This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
016J.W. Erisman , M.A. Sutton , J. Gallowaz , Y. Klimont , and W. Winiwarter 2008. How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world. Nature Geoscience 1:636–639.
022K.G. Cassman , S. Peng , D.C. Olk , J.K. Ladha , W. Reichardt , A. Dobermann , and U. Singh 1998. Opportunities for increased nitrogen-use efficiency from improved resource management in irrigated rice systems. Field Crops Research 56:7–39.
025A.E. Lyngbaek , R.G. Muschler , and F.L. Sinclair 2001. Productivity and profitability of multistrata organic versus conventional coffee farms in Costa Rica. Agroforestry Systems 53:205–213.
029R.A. Rice and R. Greenberg 2000. Cacao cultivation and the cultivation of biological diversity. Ambio 29(3):167–173.
033J.B. Smith and S.S. Lenhart 1996. Climate change adaptation policy options. Climate Research 6:193–201.
035F. Zhang and L. Li 2003. Using competitive and facilitative interactions in intercropping systems enhance crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency. Plant and Soil 248:305–312.
039R.T. Conant and K. Paustian 2002. Potential soil carbon sequestration in overgrazed grassland ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16:90.1–90.9.
040A. Abril and E.H. Bucher 2001. Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in the western Chaco of Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 16:243–249.
041Ch. Zou , K. Wang , T. Wang , and W. Xu 2007. Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in eastern Inner Mongolia of China. Ecology Research 22:135–142.
043T.G. Benton , J.A. Vickery , and J.D. Wilson 2003. Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:182–188.
044G. Zehnder , G.M. Gurr , St. Kühne , M.R. Wade , St. D. Wratten , and E. Wyss 2007. Arthropod pest management in organic crops. Annual Review of Entomology 52:57–80.
045B. Smolikowski , H. Puig , and E. Roose 2001. Influence of soil protection techniques on runoff, erosion and plant production on semi-arid hillsides of Cabo Verde. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 87:67–80.
046D.B. Lobell , B.B. Marshall , C. Tebaldi , M.D. Mastrandrea , W.P. Falcon , and R.L. Naylor 2008. Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319:607–610.
050P. Smith , D. Martino , Y. Cai , D. Gwary , J. Janzen , P. Kumar , B. McCarl , St. Ogle , M. Howden , T. AcAllister , G. Pan , V. Romanenkov , U. Schneider , S. Towprayoon , M. Wattenbach , and J. Smith 2008. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363:789–813.
052P.J. Crutzen , A.R. Mosier , K.A. Smith , and W. Winiwarter 2007. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 7:11191–11205.
053R. Ruser , H. Flessa , R. Schilling , F. Beese , and J.C. Munch 2001. Effects of crop-specific field management and N fertilization and N2O emissions from a fine-loamy soil. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 59:177–191.
054K.A. Smith , I.P. McTaggart , K.E. Dobbie , and F. Conen 1998. Emissions of N2O from Scottish agricultural soils, as a function of fertilizer N. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52:123–130.
055A.D. Diepeningen , O.J. de Vos , G.W. Korthals , and A.H.C. van Bruggen 2006. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils. Applied Soil Ecology 31:120–135.
057J.W. Van Groeningen , G.J. Kasper , G.L. Velthof , A. van den Pol/van Dasselaar , and P.J. Kuikman 2004. Nitrous oxide emissions from silage maize fields under different mineral fertilizer and slurry application. Plant and Soil 263:101–111.
058P. Rochette , D.A. Angers , M.H. Chantigny , B. Gagnon , and N. Bertrand 2008. N2O fluxes in soils of contrasting textures fertilized with liquid and solid dairy cattle manure. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 88:175–187.
059Ch. Dambreville , Th. Morvan , and J.C. German 2007. N2O emission in maize crops fertilized with pig slurry, matured pig manure or ammonia nitrate in Brittany. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 123:201–210.
060H. Flessa and F. Beese 1995. Effects of sugar beet residues on soil redox potential and nitrous oxide emission. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59:1044–1051.
061H. Flessa and F. Beese 2000. Laboratory estimates of trace gas emissions following surface application and injection of cattle slurry. Journal of Environmental Quality 29:262–268.
062K.A. Smith 1997. The potential for feedback effects induced by global warming on emissions of nitrous oxide by soils. Global Change Biology 3:327–338.
063R. Ruser , H. Flessa , R. Schilling , H. Steindl , and F. Beese 1998. Effects of soil compaction and fertilization on N2O and CH4 fluxes in potato fields. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62:1587–1595.
065J.D. Glover , J.P. Reganold , and P.K. Andrews 1999. Systematic method for rating soil quality of conventional, organic and integrated apple orchards in Washington State. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 80(2000):29–45.
066J.P. Reganold , A.S. Palmer , J.C. Lockhart , and A.N. MacGregor 1993. Soil quality and financial performance of biodynamic and conventional farms in New Zealand. Science 260:344–349.
067P. Rochette , D.A. Angers , M.H. Chantigny , and N. Bertrand 2008. Nitrous oxide emissions respond differently to no-till in loam and heavy clay soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72:1363–1369.
068E.M. Baggs , R.M. Rees , K.A. Smith , and A.J.A. Vinten 2000. Nitrous oxide emission from soils after incorporating crop residues. Soil Use and Management 16:82–87.
069H. Flessa , R. Ruser , R. Doersch , T. Kamp , M.A. Jimenez , J.C. Munch , and F. Beese 2002. Integrated evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from two farming systems in southern Germany: special consideration of soil N2O emissions. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 91:175–189.
070B. Barthès , A. Azontonde , E. Blanchart , C. Girardin , C. Villenave , S. Lesaint , R. Oliver , and C. Feller 2004. Effect of a legume cover crop (Mucuna proriens var. utilis) on soil carbon in an Ultisol under maize cultivation in southern Benin. Soil Use and Management 20:231–239.
071A. Freibauer , M.D.A. Rounsevell , P. Smith , and J. Verhagen 2004. Carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe. Geoderma 122:1–23.
073A. Fliessbach , H.-R. Oberholzer , L. Gunst , and P. Mäder 2007. Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118:273–284.
074D. Pimentel , P. Hepperly , J. Hanson , D. Douds , and R. Seidel 2005. Environmental, energetic and economic comparison of organic and conventional farming systems. Bioscience 55:573–582.
077J.R. Teasdale , C.B. Coffman , and R.W. Mangum 2007. Potential long-term benefits of no-tillage and organic cropping systems for grain production and soil improvement. Agronomy Journal 99(5):1297–1305.
078J.M. Baker , T.E. Ochsner , R.T. Venterea , and T.J. Griffis 2007. Tillage and soil carbon sequestration—what do we really know? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118:1–5.
079K. Cassman , A. Dobermann , D.T. Walters , and H. Yang 2003. Meeting cereal demand while protecting natural resources and improving environmental quality. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28:315–358.
080K.A. Smith and F. Conen 2004. Impacts of land management on fluxes of trace greenhouse gases. Soil Use and Management 20:255–263.
082C. Li , S. Frolking , and K. Butterbach-Bahl 2005. Carbon sequestration in arable soils is likely to increase nitrous oxide emissions, offsetting reductions in climate radiative forcing. Climatic Change 72:321–338.
084R. Lal 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1627.
085N. Stockfisch , T. Forstreuter , and W. Ehlers 1999. Ploughing effects on soil organic matter after twenty years of conservation tillage in Lower Saxony, Germany. Soil and Tillage Research 52:91–101.
086S. Siegrist , D. Staub , L. Pfiffner , and P. Mäder 1998. Does organic agriculture reduce soil erodibility? The results of a long-term field study on loess in Switzerland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 69:253–264.
087P. Mäder , A. Fliessbach , D. Dubois , L. Gunst , P. Fried , and U. und Niggli 2002. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296:1694–1697.
088E.E. Marriott and M.M. Wander 2006. Total and labile soil organic matter in organic and conventional farming systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:950–959.
090T. Fan , B.A. Stewart , W. Payne , W. Yong , J. Luo , and Y. Gao 2005. Long-term fertilizer and water availability effects on cereal yield and soil chemical properties in northwest China. Soil Science of America Journal 69:842–855.
091H.U. Neue , R. Wassmann , R.S. Lantin , M.C.R. Alberto , J.B. Aduna , and A.M. Javellana 1996. Factors affecting methane emission from rice fields. Atmospheric Environment 30:1751–1754.
092S.S. Yang and H.L. Chang 2001. Effect of green manure amendment and flooding on methane emission from paddy fields. Chemosphere—Global Change Science 3:41–49.
093H. Xu , Z.C. Cai , Z.J. Jia , and H. Tsuruta 2000. Effect of land management in winter crop season on CH4 emission during the following flooded and rice growing period. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 58:327–332.
095K. Inubushi , H. Sugii , S. Nishino , and E. Nishino 2001. Effect of aquatic weeds on methane emission from submerged paddy soil. American Journal of Botany 88(6):975–979.
099A. Dobermann 2004. A critical assessment of the system of rice intensification (SRI). Agricultural Systems 79:261–281.
100W.A. Stoop and A.H. Kassam 2005. The SRI controversy: a response. Field Crop Research 91:357–360.
103J.C. Plaizier , D.O. Krause , G.N. Gozho , and B.W. McBride 2009. Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows: The physiological causes, incidence and consequences. The Veterinary Journal 176:21–31.
107Ch. Neill , J.M. Melillo , P.A. Steudler , C.C. Cerri , J.F.L. de Moraes , M.C. Piccolo , and M. Brito 1997. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks following forest clearing for pasture in the south western Brazilian Amazon. Ecological Applications 7(4):1216–1225.
109M.A. Liebig , J.A. Morgan , J.D. Reeder , B.H. Ellert , H.T. Gollany , and G.E. Schuman 2005. Greenhouse gas contributions and mitigation potential of agricultural practices in northwestern USA and western Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 83:25–52.