1 Katz Steven, ‘The “Conservative” Character of Mysticism’, in Katz S. (ed.), Mysticism and Religious Traditions(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 40.
2 Influential proponents of the essentialist view include Smart Ninian (see especially ‘Interpretation and Mystical Experience’, Religious Studies, i (1965)), and Underhill Evelyn, Mysticism. (New York: New American Library, 1974).
3 See, for example, Moore Peter, ‘Mystical Experience, Mystical Doctrine, and Mystical Technique’ in Katz Steven (ed.), Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis (London: Sheldon Press, 1978);Gimello Robert, ‘Mysticism and Its Contexts’in Katz Steven (ed.), Mysticism and Religious Traditions;Gill Jerry, ‘Mysticism and Meditation’, in Faith and Philosophy, i (1984);Forman Robert K. C., ‘Eckhart, Gezucken, and the Ground of the Soul’, Studia Mystica, xi, 2 (Summer, 1988);Green Deirdre, ‘Unity in Diversity’, Scottish Journal of Religious Studies, iii, I (Spring, 1982); andEvans Donald, ‘Can Philosophers Limit What Mystics Can Do? A Critique of Steven Katz’, Religious Studies, xxv, I (1989).
4 Hick John, An Interpretation of Religion (London: Macmillan, 1989). All references to this book will be included in brackets in the text body.
5 Evans Donald, ‘Can Philosophers Limit What Mystics Can Do? A Critique of Steven Katz’, p. 54.
6 It should be noted that the constructivist can still argue that heresy is a consequence of the mystic's psychological and socio-religious backgrounds. Although I agree that heresy can in some cases arise in part from the mystic's own personal history and choices, I doubt very much that it is the sole contributing factor in every instance of mystic heresy. For example, critics of Meister Eckhart might argue that Eckhart's heretical-sounding claims were a result solely of his personal hubris and his reading of rather unorthodox theology, but such accounts seem unjustified given Eckhart's moral background and teachings and his Dominican education. More likely, something about his mystical experiences played a large role in his unorthodox mystic theology.
7 Terence Penelhum brought this point to my attention.
8 Caroline Davis Franks, The Evidential Force of Religious Experience (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), p. 165. See especially ch. VI where Franks Davis proposes a theory of concept formation which combines the association and hypothesis-testing theories.
9 Donald Evans suggested this ‘experiential—constructivist’ label to me.
10 Louis Dupré depicts this transformation as a process whereby the mystic ‘comes to share the dynamics of God's inner life, a life not only of rest and darkness, but also of creative activity and life’.Also Dupré comments: ‘The contemplative accompanies God's own move from hiddenness to manifestation within the identity of God's own life’. See ‘The Christian Experience of Mystical Union’, The Journal of Religion, lxix, I (01, 1989), pp. 9 and 10.
11 Green Deirdre, ‘Unity in Diversity’, p. 48.
12 Loughlin Gerard, ‘Prefacing Pluralism: John Hick and the Mastery of Religion’, Modern Theology, vii, I (10, 1990), 47–8.
13 Thanks to John Schellenberg, Brad Abernethy and Terence Penelhum, who helped me to clarify John Hick's perspective as well as obscurities of my own, and to Donald Evans, whose insightful suggestions helped me to focus the critique and revision. Also, I gratefully acknowledge the support of the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, which gave me time to write the paper.