Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Linolenic acid and folate in wild-growing African dark leafy vegetables (morogo)

  • Anna M van der Walt (a1), Mohamed IM Ibrahim (a1), Cornelius C Bezuidenhout (a1) and Du Toit Loots (a2)
Abstract
AbstractBackground

Transition from a low-fat vegetable-rich rural diet to a high-fat Westernised diet is considered a factor in the escalating occurrence of vascular-related diseases and type 2 diabetes in urban black South Africans. Consumption of morogo is a distinguishing feature of rural African diets.

Objective

To determine fatty acid profiles and folate contents of three widely consumed, wild-growing, African dark green leafy vegetables (morogo).

Design

GC–MS was applied for analysis of fatty acid composition and a validated microbiological assay conducted to determine folic acid contents of wild-growing morogo sampled from deep rural villages in three different geographical regions of South Africa.

Results

Measured fatty acids ranged from 1610·2 to 2941·6 mg/100 g dry mass, with PUFA concentrations 1·4 to 2·8 times those of SFA. Calculated from the relative percentages of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3), the ratio of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-3 PUFA was 1·0:3·4 to 1·0:8·9. The only MUFA was palmitoleic acid (16:1), measured at 34·7 (sd 0·3) to 79·0 (sd 9·3) mg/100 g dry mass, and the predominant SFA was palmitic acid (16:0), measured at 420·6 (sd 83·3) to 662·0 (sd 21·2) mg/100 g dry mass. Folic acid concentration varied from 72 to 217 μg/100 g fresh sample.

Conclusion

Morogo is low-fat food item high in folate and with 18:3n-3 in excess of 18:2n-6, the proposed anti-inflammatory effects of which may lower risks of vascular-related chronic diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Linolenic acid and folate in wild-growing African dark leafy vegetables (morogo)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Linolenic acid and folate in wild-growing African dark leafy vegetables (morogo)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Linolenic acid and folate in wild-growing African dark leafy vegetables (morogo)
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Retha.VanDerWalt@nwu.ac.za
References
Hide All
1.Vorster HH (2002) The emergence of cardiovascular disease during urbanisation of Africans. Public Health Nutr 5, 239243.
2.Levitt N & Mollentze WF (1995) Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: a review of South African studies. In Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle in South Africa,pp. 109–121 [J Fourie and K Steyn, editors]. MRC Technical Report. Tygerberg: Medical Research Council.
3.Panz VR & Joffe BI (1999) Impact of HIV infection and AIDS on prevalence of type 2 diabetes in South Africa in 2010. BMJ 318, 13511352.
4.Van der Merwe M-T, Crowther NJ, Schlaphoff GP, Gray IP, Joffe BI & Lönnroth PN (2000) Evidence for insulin resistance in black women from South Africa. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 13401346.
5.Bourne LT, Lambert E & Steyn K (2002) Where does the black population of South Africa stand on the nutrition transition? Public Health Nutr 5, 157162.
6.Steyn N (2006) Nutrition and chronic diseases of lifestyle in South Africa. In Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle in South Africa: 1995–2005, pp. 33–47 [K Steyn, J Fourie and N Temple, editors]. MRC Technical Report. Tygerberg: Medical Research Council.
7.Jansen van Rensburg WS, Van Averbeke W, Slabbert R, Faber M, Van Jaarsveld P, Van Heerden I, Wenhold F & Oelofse A (2007) African leafy vegetables in South Africa. Water SA 33, 317326.
8.Odhav B, Beekrum S, Akula U & Baijnat H (2006) Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Food Compost Anal 20, 430435.
9.Mnkeni AP, Masika P & Maphaha M (2007) Nutritional quality of vegetable and seed from different accessions of Amaranthus in South Africa. Water SA 33, 377380.
10.Kruger M, Sayed N, Langenhoven M & Holing F (1998) Composition of South African Foods. Vegetables and Fruit. Tygerberg: Medical Research Council.
11.Kalter H (2000) Folic acid and human malformation: a summary and evaluation. Reprod Toxicol 14, 463476.
12.Das UN (2003) Folic acid says NO to vascular disease. Nutrition 19, 686692.
13.Singh RB, Pella D, Mechirova V & Otsuka K (2004) Can brain dysfunction be a predisposing factor for metabolic syndrome? Biomed Pharmacother 58, S56S68.
14.Innis SM (2007) Dietary (n-3) fatty acids in brain development. J Nutr 137, 855859.
15.Simopoulos AP (1991) Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 438463.
16.Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1999) Folic acid. In Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
17.Barton-Wright EC (1961) Practical Methods for the Microbiological Assay of the Vitamin B-complex and Amino Acids. London: United Trade Press.
18.Schippers RR (2002) African Indigenous Vegetables: An Overview of the Cultivated Species, revised ed. Chatham, UK: Natural Sources Institute.
19.Labadarios D, Steyn NP, Maunder E et al. (2005) The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999. Public Health Nutr 8, 533543.
20.Van der Walt AM, Mossanda KSA, Jivan SD, Swart WJ & Bezuidenhout CC (2005) Indigenous African food plants: vehicles of disease or sources of protection? Indilinga 4, 279279.
21.Bourne L & Steyn K (2000) Rural/urban nutrition-related differentials among adult ethnic groups in South Africa, with special emphasis on the black population. S Afr J Clin Nutr 13, S23S28.
22.Steyn NP, Burger S, Monyeki KD, Alberts M & Nthangeni G (2001) Seasonal variation in dietary intake of the adult population of Dikgale. S Afr J Clin Nutr 14, 140145.
23.Simopoulos AP (2001) Evolutionary aspects of diet, essential fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 3, Suppl. D, D8D21.
24.Sanders TAB (1999) Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 70, Suppl. 3, 555S559S.
25.Faber M, Van Jaarsveld PJ & Laubscher R (2007) The contribution of dark-green leafy vegetables to total micronutrient intake of two- to five-year-old children in a rural setting. Water SA 33, 407412.
26.Van Rooyen JM, Kruger HS, Huisamen HW, Wissing MP, Margetts BM, Venter CS & Vorster HH (2000) An epidemiological study of hypertension and its determinants in a population in transition: the THUSA study. J Hum Hypertens 14, 779787.
27.Vorster HH, Wissing MP, Venter CS et al. (2000) The impact of urbanisation on physical, physiological and mental health on Africans in the North West Province of South Africa: the THUSA study. S Afr J Sci 96, 505513.
28.Joffe BI & Seftel HC (1994) Diabetes mellitus in the black communities of Southern Africa. J Intern Med 235, 137142.
29.Puoane T, Steyn K, Bradshaw D, Laubscher R, Fourie J, Lambert V & Mbananga N (2002) Obesity in South Africa: the South African demographic and health survey. Obes Res 10, 10381048.
30.Lombardo YB & Chicco AG (2006) Effects of dietary polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in rodents and humans. A review. J Nutr Biochem 17, 113.
31.Suresh Y & Das UN (2003) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and chemically-induced diabetes mellitus: effect of ω-3 fatty acids. Nutrition 19, 213228.
32.Renaud S, Godsey F, Dumont E, Thevenon C, Ortchanian E & Martin JL (1986) Influence of long-term diet modification on platelet function and composition in Moselle farmers. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 136150.
33.Mills JL (2000) Fortification of foods with folic acid – how much is enough? New Engl J Med 342, 14421445.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 38
Total number of PDF views: 125 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 539 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.