, Brian Drozdovitch, Vladimir Bouville, André Beck, Harold Luckyanov, Nicholas Weinstock, Robert M. and Simon, Steven L. 2015. Accounting for Shared and Unshared Dosimetric Uncertainties in the Dose Response for Ultrasound-Detected Thyroid Nodules after Exposure to Radioactive Fallout. Radiation Research, Vol. 183, Issue. 2, p. 159.

    Zhou, Shao J. Skeaff, Sheila A. Ryan, Philip Doyle, Lex W. Anderson, Peter J. Kornman, Louise Mcphee, Andrew J. Yelland, Lisa N. and Makrides, Maria 2015. The effect of iodine supplementation in pregnancy on early childhood neurodevelopment and clinical outcomes: results of an aborted randomised placebo-controlled trial. Trials, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,

    Amouzegar, A Khazan, M Hedayati, M and Azizi, F 2014. An assessment of the iodine status and the correlation between iodine nutrition and thyroid function during pregnancy in an iodine sufficient area. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, Issue. 3, p. 397.

    Kim, Bu Kyung Jeong, Jee-Yeong Seok, Kwang-Hyuk Lee, Andrew S. Oak, Chul Ho Kim, Ghi Chan Jeong, Chae-Kyeong Choi, Sung In Afidchao, Pablo M. and Choi, Young Sik 2014. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines. International Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Medici, Marco Ghassabian, Akhgar Visser, Willy de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. Visser, W. Edward Hooijkaas, Herbert Hofman, Albert Steegers, Eric A. P. Bongers-Schokking, Jacoba J. Ross, H. Alec Tiemeier, Henning Visser, Theo J. de Rijke, Yolanda B. and Peeters, Robin P. 2014. Women with high early pregnancy urinary iodine levels have an increased risk of hyperthyroid newborns: the population-based Generation R Study. Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 80, Issue. 4, p. 598.

    Patey-Pirra, S. Keriel-Gascou, M. and Borson-Chazot, F. 2014. Bénéfices et risques d’une supplémentation en iode des femmes enceintes : une revue des études observationnelles et expérimentales en régions de carence iodée légère à modérée. Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Vol. 62, Issue. 1, p. 65.

    Sukkhojaiwaratkul, D Mahachoklertwattana, P Poomthavorn, P Panburana, P Chailurkit, La-or Khlairit, P and Pongratanakul, S 2014. Effects of maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on iodine status and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone. Journal of Perinatology, Vol. 34, Issue. 8, p. 594.

    Vidal, Zendy Evelyn Olivo Rufino, Sergio Cuellar Tlaxcalteco, Esteban Hernández Trejo, Cirenia Hernández Campos, Raúl Martínez Meza, Mónica Navarro Rodríguez, Rocío Coutiño and Arroyo-Helguera, Omar 2014. Oxidative Stress Increased in Pregnant Women with Iodine Deficiency. Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 157, Issue. 3, p. 211.

    Vila, L. Velasco, I. Gonzalez, S. Morales, F. Sanchez, E. Torrejon, S. Soldevila, B. Stagnaro-Green, A. and Puig-Domingo, M. 2014. CONTROVERSIES IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: On the need for universal thyroid screening in pregnant women. European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 170, Issue. 1, p. R17.

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela Novaković, Romana Glibetić, Maria and Gurinović, Mirjana 2013. EURRECA—Estimating Iodine Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 53, Issue. 10, p. 1051.

    Román, Gustavo C. 2013. Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology.

    Suárez Rodríguez, Marta Azcona San Julián, Cristina and Alzina de Aguilar, Valentín 2013. Iodine intake during pregnancy: Effects on thyroid function in mother and child. Endocrinología y Nutrición (English Edition), Vol. 60, Issue. 7, p. 352.


Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition

  • François Delange (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 December 2007

Objective: This paper re-evaluates the requirements for iodine during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period, and formulates original proposals for the median concentrations of urinary iodine (UI) that indicate optimal iodine nutrition during these three critical periods of life. This paper also discusses the measurements that are used to explore thyroid functions during the same periods.

Design: An extensive and critical review of the literature on thyroid physiopathology during the perinatal period.

Setting: Human studies conducted in various regions throughout the world.

Subjects: Pregnant women, lactating women, and newborns.

Results: The following proposals are made after extensive review of the literature: the requirement for iodine by the mother during pregnancy is 250-300 μg day-1; during lactation the requirement is 225-350 μg day-1; and during the neonatal period the requirement of the infant is 90 μg day-1. The median UI that indicates an optimal iodine nutrition during these three periods should be in the range of 150-230 μg day-1. These figures are higher than recommended to date by the international agencies.

Conclusions: Pregnant women and young infants, but especially the second group, are more sensitive to the effects of an iodine deficiency (ID) than the general population because their serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine are increased and decreased, respectively, for degrees of ID that do not seem to affect thyroid function in the general population. Systematic neonatal thyroid screening using primary TSH could be the most sensitive indicator to monitor the process of ID control.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

4F Delange , B de Benoist , E Pretell , J Dunn . Iodine deficiency in the world: where do we stand at the turn of the century? Thyroid 2001; 11: 437–47.

6V Zamrazil , R Bilek , J Cerovska , F Delange . The elimination of iodine deficiency in the Czech Republic: the steps towards success. Thyroid 2004; 14: 4956.

8JG Hollowell , NW Staehling , WH Hannon , DW Flanders , EW Gunter , GF Maberly , LE Braverman , S Pino , DT Miller , P Garbe . Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 83: 3401–8.

11D Glinoer . The regulation of thyroid function in pregnancy: pathways of endocrine adaptation from physiology to pathology. Endocrine Reviews 1997; 18: 404–33.

13GR DeLong , J Robbins , PG Condliffe . Iodine and the Brain. New York: Plenum Press, 1989 1–379.

15G Morreale de Escobar , MJ Obregon , F Escobar del Rey . Is neuropsychological development related to maternal hypothyroidism or to maternal hypothyroxinemia? Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2000; 85: 3975–87.

16F Delange . Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2001; 77: 217–20.

17R Lavado-Autric , E Auso , JV Carcia-Velasco , M Arufe del Carmen , F Escobar del Rey , P Berbel , G Morreale de Escobar . Early maternal hypothyroxinemia alters histogenesis and cerebral cortex cytoarchitexture of the progeny. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003; 111: 1073–82.

18RT Zoeller . Transplacental thyroxine and fetal brain development. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003; 111: 954–7.

21HJ Dworkin , JA Jacquez , WH Beierwaltes . Relationship of iodine ingestion to iodine excretion in pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1966; 26: 1329–42.

25A Toft . Increased levothyroxine requirements in pregnancy. Why, when and how much? New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 351: 292–4.

26D Glinoer . The sytematic screening and management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 9: 403–11.

27I Mahillon , W Peers , P Bourdoux , F Delange . Effect of vaginal douching with povidone–iodine during early pregnancy on the iodine supply to mother and fetus. Biology of the Neonate 1989; 56: 210–7.

28N Etling . Concentration of thyroglobulin, iodine contents of thyroglobulin and of iodo-aminoacids in human neonates thyroid glands. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1977; 66: 97102.

29A Costa , VD Filippis , M Panizzo , G Giraudi . Development of thyroid function between VI–IX month of fetal life in humans. Journal of Endocronological Investigation 1986; 9: 273–80.

30F Delange , P Bourdoux , M Laurence , L Peneva , P Walfish , H Willgerodt . Neonatal thyroid function in iodine deficiency. In: F Delange , JT Dunn , D Glinoer , eds. Iodine Deficiency in Europe. A Continuing Concern. New York: Plenum Press, 1993; 199210.

31S Savin , D Cuejic , O Nedic , R Radosavljevic . Thyroid hormone synthesis and storage in the thyroid gland of human neonates. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2003; 16: 521–8.

33DA Fisher . Management of congenital hypothyroidism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1991; 72: 523–9.

34G Van Vliet . Neonatal hypothyroidism: treatment and outcome. Thyroid 1999; 9: 7984.

37E Dafnis , S Sabatini . The effect of pregnancy on renal function: physiology and pathophysiology. American Journal of Medical Science 1992; 303: 184205.

38JH Lazarus , A Kokandi . Thyroid disease in relation to pregnancy: a decade of change. Clinical Endocrinology 2000; 53: 265–78.

39CS Liberman , SC Pino , SL Fang , LE Braverman , CH Emerson . Circulating iodide concentrations during and after pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 83: 3545–9.

40PPA Smyth , AMT Hetherton , DF Smith , M Radcliff , C O'Herlihy . Maternal iodine status and thyroid volume during pregnancy: correlation with neonatal iodine intake. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1997; 82: 2840–3.

41PPA Smyth . Variation in iodine handling during normal pregnancy. Thyroid 1999; 9: 637–42.

42AWC Kung , TT Lao , MT Chau , SCF Tam , LCK Low . Goitrogenesis during pregnancy and neonatal hypothyroxinaemia in a borderline iodine sufficient area. Clinical Endocrinology 2000; 53: 725–31.

43SY Hess , MB Zimmermann , T Torresani , H Bürgi , RF Hurrell . Monitoring the adequacy of salt iodization in Switzerland: a national study of school children and pregnant women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 55: 162–6.

44L Brander , C Als , H Buess , F Haldimann , M Harder , W Hänggi , U Herrmann , K lauber , U Niederer , T Zurcher , U Burgi , H Gerber . Urinary iodine concentration during pregnancy in an area of unstable dietary iodine intake in Switzerland. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2003; 26: 389–96.

46D Glinoer , P de Nayer , P Bourdoux , M Lemone , C Robyn , A Van Steirteghem , J Kinthaert , B Lejeune . Regulation of maternal thyroid during pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1990; 71: 276–87.

47F Vermiglio , VPL Presti , MD Finocchiaro , S Battiato , L Grasso , FV Ardita , A Mancuso , F Trimarchi . Enhanced iodine concentration capacity by the mammary gland in iodine deficient lactating women of an endemic goiter region in Sicily. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 1992; 15: 137–42.

48P Caron , M Hoff , S Bazzi , A Dufor , G Faure , I Ghandour , P Lauzu , Y Lucas , D Maraval , F Mignot , P Ressigeac , F Vertongen , V Grange . Urinary iodine excretion during normal pregnancy in healthy women living in the Southwest of France: correlation with maternal thyroid parameters. Thyroid 1997; 7: 749–54.

49RD Semba , F Delange . Iodine in human milk: perspectives for human health. Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59: 269–78.

50JG Dorea . Iodine nutrition and breast feeding. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2002; 16: 207–20.

52F Delange . Requirements of iodine in humans. In: F Delange , JT Dunn , D Glinoer , eds. Iodine Deficiency in Europe. A Continuing Concern. New York: Plenum Press, 1993; 516.

55F Azizi , R Shaikholesmani , M Hedayati , P Mirmiran , H Malekafzali , M Kimiagar . Sustainable control of iodine deficiency in Iran. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2002; 25: 409–13.

58LB Rasmussen , L Ovesen , E Christiansen . Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 53: 401–7.

59C Als , A Helbling , K Peter , M Haldimann , B Zimmerli , H Gerber . Urinary iodine concentration follows a circadian rhythm: a study with 3023 spot urine samples in adults and children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2000; 85: 1367–9.

61CD Thomson , MA Packer , JA Butler , AJ Duffield , KL O'Donaghue , PD Whanger . Urinary selenium and iodine during pregnancy and lactation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2001; 14: 210–7.

62F Delange , P Lecomte . Iodine supplementation: benefits outweigh risks. Drug Safety 2000; 22: 8995.

63LE Braverman . Adequate iodine intake-the good far outweights the bad. European Journal of Endocrinology 1998; 139: 1415.

64D Glinoer , F Delange , I Laboureur , P de Nayer , B Lejeune , J Kinthaert , P Bourdoux . Maternal and neonatal thyroid function at birth in an area of marginally low iodine intake. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1992; 75: 800–5.

65A Berghout , E Endert , A Ross , HV Hogerzell , NJ Smits , WH Wiersinga . Thyroid function and thyroid size in normal pregnant women living in an iodine replete area. Clinical Endocrinology 1994; 41: 375–9.

66F Vermiglio , VPL Presti , GS Argentina , MD Finocchiaro , D Gullo , S Squatrito , F Trimarchi . Maternal hypothyroxinemia during the first half of gestation in an iodine deficient area with endemic cretinism and related disorders. Clinical Endocrinology 1995; 42: 409–15.

67A Eltom , M Eltom , B Elnagar , M Elbagir , M Gebre-Medhin . Changes in iodine metabolism during late pregnancy and lactation: a longitudinal study among Sudanese women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 54: 429–33.

68M Rotondi , G Amato , B Biondi , G Mazziotti , AD Buono , MR Nicchio , S Balzano , A Bellastella , D Glinoer , C Carella . Parity as a thyroid size-determining factor in areas with moderate iodine deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2000; 85: 4534–7.

69S Harada , N Ichihara , J Arai , H Honma , N Matsuura , K Fujieda . Influence of iodine excess due to iodine-containing antiseptics on neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Hokkaido prefecture, Japan. Screening 1994; 3: 115–23.

71PH Heidemann , P Stubbe , KV Reuss , P Schürnbrand , A Larsson , WV Petrykowski . Jodausscheidung und alimentäre Jodversorgung bei Neugeborenen in Jodmangelgebieten der Bundersrepublik. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1984; 109: 773–8.

73F Delange , P Wolff , D Gnat , M Dramaix , P Pilchen , F Vertongen . Iodine deficiency during infancy and early childhood in Belgium: does it pose a risk to brain development? European Journal of Pediatrics 2001; 160: 251–4.

75CM Gordon , DH Rowitch , ML Mitchell , IS Kohane . Topical iodine and neonatal hypothyroidism. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1995; 149: 1336–9.

78F Delange , P Heidemann , P Bourdoux , A Larsson , R Vigneri , M Klett , C Beckers , P Stubbe . Regional variations of iodine nutrition and thyroid function during the neonatal period in Europe. Biology of the Neonate 1986; 49: 322–30.

81F Delange , A Van Onderbergen , W Shabana , E Vandemeulebroucke , F Vertongen , D Gnat , M Dramaix . Silent iodine prophylaxis in Western Europe only partly corrects iodine deficiency: the case of Belgium. European Journal of Endocrinology 2000; 143: 189–96.

82D Glinoer . The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: importance of the iodine nutrition status. Best Practice and Research. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004; 18: 133–52.

83M Zimmermann , F Delange . Iodine supplementation of pregnant women in Europe: a review and recommendations. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004; 58: 979–84.

85F Delange . Screening for congenital hypothyroidism used as an indicator of IDD control. Thyroid 1998; 8: 1185–92.

88V Bhatara , R Sankar , J Unutzer , J Peabody . A review of the case for neonatal thyrotropin screening in developing countries: the examples of India. Thyroid 2002; 12: 591–8.

89B Elnagar , A Eltom , L Wide , M Gebre-Medhin , FA Karlsson . Iodine status, thyroid function and pregnancy: study of Swedish and Sudanese women. European Journal of Nutrition 1998; 52: 351–5.

90OP Soldin , SJ Soldin , JC Pezzullu . Urinary iodine percentile ranges in the United States. Clinica Chimica Acta 2003; 328: 185–90.

92EN Pearce , HR Bazrafshan , X He , S Pino , LE Braverman . Dietary iodine in pregnant women from the Boston, Massachusetts area. Thyroid 2004; 14: 327–8.

93AWC Kung , TT Lao , LCK Low , RWC Pang , JD Robinson . Iodine insufficiency and neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia in Hong Kong. Clinical Endocrinology 1997; 46: 315–9.

94F Vermiglio , VPL Presti , MG Castagna , MA Violi , M Moleti , MD Finocchiaro , F Mattina , A Artemisia , F Trimarchi . Increased risk of maternal thyroid failure with pregnancy progression in an iodine deficient area with major iodine deficiency disorders. Thyroid 1999; 9: 1924.

96KM Pedersen , P Laurberg , E Iversen , PR Knudsen , HE Gregersen , OS Rasmussen , KR Larsen , GM Eriksen , PL Johanessen . Amelioration of some pregnancy-associated variations in thyroid function by iodine supplementation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1993; 77: 1078–83.

97SB Nohr , P Laurberg , KG Borlum , KM Pedersen , PL Johannesen , P Damm , E Fugsland , A Johansen . Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark: regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation. Acta Obstetricia Gynecologica Scandinavica 1993; 72: 350–3.

98L Antonangeli , D Maccherini , R Cavaliere , CD Giulio , B Reinhardt , A Pinchera , F Aghini-Lombardi . Comparison of two different doses of iodide in the prevention of gestational goiter in marginal iodine deficiency: a longitudinal study. European Journal of Endocrinology 2002; 147: 2934.

99R Romano , EA Jannini , M Pepe , A Grimaldi , M Olivieri , P Spennati , F Cappa , M D'Armineto . The effects of iodoprophylaxis on thyroid size during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1991; 164: 482–5.

100KP Liesenkötter , W Göpel , U Bogner , B Stach , A Grüters . Earliest prevention of endemic goiter by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. European Journal of Endocrinology 1996; 134: 443–8.

101E Mezosi , I Molnar , A Jakab , E Balogh , Z Karanyi , Z Pakozdy , P Nagy , F Gyory , J Szabo , L Bajnok , L Leovey , G Kakyk , EV Nagy . Prevalence of iodine deficiency and goitre during pregnancy in East Hungary. European Journal of Endocrinology 2000; 143: 479–83.

102RS Brown , S Bloomfield , FJ Bednarek , ML Mitchell , LE Braverman . Routine skin cleaning with povidone–iodine is not a common cause of transient neonatal hypothyroidism in North America: a prospective controlled study. Thyroid 1997; 7: 395400.

103F Delange , A Dalhem , P Bourdoux , R Lagasse , D Glinoer , DA Fisher , PG Walfish , AM Ermans . Increased risk of primary hypothyroidism in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics 1984; 105: 462–9.

104B Bakker , T Vulsma , JD Randamie , AM Achterhuis , B Wiedijk , H Oosting , C Glas , JJ de Vijlder . A negative iodine balance is found in healthy neonates compared with neonates with thyroid agenesis. Journal of Endocrinology 1999; 161: 115–20.

107A Grüters , KP Liesenkötter , H Willgerodt . Persistence of differences in iodine status in newborns after the reunification of Berlin. New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 333: 1429.

108C Roth , J Meller , S Bobrzik , H Thal , W Becker , D Kulenkampff , M Lakomek , H Zappel . Die Jodversorgung von Neugeborenen. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2001; 126: 321–5.

109M Klett , M Ohlig , F Manz , J Tröger , U Heinrich . Effect of iodine supply on neonatal thyroid volume and TSH. Acta Paediatrica 1999; 88: 1820.

110R Ciardelli , D Haumont , D Gnat , F Vertongen , F Delange . The nutritional iodine supply of Belgian neonates is still insufficient. European Journal of Pediatrics 2002; 161: 519–23.

113G Bona , E Chiorboli , A Rapa , G Weber , MC Vigone , G Chiumello . Measurement of urinary iodine excretion to reveal iodine excess in neonatal transient hypothyroidism. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 11: 739–43.

114M Barakat , D Carson , AM Hetherton , P Smyth , H Leslie . Hypothyroidism secondary to topical iodine treatment in infants with spina bifida. Acta Paediatrica 1994; 83: 741–3.

115N Linder , N Davidovitch , B Reichman , J Kuint , D Lubin , J Meyerovitch , BA Sela , Z Dolfin , J Sack . Topical iodine-containing antiseptics and subclinical hypothyroidism in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics 1997; 131: 434–9.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *