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Rice consumption, incidence of chronic diseases and risk of mortality: meta-analysis of cohort studies

  • Parvane Saneei (a1) (a2), Bagher Larijani (a3) and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh (a4) (a5)

Abstract

Objective

Findings from cohort studies investigating the association between rice consumption and risk of chronic diseases or mortality have been inconsistent. We performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on all published cohort studies examining white rice consumption in relation to incidence of chronic diseases or risk of mortality.

Design

A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane review, Google Scholar and Scopus databases for relevant cohort studies published until July 2014. For systematic review, we found nineteen studies examining the association between rice intake and risk of chronic diseases (obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, CVD and cancers) or mortality. Cohort studies which reported relative risk (RR) or odds ratio for highest v. lowest intake of rice and chronic diseases or mortality were included in the meta-analysis.

Results

In a meta-analysis on seventeen risk estimates for highest v. lowest category of rice intake, provided from twelve studies, we found a trend towards a positive association (RR; 95 % CI) between rice consumption and risk of all chronic diseases (1·11; 0·96, 1·29); however, significant between-study heterogeneity was found (I 2=70·3 %, P<0·001). Stratified analysis by gender showed a significant positive association between rice consumption and risk of chronic diseases in women (1·40; 1·13, 1·73), but not in men (0·95; 0·72, 1·24). Combining ten effect sizes from five studies showed that high consumption of rice was not significantly associated with mortality (0·97; 0·88, 1·06). Subgroup analysis by gender indicated an inverse association between rice consumption and mortality in men (0·87; 0·81, 0·94), but a trend towards a positive association in women (1·08; 0·97, 1·19).

Conclusions

Although white rice consumption was not found to be associated with individual chronic conditions, we observed a positive association between white rice intake and risk of all overall chronic diseases in women. High rice consumption was related to a modest reduction in risk of mortality in men but not in women. Further studies of these relationships, in different populations, are needed.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email esmaillzadeh@nutr.mui.ac.ir

References

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