Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

  • L Keinan-Boker (a1), PHM Peeters (a1), AA Mulligan (a2), C Navarro (a3), N Slimani (a4), EPIC Study Group on Soy Consumption:, I Mattisson (a5), E Lundin (a6), A McTaggart (a2), NE Allen (a7), K Overvad (a8), A Tjønneland (a9), F Clavel-Chapelon (a10), J Linseisen (a11), M Haftenberger (a12), P Lagiou (a13), V Kalapothaki (a13), A Evangelista (a14), G Frasca (a15), HB Bueno-de-Mesquita (a16), YT van der Schouw (a1), D Engeset (a17), G Skeie (a17), MJ Tormo (a3), E Ardanaz (a18), UR Charrondière (a4) and E Riboli (a14)...
Abstract
AbstractObjective:

The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

Design:

A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5–12%) of all cohorts (n = 36 900) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL.

Results:

In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day−1 for men; 1.9 g day−1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups.

Conclusions:

Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email L.K.Boker@jc.azu.nl
References
Hide All
1Price KR, Fenwick GR. Naturally occurring oestrogens in foods – a review. Food Addit. Contam. 1985; 2: 73106.
2Knight DC, Eden J. Phytoestrogens – a short review. Maturitas 1995; 22: 167–75.
3Mazur W. Phytoestrogen content in foods. Ballières Clin. Endocrin. Metab. 1998; 12: 729–42.
4Mazur W, Fotsis T, Wahala K, Ojala S, Salakka A, Adlercreutz H. Isotope dilution gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method for the determination of isoflavonoids, coumestrol, and lignans in food samples. Anal. Biochem. 1996; 233: 169–80
5Mazur W, Wahala K, Rasku S, Salakka A, Hase T, Adlercreutz H. Lignan and isoflavonoid concentrations in tea and coffee. Br. J. Nutr. 1998; 79: 3745.
6Mazur W, Duke JA, Wahala K, Rasku S, Adlercreutz H. Isoflavonoids and lignans in legumes: nutritional and health aspects in humans. J. Nutr. Biochem. 1998; 9: 193200.
7Horn-Ross PL, Lee M, John EM, Koo J. Sources of phytoestrogen exposure among non-Asian women in California, USA. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 299302.
8De Kleijn MJJ, van der Schouw YT, Wilson PWF, Adlercreutz H, Mazur W, Grobbee DE, et al. Intake of dietary phytoestrogens is low in postmenopausal women in the United States: the Framingham study (1–4). J. Nutr. 2001; 131: 1826–32.
9Keinan Boker L, van der Schouw YT, de Kleijn MJJ, Jacques PF, Grobbee DE, Peeters PHM. Intake of dietary phytoestrogens in Dutch women. J. Nutr. 2002; 132: 1319–28.
10Van Erp Baart AMJ, Brants HAM, Kiely M, Mulligan A, Turrini A, Sermineta C, et al. Isoflavone intakes in different European countries: the VENUS approach [abstract]. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2001; 45: 219.
11Chen Z, Zheng W, Custer LJ, Dai Q, Shu XO, Jin F, et al. Usual dietary consumption of soy foods and its correlation with the excretion rate of isoflavonoids in overnight urine samples among Chinese women in Shanghai. Nutr. Cancer 1999; 33: 82–7.
12Adlercreutz H. Western diet and Western diseases: some hormonal and biochemical mechanisms and associations. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 1990; 50(Suppl. 201): 323.
13Adlercreutz H, Mazur W. Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Ann. Med. 1997; 29: 95120.
14Bingham SA, Atkinson C, Liggins J, Bluck L, Coward A. Phyto-oestrogens: where are we now? Br. J. Nutr. 1998; 79: 393406.
15Setchell KD. Phytoestrogens: the biochemistry, physiology, and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 68(Suppl.): 1333S–46S.
16Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 333: 276–82.
17Van der Schouw YT, de Kleijn MJ, Peeters PH, Grobbee DE. Phyto-oestrogens and, cardiovascular disease risk. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2000; 10: 154–67.
18Alekel DL, StGermain A , Peterson CT, Hanson KB, Stewart JW, Toda T. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000; 72: 844–52.
19Horiuchi T, Onouchi T, Takahashi M, Ito H, Orimo H. Effect of soy protein on bone metabolism in postmenopausal Japanese women. Osteoporosis Int. 2000; 11: 721–4.
20Wangen KE, Duncan AM, Merz-Demlow BE, Xu X, Marcus R, Phipps WR, et al. Effect of soy isoflavones on markers of bone turnover in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2000; 85: 3043–8.
21Kronenberg F. Hot flashes. In: Lobo RA, ed. Treatment of the Postmenopausal Woman. New York: Raven Press, 1994; 97116.
22Messina M, Persky V, Setchell KD, Barnes S. Soy intake and cancer risk: a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutr. Cancer 1994; 21: 113–31.
23Peeters PHM, Keinan Boker L, van de Schouw YT, Grobbee DE. Phytoestrogens and breast cancer risk. Review of the epidemiological evidence. Breast Cancer Treat. Res. 2002; in press.
24Rose DP, Boyar AP, Wynder EL. International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer 1986; 58: 2363–71.
25Riboli E. Nutrition and cancer: background and rationale of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Ann. Oncol. 1992; 3: 783–91.
26Riboli E, Hunt KJ, Slimani N, Ferrari P, Norat T, Fahey M, et al. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(6B): 1113–24.
27Plummer M, Clayton D, Kaaks R. Calibration in multi-centre cohort studies. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1994; 23: 419–26.
28Kaaks R, Plummer M, Riboli E, Estee J, van Staveren WA. Adjustment for bias due to errors in exposure assessments in multi-center cohort studies on diet and cancer: a calibration approach. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 59(Suppl.): S245–50.
29Kaaks R, Riboli E, van Staveren WA. Calibration of dietary intake measurements in prospective cohort studies. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1995; 142: 548–56.
30Kaaks R, Riboli E. Validation and calibration of dietary intake in measurements in the EPIC project. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 26(Suppl. 1): S15–25.
31Slimani N, Kaaks R, Ferrari P, Casagrande C, Clavel-Chapelon F, Lotze G, et al. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(6B): 1125–45.
32Slimani N, Deharveng G, Charrondière UR, van Kappel AL, Ocké MC, Welch A, et al. Structure of the standardized computerized 24-hour diet recall interview used as reference method in 22 centres participating in the EPIC project. Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 1999; 53: 251–66.
33Voss S, Charrondière UR, Slimani N, Kroke A, Riboli E, Wahrendorf J, et al. EPIC-SOFT a European computer program for 24-hour-dietrary protocols [in German]. Z. Ernahrungswiss. 1998; 37: 227–33.
34Slimani N, Ferrari P, Ocké M, Welch A, Boeing H, Liere M, et al. Standardisation of the 24-hour diet recall calibration method used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): general concepts and preliminary results. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000; 54: 900–17.
35SPSS, Inc. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 9.0. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc., 1998.
36Wakai K, Egami I, Kato K, Kawamura T, Tamakoshi A, Lin A, et al. Dietary intake and sources of isoflavones among Japanese. Nutr. Cancer 1999; 33: 139–45.
37Kim J, Kwon C. Estimated dietary isoflavone intake in Korean population based on National Nutrition Survey. Nutr. Res. 2001; 21: 947–53.
38 USDA–Iowa State University Database on the Isoflavone Content of Foods – 1999 [online]. Available at http://www.nalusda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/isoflav/isfl_tbl.pdf.
39Shu XO, Jin F, Dai Q, Wen W, Potter JD, Kushi LH, et al. Soyfood intake during adolescence and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2001; 10: 483–8.
40Ho SC, Woo JL, Leung SS, Sham AL, Lam TH, Janus ED. Intake of soy products is associated with better plasma lipid profiles in the Hong Kong Chinese population. J. Nutr. 2000; 130: 2590–3.
41Strom SS, Yamamura Y, Duphrone CM, Spitz MR, Babaian RJ, Pillow PC, et al. Phytoestrogen intake and prostate cancer: a case control study using a new database. Nutr. Cancer 1999; 33: 20–5.
42Goodman-Gruen D, Kritz-Silverstein D. Usual dietary, isoflavone intake is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. J. Nutr. 2001; 13: 1202–6.
43Bookwalter GN. Soy protein utilization in food systems. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1978; 105: 749–66.
44Vidal C, Perez-Carral C, Chomon B. Unsuspected sources of soybean exposure. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997; 79: 350–2.
45Meyer R, Chardonnens F, Hubner P, Luthy J. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the quality and safety assurance of food: detection of soya in processed meat products. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 1996; 203: 339–44.
46Verkasalo PK, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Davey G, Adlercreutz H, Key TJ. Soya intake and plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein: validity of dietary assessment among eighty British women (Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Br. J. Nutr. 2001; 86: 18.
47Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1999; 58: 271–5.
48Janelle KC, Bart SI. Nutrient intakes, and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1995; 95: 180–6.
49Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJA. The Oxford vegetarian study: an overview. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 70(Suppl.): 525S–31S.
50Haddad EH, Berk LS, Kettering JD, Hubbard RW, Peters WR. Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 70(Suppl.): 586S–93S.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 333 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 364 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.