2.Butte, NF, Christiansen, E & Sorensen, TIA (2007) Energy imbalance underlying the development of childhood obesity. Obesity 15, 3056–3066.
3.Hill, J (2004) Physical activity and obesity. Lancet 363, 182.
4.Demory-Luce, D, Morales, M, Nicklas, T et al. (2004) Changes in food group consumption patterns from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 1684–1691.
5.Kimm, SY, Glynn, NW, Obarzanek, E et al. (2005) Relation between the changes in physical activity and body-mass index during adolescence: a multicentre longitudinal study. Lancet 366, 301–307.
6.Lytle, LA, Seifert, S, Greenstein, J et al. (2000) How do children’s eating patterns and food choices change over time? Results from a cohort study. Am J Health Promot 14, 222–228.
7.World Health Organization (2004) Young People’s Health in Context. Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: International Report from 2001/2002 Survey: Health Policy for Children and Adolescents no. 4. Denmark: WHO.
8.Windle, M, Grunbaum, JA, Elliott, M et al. (2004) Healthy passages – A multilevel, multimethod longitudinal study of adolescent health. Am J Prev Med 27, 164–172.
9.Driskell, MM, Dyment, S, Mauriello, L et al. (2008) Relationships among multiple behaviors for childhood and adolescent obesity prevention. Prev Med 46, 209–215.
10.McCaffrey, TA, Rennie, KL, Kerr, MA et al. (2008) Energy density of the diet and change in body fatness from childhood to adolescence: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1230–1237.
11.Bisset, S, Gauvin, L, Potvin, L et al. (2007) Association of body mass index and dietary restraint with changes in eating behaviour throughout late childhood and early adolescence: a 5-year study. Public Health Nutr 10, 780–789.
12.Ludwig, DS, Peterson, KE & Gortmaker, SL (2001) Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357, 505–508.
13.Hill, JO & Peters, JC (1998) Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science 280, 1371–1374.
14.Biddle, SJ, Gorely, T & Stensel, DJ (2004) Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. J Sports Sci 22, 679–701.
15.Joshipura, KJ, Ascherio, A, Manson, JE et al. (1999) Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA 282, 1233–1239.
16.Johnson, S (2004) Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of stroke: an overview. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 7, 665–670.
17.Liu, S, Manson, JE, Lee, IM et al. (2000) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 922–928.
18.Ness, AR & Powles, JW (1997) Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. Int J Epidemiol 26, 1–13.
19.Barton, BA, Eldridge, AL, Thompson, D et al. (2005) The relationship of breakfast and cereal consumption to nutrient intake and body mass index: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 1383–1389.
20.Resnicow, K (1991) The relationship between breakfast habits and plasma cholesterol levels in schoolchildren. J Sch Health 61, 81–85.
21.Nicklas, TA, McQuarrie, A, Fastnaught, C et al. (2002) Efficiency of breakfast consumption patterns of ninth graders: nutrient-to-cost comparisons. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 226–233.
22.Gross, SM, Bronner, Y, Welch, C et al. (2004) Breakfast and lunch meal skipping patterns among fourth-grade children from selected public schools in urban, suburban, and rural Maryland. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 420–423.
23.Nicklas, TA, Myers, L, Reger, C et al. (1998) Impact of breakfast consumption on nutritional adequacy of the diets of young adults in Bogalusa, Louisiana: ethnic and gender contrasts. J Am Diet Assoc 98, 1432–1438.
24.Vereecken, C & Maes, L (2003) A Belgian study on the reliability and relative validity of the health behaviour in school-aged children food frequency questionnaire. Public Health Nutr 6, 581–588.
25.Philippaerts, RM, Matton, L, Wijndaele, K et al. (2006) Validity of a physical activity computer questionnaire in 12- to 18 year old boys and girls. Int J Sports Med 27, 131–136.
26.Haerens, L, De Bourdeaudhuij, I, Maes, L et al. (2007) School based randomized controlled trial of a physical activity intervention among adolescents. J Adolesc Health 40, 258–265.
27.Haerens, L, Deforche, B, Vandelanotte, C et al. (2007) Acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in adolescents. Patient Educ Couns 66, 303–310.
29.Cole, TJ (1990) The LMS method for constructing normalized growth standards. Eur J Clin Nutr 44, 45–60.
30.Cole, TJ & Green, PJ (1992) Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 11, 1305–1319.
31.Hollingshead, AB (1957) Two-factor Index of Social Position. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
32.Newby, PK (2009) Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity? Am J Clin Nutr 89, S1572–S1587.
33.Albertson, AM, Franko, DL, Thompson, D et al. (2007) Longitudinal patterns of breakfast eating in black and white adolescent girls. Obesity 15, 2282–2292.
34.Savige, G, MacFarlane, A, Ball, K et al. (2007) Snacking behaviours of adolescents and their association with skipping meals. Int J Behav Nutr 4, 36.
35.Must, A & Tybor, DJ (2005) Physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a review of longitudinal studies of weight and adiposity in youth. Int J Obes 29, Suppl. 2, S84–S96.
36.Harris, KC, Kuramoto, LK, Schulzer, M & Retallack, JE (2009) Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis. CMAJ 180, 719–726.
37.Corbin, CB (2002) Physical education as an agent of change. Quest 54, 182–195.
38.Sallis, JF & McKenzie, TL (1991) Physical education role in public health. Res Q Exerc Sport 62, 124–137.
39.Stratton, G (1997) Children’s heart rate during British physical education lessons. J Teach Phys Educ 16, 357–367.
40.USDHH: United States Department of Health and Human Services (2000) Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. Washington, DC: DHHS.
41.Sollerhed, AC & Ejlertsson, G (2008) Physical benefits of expanded physical education in primary school: findings from a 3-year intervention study in Sweden. Scand J Med Sci Sports 18, 102–107.
42.Janssen, I, Katzmarzyk, PT, Boyce, WF et al. (2005) Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obes Rev 6, 123–132.
43.Livingstone, MB, Robson, PJ & Wallace, JM (2004) Issues in dietary intake assessment of children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 2, S213–S222.
44.Wareham, NJ & Rennie, KL (1998) The assessment of physical activity in individuals and populations: why try to be more precise about how physical activity is assessed? Int J Obes 22, Suppl. 2, S30–S38.