1Michaud, DS, Spiegelman, D, Clinton, SK, Rimm, EB, Willett, WC, Giovannucci, EL. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 605–13.
2Verhoeven, DT, Goldbohm, RA, van Poppel, G, Verhagen, H, van den Brandt, PA. Epidemiological studies of Brassica vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 1996; 5: 733–48.
3Lin, HJ, Probst-Hensch, NM, Louie, AD, Kau, IH, Witte, JS, Ingles, SA, Frankl, HD, Lee, ER, Haile, RW. Glutathione transferase null geonotype, broccoli, and lower prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 1998; 7: 647–52.
4Hebert, JR, Peterson, KE, Hurley, TG, Stoddard, AM, Cohen, N, Field, AE, Sorensen, GT. The effect of social desirability trait on self-reported dietary measures among multi-ethnic female health center employees. Ann. Epidemiol. 2001; 11: 417–27.
5Hebert, JR, Clemow, L, Pbert, L, Ockene, IS, Ockene, JK. Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1995; 24: 389–98.
6Shapiro, TA, Fahey, JW, Wade, KL, Stephenson, KK, Talalay, P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2001; 10: 501–8.
7Kaaks, RJ. Biochemical markers as additional measurements in studies of the accuracy of dietary questionnaire measurements: conceptual issues. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 65: 1232–9.
8Ye, L, Dinkova-Kostova, AT, Wade, KL, Zhang, Y, Shapiro, T, Talalay, P. Quantitative determination of dithiocarbamates in human plasma, serum erythrocytes, and urine: pharmacokinetics of broccoli sprout isothiocyanates in humans. Clin. Chim. Acta 2002; 316: 43–53.
9Zhang, Y, Wade, KL, Prestera, T, Talalay, P. Quantitative determination of isothiocyanates, dithiocarbamates, carbon disulfide, and related thiocarbonyl compounds by cyclocondensation of 1,2-benzenedithiol. Anal. Biochem. 1996; 239: 160–7.
10Shapiro, TA, Fahey, JW, Wade, KL, Stephenson, KK, Talalay, P. Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of Cruciferous vegetables. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 1998; 7: 1091–100.
11Seow, A, Shi, C-Y, Chung, F-L, Jiao, D, Hankin, JH, Lee, H-P, Coetzee, GA, Yu, MC. Urinary total isothiocyanate (ITC) in a population-based sample of middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore: relationship with dietary total ITC and glutathione S-transferase M1/T1/P1 genotypes. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 1998; 7: 775–81.
12London, SJ, Yuan, J-M, Chung, F-L, Gao, Y-T, Coetzee, GA, Ross, RK, Yu, MC. Isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms, and lung-cancer risk: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Lancet 2000; 356: 724–9.
13Fowke, JH, Longcope, C, Hebert, JR. Brassica vegetable consumption shifts estrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2000; 9: 773–9.
14Nugon-Baudon, L, Rabot, S. Glucosinolates and glucosinolate derivatives: implications for protection against chemical carcinogenesis. Nutr. Res. Rev. 1994; 7: 205–31.
15Hebert, JR, Ockene, IS, Hurley, TG, Luippold, R, Well, AD, Harmatz, MG. Development and testing of a seven-day dietary recall. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1997; 50: 925–37.
16Buzzard, IM, Faucett, CL, Jeffrey, RW, McBane, L, McGovern, P, Baxter, JS, Shapiro, AC, Blackburn, GL, Chlebowski, RT, Elashoff, RM, Wynder, EL. Monitoring dietary change in a low-fat diet intervention study: advantages of using 24-hour dietary recalls vs food records. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1996; 96: 574–9.
17Marlowe, D, Crowne, D. Social desirability and responses to perceived situational demands. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1961; 25: 109–15.
18Martin, HJ. A revised measure of approval motivation and its relationship to social desirability. J. Pers. Assess. 1984; 48: 508–16.
19Kleinbaum, DG, Kupper, LL, Muller, KE. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. Boston, MA: PWS-Kent Publishing, 1988.
20Ocké, MC, Kaaks, RJ. Biochemical markers of additional measurements in dietary validity studies: application of the method of triads with examples from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 65: 1240–5.
21Decarli, A, Franceschi, S, Ferraroni, M, Gnagnarella, P, Parpinel, MT, LaVecchia, C, Negri, E, Salvini, S, Falcini, F, Giacosa, A. Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intakes in cancer studies in Italy: results for specific nutrients. Ann. Epidemiol. 1996; 6: 110–8.
22Salvini, S, Hunter, DJ, Sampson, L, Stempfer, M, Colditz, GA, Rosner, B, Willett, WC. Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1989; 18: 858–67.
23Kaaks, R, Riboli, E, Estève, J. Estimating the accuracy of dietary questionnaire assessments: validation in terms of structural equation models. Stats. Med. 1994; 13: 127–42.
24Marshall, JR, Lanza, E, Bloch, A, Caan, G, Caggiula, A, Quandt, S, Iber, F, Kikendall, W, Slattery, M, Sowell, A. Indexes of food and nutrient intakes as predictors of serum concentrations of nutrients: the problem of inadequate discriminant validity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 65: 1269–74.
25Ocke, MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB, Pols, MA, Smit, HA, van Staveren, WA, Kranhout, D. The Dutch EPIC food frequency questionnaire. II. Relative validity and reproducibility for nutrients. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 26: S49–58.
26Willett, W. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
27Katsouyanni, K, Rimm, EB, Gnardellis, C, Trichopoulos, D, Polychronopoulos, E, Trichopoulou, A. Reproducibility and relative validity of an extensive semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire using dietary records and biochemical markers among Greek schoolteachers. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 26: S118–27.
28Howard, LA, Jeffrey, EH, Wallig, MA, Klein, BP. Retention of phytochemicals in fresh and processed broccoli. J. Food Sci. 1997; 62: 1098–100.
29Fowke, JH, Fahey, JW, Stephenson, K, Hebert, JR. Using isothiocyanate excretion as a biological marker of Brassica consumption: evaluating the sources of variability. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 837–46.
30Fahey, JW, Stephenson, KK. Cancer chemoprotective effects of cruciferous vegetables. Horticult. Sci. 1999; 34: 1159–63.