Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Megalakes in the Sahara? A Review

  • J. Quade (a1), E. Dente (a2) (a3), M. Armon (a2), Y. Ben Dor (a2), E. Morin (a2), O. Adam (a2) and Y. Enzel (a2)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.
Abstract

The Sahara was wetter and greener during multiple interglacial periods of the Quaternary, when some have suggested it featured very large (mega) lakes, ranging in surface area from 30,000 to 350,000 km2. In this paper, we review the physical and biological evidence for these large lakes, especially during the African Humid Period (AHP) 11–5 ka. Megalake systems from around the world provide a checklist of diagnostic features, such as multiple well-defined shoreline benches, wave-rounded beach gravels where coarse material is present, landscape smoothing by lacustrine sediment, large-scale deltaic deposits, and in places, tufas encrusting shorelines. Our survey reveals no clear evidence of these features in the Sahara, except in the Chad basin. Hydrologic modeling of the proposed megalakes requires mean annual rainfall ≥1.2 m/yr and a northward displacement of tropical rainfall belts by ≥1000 km. Such a profound displacement is not supported by other paleo-climate proxies and comprehensive climate models, challenging the existence of megalakes in the Sahara. Rather than megalakes, isolated wetlands and small lakes are more consistent with the Sahelo-Sudanian paleoenvironment that prevailed in the Sahara during the AHP. A pale-green and discontinuously wet Sahara is the likelier context for human migrations out of Africa during the late Quaternary.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author at: Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 1040 East Fourth Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. E-mail address: quadej@email.arizona.edu (J. Quade).
References
Hide All
Abafoni, J.D., Arabi, A.S., Funtua, I.I., 2014. Luminescence chronology of the Bama Beach Ridge, Chad Basin, north-eastern Nigeria. Quaternary International 338, 4250.
Adam, O., Bischoff, T., Schneider, T., 2016. Seasonal and interannual variations of the energy flux equator and ITCZ. Part I: Zonally averaged ITCZ position. Journal of Climate 29, 32193230.
Adams, K.D., Wesnousky, S.G., 1998. Shoreline processes and the age of Lake Lahontan highstand, Nevada and California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 110, 13181332.
Agassiz, A., 1876. Hydrological sketch of Lake Titicaca. Proceedings of the American Academy of Science 3, 283.
Amante, C., Eakins, B.W., 2009. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5C8276M.
Armitage, S.J., Bristow, C.S., Drake, N.A., 2015. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112, 85438548.
Armitage, S.J., Drake, N.A., Stokes, S., El-Hawat, A., Salem, M.J., White, K., Tunrer, P., McLaren, S.J., 2007. Multiple phases of North African humidity recorded in lacustrine sediment from the Fezzan Basin, Libyan Sahara. Quaternary Geochronology 2, 181186.
Ashley, G.M., Tactikos, J.C., Owen, R.B., 2008. Hominid use of springs and wetlands: paleoclimate and archeological remains at Olduvai Gorge (1.79-1.74 Ma). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 272, 116.
Barth, C., Boyle, D.P., Hatchett, B.J., Bassett, S.D., Garner, C.B., Adams, K.D., 2016. Late Pleistocene climate inferences from a water balance model of Jakes Valley, Nevada (USA). Journal of Paleolimnology 56, 109122.
Bills, B.G., Adams, K.D., Wesnousky, S.G., 2007. Viscosity structure of the crust and upper mantle in western Nevada from isostatic rebound patterns of the late Pleistocene Lake Lahontan high shoreline. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, B06405.
Blum, M., Kocurek, G., Deynoux, M., Swezey, C., Lancaster, N., Price, D.M., Pion, J.-C., 1998. Quaternary wadi, lacustrine, aeolian depositional cycles and sequences, Chott Rharsa basin, southern Tunisia. In: Alsharan, A.S., Glennie, K.W., Whittle, G.L., Kendall, C.G.S.C. (Eds.), Quaternary Deserts and Climatic Change. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 539552.
Bouchette, F., Schuster, M., Gienne, M., Denamiel, J.F., Roquim, C., Moussa, C., Marseleix, A., Duringer, P., 2010. Hydrodynamics and Holocene Lake Megachad. Quaternary Research 73, 226236.
Braconnot, P., Harrison, S.P., Kageyama, M., Bartlein, P.J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Ade-Ouchi, A., Otto-Bliesner, B., Zhao, Y., 2012. Evaluation of climate models using palaeoclimatic data. Nature Climate Change 2, 417424.
Brooks, N., Drake, N.A., McLaren, S., White, K.H., 2003. Studies in geography, geomorphology, environment, and climate. In: Mattingley, D.J.M., Dore, J., Wilson, A.I. (Eds.), The Archeology of the Fezzan Vol. 1, Synthesis, Society for Libyan Studies, London, pp. 3774.
Burrough, S. L., Thomas, D. S.G., Bailey, R.M., 2009. Megalake in the Kalahari: a late Pleistocene record of the Palaeolake Makgadikgadi system. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 13921411.
Causse, C., Ghaleb, B., Chkir, N., Zouari, K., Ouezdou, H.B., Mamou, A., 2003. Humidity changes in southern Tunisia during the late Pleistocene inferred from U-Th dating of mollusk shell. Applied Geochemistry 18, 16911703.
Chen, C., McGee, J., Quade, J., 2015. Mapping South American summer monsoon changes during Heinrich Event 1 and the LGM: insights from New Paleolake records from the Central Andes. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting, abstract PP33D-06.
Chiang, J.C.H., Friedman, A.R., 2012. Extratropical cooling, interhemispheric thermal gradients, and tropical climate change. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 40, 383412.
Claussen, M., Dallmeyer, A., Bader, J., 2017. Theory and modeling of the African humid period and the green Sahara. In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.532.
Claussen, M., Kubatzki, C., Brivkin, V., Ganpolski, A., Hoelzmann, P., Pachur, H.-J., 1999. Simulation of an abrupt change in Saharan vegetation in the mid-Holocene. Geophysical Research Letters 26, 20372040.
Coe, M.T., 1997. Simulating continental surface waters: an application to Holocene northern Africa. Journal of Climate 10, 16801689.
Cohen, A.S., 2003. Paleolimnology: History and Evolution of Lake Systems. Oxford University Press, New York.
Cohen, T.J., Nanson, G.C., Jansen, J.D., Jones, B.G., Jacobs, Z., Treble, P., Price, D.M., et al., 2011. Continental aridification and the vanishing of Australia’s megalakes. Geology 39, 167170.
Conrad, G., 1969. L’évolution continentale, post-hercynienne, du Sahara algeérien. Zones arides, série géologie 10. Éditions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Paris.
Conrad, G., Lappartient, J.R., 1991. The appearance of Cardium fauna in the great lakes of the early Quaternary period in the Algerian central Desert. Journal of African Earth Sciences 12, 375382.
Coulthard, T.J., Ramirez, J.A., Barton, N., Rogerson, M., Brücher, T., 2013. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa. PLoS ONE 8, e74834.
Cremaschi, M., Zerboni, A., Spötl, C., Felleti, F., 2010. The calcareous tufa in the Tadrart Acacus Mt. (SW Fezzan, Libya). An early Holocene palaeoclimate archive in the central Sahara. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 287, 8194.
Drake, N., Blench, R.M., Armitage, S.J., Bristow, C.S., White, K.H., 2011. Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108, 458462.
Drake, N., Bristow, C., 2006. Shorelines in the Sahara: geomorphological evidence for an enhanced monsoon from palaeolake Chad. The Holocene 16, 901911.
Edmunds, W.M., Wright, E.P., 1979. Groundwater recharge and palaeoclimate in the Sirte and Kufra basins, Libya. Journal of Hydrology 40, 215241.
Elsawwaf, M., Willems, P., Pagano, A., Berlamont, J., 2010. Evaporation estimates from Nasser Lake, Egypt, based on three floating station data and Bowen ratio energy budget. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 100, 439465.
Elsheikh, A., Abdelsalam, M.G., Mickus, K., 2011. Geology and geophysics of the West Nubian paleolake and the northern Darfur megalake (WNPL-NDML): implication for groundwater resources in Darfur, northwestern Sudan. Journal of African Earth Sciences 61, 8293.
Enzel, Y., Brown, W. J., Anderson, R. Y., McFadden, L. D., Wells, S. G., 1992. Short-duration Holocene lakes in the Mojave River drainage basin, southern California. Quaternary Research 38, 6073.
Enzel, Y., Kushnir, Y., Quade, J., 2015. Lacustrine-like marsh deposits in Arabia and the impact of the early-middle Holocene Indian and African summer monsoon rains. Global and Planetary Change 129, 6991.
Enzel, Y., Quade, J., Kushnir, Y., 2017. Reply to comment by M. Engel et al., Hydroclimatology and paleohydrology of Arabia: Assessing the magnitude of early-to-middle Holocene Indian and African monsoon impacts. Global and Planetary Change 148, 268271.
Enzel, Y., Wells, S.G., 1997. Extracting Holocene paleohydrology and paleoclimatology information from modern extreme flood events: an example from southern California. Geomorphology 19, 203226.
Fabre, J., Petit-Maire, N., 1988. Holocene climatic evolution at 22–23° N from two palaeolakes in the Taoudenni area (northern Mali). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 65, 133148.
Fontes, J.Ch., Gasse, F., 1991. Chronology of the major palaeohydrological events in NW Africa during the late Quaternary: PALHYDAF results. Hydrobiologia 214, 367372.
Forester, R.M., Carter, C., Quade, J., Smith, A.J., 2016. Aquifer and surface-water ostracodes in Quaternary paleowetland deposits of southern Nevada, USA. Hydrobiologia. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-016-2966-5.
Gash, J.H.C., Wallace, J.S., Lloyd, C.R., Dolman, A.J., 1991. Measurements of evaporation from the fallow Sahelian savannah at the start of the dry season. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 117, 749760.
Gaven, C., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Petiti-Maire, N., 1981. A Pleistocene lacustrine episode in southeastern Libya. Nature 90, 131133.
Ghienne, J.-F., Schuster, M., Bernard, A., Duringer, Ph., Brunet, M., 2002. The Holocene giant Lake Chad revealed by digital elevation models. Quaternary International 87, 8185.
Ghoneim, E., El-Baz, F., 2007. DEM-optical-radar data integration for the paleohydrological mapping of the northern Darfur, Sudan: implication for groundwater exploration. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28, 50015018.
Gilbert, G.K., 1890. Lake Bonneville. U.S. Geological Survey Monograph 1, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Grunert, J., Baumhauer, R., Völkel, J., 1991. Lacustrine sediments and Holocene climates in the southern Sahara: the example of paleolakes in the Grand Erg of Bilma (Zoo Baba and Dibella, eastern Niger). Journal of African Earth Sciences 12, 133146.
Hastenrath, S.L., Kutzbach, J.E., 1983. Paleoclimate estimates from water and energy budgets of East African lakes. Quaternary Research 19, 141153.
Haynes, C.V. Jr., 1987. Curry Draw, Cochise County, Arizona: a late Quaternary stratigraphic record of Pleistocene extinction and paleo-Indian activities. In: Hill, M. (Ed.), Cordilleran Section of the Geological Society of America Centennial Field Guide No. 1. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp. 2328.
Haynes, C.V. Jr., Eyles, C.H., Pavlish, L.A., Ritchie, J.C., Rybak, M., 1989. Holocene palaeoecology of the eastern Sahara; Selima Oasis. Quaternary Science Reviews 8, 109136.
Haynes, C.V. Jr., Mead, A.R., 1982. Radiocarbon dating and paleoclimatic significance of subfossil Limicolaria . Quaternary Research 28, 8699.
Hély, C., Lézine, A.-M., ADP contributors. 2014. Holocene changes in African vegetation: trade-off between climate and water availability. Climate of the Past 10, 681686.
Hettner, A., 1889. Zweiter Bericht von Herrn Alfred Hettner uber siene Reisen in Peru and Bolivia. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, no. 6.
Hoelzmann, P., Gasse, F., Dupont, L. M., Salzmann, H., Staubwasser, M., Leuschner, D. C., Sirocko, F., 2004. Palaeoenvironmental changes in the arid and sub arid belt (Sahara-Sahel-Arabian Peninsula) from 150 kyr to present. In: Battarbee, R. W., Gasse, F., Stickley, C. E. (Eds.), Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 219256.
Hoelzmann, P., Kruse, H-J., Rottinger, F., 2000. Precipitation estimates for the eastern Saharan paleomonsoon based on a water balance model of the west Nubian palaeolake basin. Global and Planetary Change Science 26, 105120.
Hollett, K. J., Danskin, W. R., McCaffrey, W. F., Walti, C.L., 1991. Geology and Water Resources of Owens Valley, California. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2370–B. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Howell, P.P., Lock, M., Cobb, S., 1988. The Jonglei Canal: Impact and Opportunity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hudson, A.M., Quade, J., 2013. J., Long-term east-west asymmetry in monsoon intensification on the Tibetan Plateau. Geology 41, 351354.
Hudson, A., Quade, J., Huth, T., Lei, G., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Olsen, J.W, Zhang, H., 2015. Lake-level reconstruction for 12.8-2.3 ka of the Ngangla Ring Tso closed-basin lake system, southwest Tibetan Plateau. Quaternary Research 83, 6679.
Huth, T., Hudson, A.M., Quade, J., 2015. A paleohydrologic reconstruction of early Holocene climate from Baqan Tso in central Tibet. Quaternary Research 83, 8093.
Jolly, D., Prentice, I.C., Bonnefille, R., Ballouche, A., Bengo, M., Brenac, P., Buchet, G., et al., 1998. Biome reconstruction from pollen and plant macrofossil data for Africa and Arabian Peninsula at 0 to 6000 years. Journal of Biogeography 25, 10071027.
Joussaume, S., Taylor, K.E., Braconnot, P., MItchell, J.F.B., Kutzbach, J.E., Harrison, S.P., Prentice, I.C., et al., 1999. Monsoon changes for 6000 years ago: results of 18O modeling for the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). Geophysical Research Letters 26, 859862.
Kaufman, A., Broecker, W.S., Ku, T.-L., Thurber, D.L., 1971. The status of U-series methods of mollusk dating. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35, 11551183.
Kendall, R.L., 1969. An ecological history of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ecological Monographs 39, 121176.
Kite, G.W., 1982. Analysis of Lake Victoria lake levels. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin 27, 99100.
Kröpelin, S., Vershuren, D., Lezine, A.-M., Eggermont, H., Coquyt, C., Francus, P., Cazet, J.-P., et al., 2008. Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years. Science 320, 765768.
Kuper, R., Kröpelin, S., 2006. Climate-controlled Holocene occupation of the Sahara: motor of Africa’s evolution. Science 313, 803807.
Kutzbach, J., 1980. Estimates of past climate at paleolake Chad, North Africa, based on a hydrological and energy-balanced model. Quaternary Research 14, 210223.
Kutzbach, J.E., 1981. Monsoon climate of the early Holocene: climate experiment with the Earth’s orbital parameters for 9000 years ago. Science 278, 5961.
Kutzbach, J.E., Liu, Z., 1997. Response of the African monsoon to orbital forcing and ocean feedbacks in the middle Holocene. Science 278, 440443.
Lartet, L., 1869. Essai sur la Geology de la Palestine et des Contrees Avoisinantes. Telles Que l’Egypte et l’Arabie, Comprenant les Observations Recuellies dans le Cours de l’Expedition du Duc de Luynes a la Mer Morte. Imprimerie de E. Martinet, Paris.
Lebatard, A.-E., Bourles, D.L., Braucher, R., Arnold, M., Duringer, P., Jolivet, M., Moussa, A., et al., 2010. Application of the authigenic 10Be/9Be dating method to continental sediments: reconstruction of the Mio-Pleistocene sedimentary sequence in the early hominid fossiliferous areas of the northern Chad Basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 297, 5770.
LeBlanc, M., Favreau, G., Maley, J., Nazoumou, Y., Leduc, C., Stagnitti, F., Van Oevelen, P.J., Delclaux, F., Lamoalle, J., 2006. Reconstruction of Megalake Chad using Shuttle Radar Topographic mission data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 239, 1627.
Lézine, A.M., Hély, C., Grenier, C., Braconnot, P., 2011. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate change, lessons from the Holocene hydrological data. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 30013012.
Lifton, N. A., Jull, A. J., Quade, J., 2001. A new extraction technique and production rate estimate for in situ cosmogenic 14C in quartz. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, 19531969.
Maduapuchi, C., Faye, S., Maloszewski, P., 2006. Isotope evidence of palaeorecharge and palaeoclimate in the confined aquifers of the Chad Basin, NE Nigeria. Science of the Total Environment 370, 467479.
McCauley, J.F., Schaber, G.G., Breed, C.S., Grolier, M. J., Haynes, C.V., Issawi, B., Elachi, C., Blom, R., 1982. Subsurface valleys and geoarchaeology of the eastern Sahara revealed by shuttle radar. Science 218, 10041020.
McHugh, W.P., Breed, C.S., Schaber, G.G., McCauley, J.F., Szabo, B.J., 1988. Acheulian sites along “radar rivers,” southern Egyptian Sahara. Journal of Field Archaeology 15, 361379.
Mifflin, M. D., Wheat, M. M., 1979. Pluvial Lakes and Estimated Pluvial Climates of Nevada. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 94. University of Nevada, Reno.
Minchin, J.B., 1882. Notes on a journey through part of the Andean tableland of Bolivia. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 4, 671676.
Mischke, S., Ginat, H., Salem Al-Saqarat, B., Faershtein, G., Porat, N., Braun, P., Rech, J.A., 2017. Fossil-based reconstructions of ancient water bodies in the Levantine deserts. In: Enzel, Y., Bar-Yosef, O. (Eds.), Quaternary of the Levant: Environments, Climate Change, and Humans. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 381390.
Monteith, J.L., 1991. Weather and water in the Sudano-Sahelian zone. Soil water balances in the Sudano-Sahleian Zone. In: Proceedings of the Niamey Workshop, Niamey, Niger, February 1991. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publ. No. 199, 11–29.
Nicholson, S.E., 2009. A revised picture of the structure of the “monsoon” and land ITCZ over West Africa. Climate Dynamics 32, 11551171.
Omar, M.H., El-Bakry, M.M., 1981. Estimation of evaporation from the lake of the Aswan high dam (Lake Nasser) based on measurements over the lake. Agricultural Meteorology 23, 293308.
Osborne, A. H., Vance, D., Rihling, E.J., Barton, N., Rogerson, M., Fello, N., 2008. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, 1644416447.
Pachur, H.J., Hoelzmann, P., 1991. Paleoclimatic implications of late Quaternary lacustrine sediments in Western Nubia. Quaternary Research 36, 257276.
Pachur, H.J., Rottinger, F., 1997. Evidence for a large extended paleolake in the eastern Sahara as revealed by space borne radar lab images. Remote Sensing of the Environment 61, 437440.
Paillou, P., Schuster, M., Tooth, S., Farr, T., Rosenqvist, A., Lopez, S., Malezieux, J.-M., 2009. Mapping of a major paleodrainage system in eastern Libya using orbital imaging radar: the Kufrah River. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277, 327333.
Petit-Maire, N., Riser, J., 1981. Holocene lake deposits and palaeoenvironments in central Sahara, northeastern Mali. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 35, 4561.
Peyron, O., Jolly, D., Braconnet, P., Bonnefille, R., Guiot, J., Wirrman, D., Chalie, F., 2006. Quantitative reconstructions of annual rainfall in Africa 6000 years ago; model-data comparison. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, D24110.
Pigati, J.S., Miller, D.M., Bright, J., Mahan, S.A., Nekola, J.C., Paces, J.B., 2011. Chronology, sedimentology, and microfauna of the ground-water discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert, Valley Wells, California, USA. Geological Society of America Bulletin 123, 22242239.
Pigati, J.S., Rech, J.A., Quade, J., Bright, J., 2014. Desert wetlands in the geologic record. Earth-Science Reviews 132, 6781.
Placzek, C., Quade, J., Patchett, P. J., 2006. Geochronology and stratigraphy of late Pleistocene lake cycles on the southern Bolivian Altiplano: implications for causes of tropical climate change. Geological Society of America Bulletin 118, 515532.
Quade, J., Forester, R. M., Pratt, W. L., Carter, C., 1998. Black mats, spring-fed streams, and late-glacial-age recharge in the southern Great Basin. Quaternary Research 49, 129148.
Quade, J., Forester, R., Whelan, J., 2003. Late Quaternary paleohydrologic and paleotemperature change in southern Nevada. In: Enzel, Y., Wells, S., Lancaster, N. (Eds.), Paleoenvironments and Paleohydrology of the Mohave Desert and Southern Great Basin Deserts. Geological Society of America Special Paper 368. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp. 165188.
Quade, J., Mifflin, M. D., Pratt, W. L., McCoy, W., Burckle, L., 1995. Fossil spring deposits in the southern Great Basin and their implications for changes in water-table levels near Yucca Mountain, Nevada during Quaternary time. Geological Society of America Bulletin 107, 213230.
Quade, J., Rech, J, Betancourt, J., Latorre, C., Quade, B, Fisher, T., Rylander, K., 2008. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Quaternary Research 69, 343360.
Rech, J.A., Ginat, H., Catlett, G.A., Mischke, S., Winer, E.R., Pigati, J.S., 2017. Pliocene-Pleistocene water-bodies and associated deposits in southern Jordan and Israel, in Quaternary Environments. In: Enzel, Y., Bar-Yosef, O. (Eds.), Quaternary of the Levant: Environments, Climate Change, and Humans. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 127134.
Rech, J.A., Quade, J., Betancourt, J.L., 2002. Late Quaternary paleohydrology of the central Atacama Desert (lat 22°–24°S), Chile. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114, 334348.
Reeves, J.M., De Deckker, P., Halse, S.A., 2007. Groundwater ostracodes from the Pilbara region of northwestern Australia: distribution and water chemistry. Hydrobiologia 585, 99118.
Reheis, M.C., Adams, K.D., Oviatt, C. G., Bacon, S.N., 2014. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States—a review from outcrop. Quaternary Science Reviews 97, 3357.
Reheis, M. C., Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M., Reynolds, R.L., Repenning, C.A., Mifflin, M.D., 2002. Pliocene to middle Pleistocene lakes in the western Great Basin: ages and connections. In: Hershler, R., Currey, D., Madsen, D. (Eds.), Great Basin Aquatic Systems History. Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Science 33. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp. 53108.
Ritchie, J.C., Eyles, C.H., Haynes, C.V., 1985. Sediment and pollen evidence for an early to mid-Holocene humid period in the eastern Sahara. Nature 314, 352355.
Ritchie, J.C., Haynes, C.V., 1987. Holocene vegetation zonation in eastern Sahara. Nature 330, 645647.
Robinson, C., El-Baz, F., Ozdagan, M., Lewith, M., Banco, D., Oakley, S., Inzana, J., 2000. Use of radar data to delineate palaeodrainage flow directions in the Selima Sand Sheet, Eastern Sahara. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 66, 745753.
Rodwell, M. J., Hoskins, B. J., 1996. Monsoons and the dynamics of deserts. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 122, 13851404.
Schneider, T., Bischoff, T., Haug, G. H., 2014. Migrations and dynamics of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Nature 513, 4553.
Schuster, M, Roquin, C., Duringer, P, Brunet, M., Caugy, M., Fontugne, M., Mackaye, H.T., Vignaud, P., Ghienne, J-F., 2005. Holocene Mega-lake Chad palaeoshorelines from space. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 18211827.
Schwarcz, H., Gascoyne, M., 1984. Uranium-series dating of Quaternary deposits. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy (Quaternary Dating Methods) 7, 3351.
Servant, M., 1973. Séquences continentales et variations climatiques: Evolution du basin du Tchad au Cénozoïque supérior. Thèse Sc., University of Paris. Published in Travaux and Documents ORSTOM, no. 159 (1983).
Servant, M., Servant, S., 1983. Paleolimnology of an upper Quaternary endorheic lake in Chad Basin. In: Carmouze, J.-P., Durand, J.R., Lévêque, C. (Eds.), Ecology and Productivity of a Shallow Tropical Ecosystem. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp. 1126.
Simpson, J.H., 1876. Report on the Explorations across the Great Basin of the Territory of Utah for a Direct Wagon-Route from Camp Floyd to Genoa, in Carson Valley, in 1859. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Skonieczny, C., Paillou, P., Bory, A., Bayon, G., Biscara, L, Crosta, X., Eynaud, F., et al., 2015. African humid periods triggered the reactivation of a large river system in western Sahara. Nature Communications. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9751.
Sonntag, C., Thorweihe, U., Rudolph, J., Lohnert, E.P., Junghans, C., Munnich, K.O., Klitzsch, E., El Shazly, E.M., Swailem, F.M., 1980. Paleoclimatic evidence in apparent 14C ages of Saharian groundwaters. Radiocarbon 22, 871878.
Stansbury, H., 1852. Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, including a Reconnaissance of a New Route through the Rocky Mountains. Lippincott, Grambo, and Co, Philadelphia.
Strachey, H., 1853. Physical geography of western Tibet. Journal of the Royal Society of London 23, 169.
StreetF., A. F., A., Grove, A.T., 1979. Global maps of lake-level fluctuations since 30,000 yr B.P. Quaternary Research 12, 83118.
Su, H., Neelin, J. D., 2005. Dynamical mechanisms for African monsoon changes during the mid-Holocene. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, D19105.
Sultan, M., Sturchio, N.C., Gheith, H., Hady, Y.A., El Anbeawy, M., 2000. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the origin of Wadi El Tarfa ground water, eastern desert. Groundwater 38, 743751.
Sultan, M., Sturchio, N.C., Hassan, F.A., Hamdan, M.A.R., Alfy, Z.A., Stein, T., 1997. Precipitation source inferred from stable isotopic composition of Pleistocene ground-water and carbonate deposits in the western desert of Egypt. Quaternary Research 48, 2937.
Swenson, S., Wahr, J., 2009. Monitoring the water balance of Lake Victoria, East Africa, from space. Journal of Hydrology 370, 163176.
Swezey, C., Lancaster, N., Kocurek, G., Deynoux, M., Blum, M., Price, D.M., Pion, J.-C., 1999. Response of aeolian systems to Holocene climatic and hydrologic changes on the northern margin of the Sahara; a high-resolution record from the Chott Rharsa basin, Tunisia. The Holocene 9, 141147.
Szabo, B.J., Haynes, C.V. Jr., Maxwell, T.A., 1995. Ages of Quaternary pluvial episodes determined by uranium-series and radiocarbon dating of lacustrine deposits of Eastern Sahara. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 113, 227242.
Szabo, B.J., McHugh, W.P., Schaber, G.G., Haynes, C.V. Jr., Breed, C.S., 1989. Uranium–series dated authigenic carbonates and Acheulian sites in southern Egypt. Science 243, 10531056.
TEMPO. 1996. Potential role of vegetation feedback in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions; a case study at 6000 years B.P. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 727736.
Thiedig, F.M., Oezen, D., El-Chair, M., Geyh, M.M., 2000. The absolute age of the Quaternary lacustrine limestone of the Al Mahruqh formation—Murzuk Basin, Libya. In: Sola, M.A., Worsely, D. (Eds.), Geological Exploration of the Marzuk Basin. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 89116.
Thiemeyer, H., 2000. From megachad to microchad—environmental changes during the Holocene. Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268, Band 14, Frankfurt am Main, 11–19.
Tierney, J.E., Pausata, F.S.R., deMenocal, P.B., 2017. Rainfall regimes of the Green Sahara. Science Advances 3, e1601503.
Tilho, J., 1925. Sur l’aire probable d’extension maxima de la mer paleo-tchadienne. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences 181, 643646.
Watrin, J., Lézine, A.M., Hely, C., 2009. Plant migration and plant communities at the time of the “green Sahara. Comptes rendus Geoscience 341, 656670.
Yin, X., Nicholson, S., 1998. The water balance of Lake Victoria. Hydrological Sciences Journal 43, 789811.
Zouari, K., Chkir, N., Causse, C., 1998. Pleistocene humid episodes in southern Tunisian chotts. In: Isotope Techniques in the Study of Environmental Change. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Vienna, April 14–18, 1997, IAEA-SM-349/41, pp. 543–554.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Quade et al. supplementary material
Quade et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (63 KB)
63 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Quade et al. supplementary material
Quade et al. supplementary material 2

 PDF (60 KB)
60 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Quade et al. supplementary material
Quade et al. supplementary material 3

 PDF (58 KB)
58 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Quade et al. supplementary material
Quade et al. supplementary material 4

 PDF (19 KB)
19 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Quade et al. supplementary material
Quade et al. supplementary material 5

 Word (499 KB)
499 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Quade et al. supplementary material
Quade et al. supplementary material 6

 PDF (150 KB)
150 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Quade et al. supplementary material
Quade et al. supplementary material 7

 PDF (384 KB)
384 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

A correction has been issued for this article: