Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Open access
  • Cited by 7
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Geisseler, Daniel and Miyao, Gene 2016. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops. California Agriculture, Vol. 70, Issue. 3, p. 152.

    Welsh, Rick and Francis, Charles 2016. Editorial: Promoting discussion on critical issues. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Vol. 31, Issue. 01, p. 1.

    Tully, Katherine Sullivan, Clare Weil, Ray and Sanchez, Pedro 2015. The State of Soil Segradation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Baselines, Trajectories, and Solutions. Sustainability, Vol. 7, Issue. 6, p. 6523.

    Bilias, Fotis and Barbayiannis, Nikolaos 2016. Evaluation of sodium tetraphenylboron (NaBPh4) as a soil test of potassium availability. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, p. 1.

    Khan, S.A. Mulvaney, R.L. and Ellsworth, T.R. 2015. Further insights into why potassium fertility is a paradox. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Vol. 30, Issue. 02, p. 120.

    Bar-Yosef, B. Magen, H. Johnston, A.E. and Kirkby, E.A. 2015. Potassium fertilization: paradox or K management dilemma?. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Vol. 30, Issue. 02, p. 115.

    Smith, Laurence G. Tarsitano, Davide Topp, Cairistiona F. E. Jones, Stephanie K. Gerrard, Catherine L. Pearce, Bruce D. Williams, Adrian G. and Watson, Christine A. 2016. Predicting the effect of rotation design on N, P, K balances on organic farms using the NDICEA model. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Vol. 31, Issue. 05, p. 471.


The potassium paradox: Implications for soil fertility, crop production and human health

  • S.A. Khan (a1), R.L. Mulvaney (a1) and T.R. Ellsworth (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 10 October 2013

Intensive fertilizer usage of KCl has been inculcated as a prerequisite for maximizing crop yield and quality, and relies on a soil test for exchangeable K in the plow layer to ensure that soil productivity will not be limited by nutrient depletion. The interpretive value of this soil test was rigorously evaluated by: (1) field sampling to quantify biweekly changes and seasonal trends, (2) characterizing the variability induced by air drying and the dynamic nature of soil K reserves and (3) calculating the K balance in numerous cropping experiments. These evaluations leave no alternative but to question the practical utility of soil K testing because test values cannot account for the highly dynamic interchange between exchangeable and non-exchangeable K, exhibit serious temporal instability with or without air drying and do not differentiate soil K buildup from depletion. The need for routine K fertilization should also be questioned, considering the magnitude and inorganic occurrence of profile reserves, the recycling of K in crop residues and the preferential nature of K uptake. An extensive survey of more than 2100 yield response trials confirmed that KCl fertilization is unlikely to increase crop yield. Contrary to the inculcated perception of KCl as a qualitative commodity, more than 1400 field trials predominately documented a detrimental effect of this fertilizer on the quality of major food, feed and fiber crops, with serious implications for soil productivity and human health.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The potassium paradox: Implications for soil fertility, crop production and human health
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The potassium paradox: Implications for soil fertility, crop production and human health
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The potassium paradox: Implications for soil fertility, crop production and human health
      Available formats
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

4E. Truog 1938. Putting soil science to work. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 30:973985.

5W.C. Liebhardt and L. Cotnoir 1979. Potassium fertilizer recommendations and changes in potassium soil test values as influenced by additions of potassium. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 10:831840.

7G.W. Thomas 1989. The soil bank account and the farmer's bank account. Journal of Production Agriculture 2:122124.

10R.F. Reitemeier 1951. Soil potassium. Advances in Agronomy 3:113164.

12R. Bradfield 1946. Where are the new discoveries in soil science leading? I. The physical chemistry of soil–plant relationships. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 11:38.

13R.H. Bray 1944. Soil-plant relations I. The quantitative relation of exchangeable potassium to crop yields and to crop response to potash additions. Soil Science 58:305324.

14F.E. Bear and S.J. Toth 1948. Influence of calcium on availability of other soil cations. Soil Science 65:6974.

16P.M. Kopittke and N.W. Menzies 2007. A review of the use of the basic cation saturation ratio and the ‘ideal’ soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71:259265.

17R.H. Bray and E.E. DeTurk 1938. The release of potassium from non-replaceable forms in Illinois soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 3:101106.

18R.E. Luebs , G. Stanford , and A.D. Scott 1956. Relation of available potassium to soil moisture. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 20:4550.

19H.W. Martin and D.L. Sparks 1985. On the behavior of nonexchangeable potassium in soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 16:133162.

20K. Mengel and K. Uhlenbecker 1993. Determination of available interlayer potassium and its uptake by ryegrass. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57:761766.

25N.H. Suhr and C.O. Ingamells 1966. Solution technique for analysis of silicates. Analytical Chemistry 38:730734.

26B. Velde and T. Peck 2002. Clay mineral changes in the Morrow experimental plots, University of Illinois. Clays and Clay Minerals 50:364370.

27S.A. Khan , R.L. Mulvaney , T.R. Ellsworth , and C.W. Boast 2007. The myth of nitrogen fertilization for soil carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality 36:18211832.

29W.C. Leask and T.B. Daynard 1973. Dry matter yield, in vitro digestibility, percent protein, and moisture of corn stover following grain maturity. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 53:515522.

30J.R. Kiniry , J.R. Williams , R.L. Vanderlip , J.D. Atwood , D.C. Reicosky , J. Mulliken , W.J. Cox , H.J. Mascagni Jr, S.E. Hollinger , and W.J. Wiebold 1997. Evaluation of two maize models for nine U.S. locations. Agronomy Journal 89:421426.

31S.D. Prince , J. Haskett , M. Steininger , H. Strand , and R. Wright 2001. Net primary production of U.S. Midwest croplands from agricultural harvest yield data. Ecological Applications 11:11941205.

32M. Tollenaar , A. Ahmadzadeh , and E.A. Lee 2004. Physiological basis of heterosis for grain yield in maize. Crop Science 44:20862094.

34M.C. Lovell 2012. Seasonal adjustment of economic time series and multiple regression analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association 58:9931010.

36Y. Hochberg 1988. A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. Biometrika 75:800802.

37O.J. Attoe 1946. Potassium fixation and release in soils occurring under moist and drying conditions. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 11:145149.

41F.D. Childs and E.M. Jencks 1967. Effect of time and depth of sampling upon soil test results. Agronomy Journal 59:537540.

45J.T. Cope Jr 1981. Effects of 50 years of fertilization with phosphorus and potassium on soil test levels and yields at six locations. Soil Science Society of America Journal 45:342347.

49R.-G. Li and S.A. Barber 1988. Effect of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer on crop response and soil fertility in a long-term experiment. Fertilizer Research 15:123136.

51A.P. Mallarino , J.R. Webb , and A.M. Blackmer 1991. Corn and soybean yields during 11 years of phosphorus and potassium fertilization on a high-testing soil. Journal of Production Agriculture 4:312317.

53G.W. Randall , S.D. Evans , and T.K. Iragavarapu 1997. Long-term P and K applications. II. Effect on corn and soybean yields and plant P and K concentrations. Journal of Production Agriculture 10:572580.

54G.W. Randall , T.K. Iragavarapu , and S.D. Evans 1997. Long-term P and K applications: I. Effect on soil test incline and decline rates and critical soil test levels. Journal of Production Agriculture 10:565571.

56R.A. Olson , K.D. Frank , P.H. Grabouski , and G.W. Rehm 1982. Economic and agronomic impacts of varied philosophies of soil testing. Agronomy Journal 74:492499.

57D.K. Markus and W.R. Battle 1965. Soil and plant responses to long-term fertilization of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Agronomy Journal 57:613616.

58W.W. Woodhouse Jr 1968. Long-term fertility requirements of coastal bermudagrass. I. Potassium. Agronomy Journal 60:508512.

59R.L. Davis , J.J. Patton , R.K. Teal , Y. Tang , M.T. Humphreys , J. Mosali , K. Girma , J.W. Lawles , S.M. Moges , A. Malapati , J. Si , H. Zhang , S. Deng , G.V. Johnson , R.W. Mullen , and W.R. Raun 2003. Nitrogen balance in the Magruder Plots following 109 years in continuous winter wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26:15611580.

60K. Girma , S.L. Holtz , D.B. Arnall , B.S. Tubaña , and W.R. Raun 2007. The Magruder Plots: Untangling the puzzle. Agronomy Journal 99:11911198.

62J.A. Lutz Jr 1973. Potassium supplying power of Groseclose silt loam for corn. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 4:2330.

63H. Zhang , B. Wang , and M. Xu 2008. Effects of inorganic fertilizer inputs on grain yields and soil properties in a long-term wheat-corn cropping system in south China. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39:15831599.

64H.-M. Zhang , B.-R. Wang , M.-G. Xu , and T.-L. Fan 2009. Crop yield and soil responses to long-term fertilization on a red soil in southern China. Pedosphere 19:199207.

66X. Wang , D. Cai , W.B. Hoogmoed , U.D. Perdok , and O. Oenema 2007. Crop residue, manure and fertilizer in dryland maize under reduced tillage in northern China: I Grain yields and nutrient use efficiencies. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 79:116.

69L. Blake , S. Mercik , M. Koerschens , K.W.T. Goulding , S. Stempen , A. Weigel , P.R. Poulton , and D.S. Powlson 1999. Potassium content in soil, uptake in plants and the potassium balance in three European long-term field experiments. Plant and Soil 216:114.

75R. Lee and A.J. Metson 1977. Potassium removal from soil by lucerne over three years and the effect of potassium topdressing. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 20:185192.

77S.K. De Datta , K.A. Gomez , and J.P. Descalsota 1988. Changes in yield response to major nutrients and in soil fertility under intensive rice cropping. Soil Science 146:350358.

78I. Öborn , A.C. Edwards , and S. Hillier 2010. Quantifying uptake rate of potassium from soil in a long-term grass rotation experiment. Plant and Soil 335:319.

81F.A.E. Abel and O.C. Magistad 1935. Conversion of soil potash from the non-replaceable to the replaceable form. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 27:437445.

82D.R. Parker , G.J. Hendricks , and D.L. Sparks 1989. Potassium in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils: II. Crop responses and changes in soil potassium under intensive management. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53:397401.

83K. Mengel , Rahmatullah, and H. Dou 1998. Release of potassium from the silt and sand fraction of loess-derived soils. Soil Science 163:805813.

84R.D. Rouse and B.R. Bertramson 1949. Potassium availability in several Indiana soils: Its nature and methods of evaluation. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 14:113123.

85L.K. Wood and E.E. DeTurk 1941. The absorption of potassium in soils in non-replaceable forms. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 5:152161.

86V. Oliveira , A.E. Ludwick , and M.T. Beatty 1971. Potassium removed from some southern Brazilian soils by exhaustive cropping and chemical extraction methods. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 35:763767.

88M. Badraoui , P.R. Bloom , and A. Delmaki 1992. Mobilization of non-exchangeable K by ryegrass in five Moroccan soils with and without mica. Plant and Soil 140:5563.

89M.M. Zubillaga and M.E. Conti 1996. Availability of exchangeable and non-exchangeable K in Argentine soils with different mineralogy. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 159:149153.

90M.M. Mortland , K. Lawton , and G. Uehara 1958. Fixation and release of potassium by some clay minerals. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 21:381384.

91P.H. Hinsinger , J.E. Dufey , and B. Jaillard 1991. Biological weathering of micas in the rhizosphere as related to potassium absorption by plant roots. In B.L. McMichael and H. Persson (eds) Plant Roots and Their Environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p. 98105.

92E. Hoffland , T.W. Kuyper , H. Wallander , C. Plassard , A.A. Gorbushina , K. Haselwandter , S. Holmström , R. Landeweert , U.S. Lundström , A. Rosling , R. Sen , M.M. Smits , P.A.W. van Hees , and N. van Breemen 2004. The role of fungi in weathering. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2:258264.

93L. van Schöll , T.W. Kuyper , M.M. Smits , R. Landeweert , E. Hoffland , and N. van Breemen 2008. Rock-eating mycorrhizas: Their role in plant nutrition and biogeochemical cycles. Plant and Soil 303:3547.

94J.M. Arocena , B. Velde , and S.J. Robertson 2012. Weathering of biotite in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizae in selected agricultural crops. Applied Clay Science 64:1217.

95T.L. Yuan , L.W. Zelazny , and A. Ratanaprasatporn 1976. Potassium status of selected Paleudults in the Lower Coastal Plain. Soil Science Society of America Journal 40:229233.

96D.L. Sparks , D.C. Martens , and L.W. Zelazny 1980. Plant uptake and leaching of applied and indigenous potassium in Dothan soils. Agronomy Journal 72:551555.

97J.R. Woodruff and C.L. Parks 1980. Topsoil and subsoil potassium calibration with leaf potassium for fertility rating. Agronomy Journal 72:392396.

99H. Kuhlmann , N. Claassen , and J. Wehrmann 1985. A method for determining the K-uptake from subsoil by plants. Plant and Soil 83:449452.

100H. Kuhlmann 1990. Importance of the subsoil for the K nutrition of crops. Plant and Soil 127:129136.

101E. Witter and G. Johansson 2001. Potassium uptake from the subsoil by green manure crops. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 19:127141.

102C. Jouany , B. Colomb , and M. Bosc 1996. Long-term effects of potassium fertilization on yields and fertility status of calcareous soils of south-west France. European Journal of Agronomy 5:287294.

103D.W. Grimes and J.J. Hanway 1967. An evaluation of the availability of K in crop residues. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 31:705706.

105T.S. Dierolf and R.S. Yost 2000. Stover and potassium management in an upland rice–soybean rotation on an Indonesian Ultisol. Agronomy Journal 92:106114.

106C.A. Rosolem , J.C. Calonego , and J.S.S. Foloni 2005. Potassium leaching from millet straw as affected by rainfall and potassium rates. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36:10631074.

107A.D.M. Glass 1983. Regulation of ion transport. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 34:311326.

109M.E. Walker , R.A. Flowers , R.J. Henning , T.C. Keisling , and B.G. Mullinix 1979. Response of early bunch peanuts to calcium and potassium fertilization. Peanut Science 6:119123.

110D.L. Hartzog and J.F. Adams 1988. Relationship between soil-test P and K and yield response of runner peanuts to fertilizer. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 19:16451653.

112J.R. Davenport and E.M. Bentley 2001. Does potassium fertilizer form, source, and time of application influence potato yield and quality in the Columbia Basin? American Journal of Potato Research 78:311318.

113L.D. Bailey 1983. Effects of potassium fertilizer and fall harvests on alfalfa grown on the eastern Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 63:211219.

114R.G. Rowberry and J.W. Ketcheson 1978. Sources of potassium in potato fertilizer and times of application. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 58:779782.

115G.L. Terman 1977. Yields and nutrient accumulation by determinate soybeans, as affected by applied nutrients. Agronomy Journal 69:234238.

116C.H. Burmester and F. Adams 1983. Fertilizer requirements for new plantings of tall fescue and white clover on two low-fertility Ultisols. Agronomy Journal 75:936940.

117W.M. Laughlin , P.F. Martin , and G.R. Smith 1973. Potassium rate and source influences on yield and composition of bromegrass forage. Agronomy Journal 65:8587.

118M.S. Bhangoo and D.J. Albritton 1972. Effect of fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on yield and nutrient content of Lee soybeans. Agronomy Journal 64:743746.

120J.C. Rupe , J.D. Widick , W.E. Sabbe , R.T. Robbins , and C.B. Becton 2000. Effect of chloride and soybean cultivar on yield and the development of sudden death syndrome, soybean cyst nematode, and southern blight. Plant Disease 84:669674.

121K.G. Cassman , T.A. Kerby , B.A. Roberts , D.C. Bryant , and S.M. Brouder 1989. Differential response of two cotton cultivars to fertilizer and soil potassium. Agronomy Journal 81:870876.

122B.A. Linquist , E. Byous , G. Jones , J.F. Williams , J. Six , W. Horwath , and C. van Kessel 2008. Nitrogen and potassium fertility impacts on aggregate sheath spot disease and yields of rice. Plant Production Science 11:260267.

123K.A. Barbarick 1985. Potassium fertilization of alfalfa grown on a soil high in potassium. Agronomy Journal 77:442445.

124D.W. Allinson , K. Guillard , M.M. Rafey , J.H. Grabber , and W.M. Dest 1992. Response of reed canarygrass to nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Journal of Production Agriculture 5:595601.

125L.V. Svec , A.K. Andrews , and H.W. Crittenden 1976. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) yield and disease incidence with potassium fertilization. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 7:727741.

126J.B. Sartain , R.B. Forbes , and N.R. Usherwood 1979. Yield response of soybeans to P and K fertilization as correlated with soil extractable and tissue nutritional levels. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 10:12191232.

127A.M.O. Elwali and G.J. Gascho 1983. Sugarcane response to P, K, and DRIS corrective treatments on Florida Histosols. Agronomy Journal 75:7983.

128T.A. Obreza and F.M. Rhoads 1988. Irrigated corn response to soil-test indices and fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and magnesium. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52:701706.

129L.F. Welch , W.E. Adams , and J.L. Carmon 1963. Yield response surfaces, isoquants, and economic fertilizer optima for coastal bermudagrass. Agronomy Journal 55:6367.

131M.B. Parker , G.J. Gascho , and T.P. Gaines 1983. Chloride toxicity of soybeans grown on Atlantic Coast Flatwoods soils. Agronomy Journal 75:439443.

132M.E. Walker , T.P. Gaines , and M.B. Parker 1989. Potassium, magnesium, and irrigation effects on peanuts grown on two soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 20:10111032.

133R.E. McDole , G.F. Stallknecht , R.B. Dwelle , and J.J. Pavek 1978. Response of four potato varieties to potassium fertilization in a seed growing area of eastern Idaho. American Potato Journal 55:495504.

134L.F. Welch , P.E. Johnson , G.E. McKibben , L.V. Boone , and J.W. Pendleton 1966. Relative efficiency of broadcast versus banded potassium for corn. Agronomy Journal 58:618621.

135R.K. Stivers and A.J. Ohlrogge 1952. Influence of phosphorus and potassium fertilization of two soil types on alfalfa yield, stand, and content of these elements. Agronomy Journal 44:618621.

137D.W. Sweeney , J.L. Moyer , D.J. Jardine , and D.A. Whitney 2011. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium effects on grain sorghum production and stalk rot following alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil. Journal of Plant Nutrition 34:13301340.

138W.C. Templeton Jr and T.H. Taylor 1966. Yield response of a tall fescue-white clover sward to fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Agronomy Journal 58:319322.

139G.J. Gascho , J.F. Davis , R.A. Fogg , and M.G. Frakes 1969. The effects of potassium carriers and levels of potassium and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of sugar beets. Journal of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists 15:298305.

141W.T. Pettigrew 1999. Potassium deficiency increases specific leaf weights and leaf glucose levels in field-grown cotton. Agronomy Journal 91:962968.

143W.T. Pettigrew 2003. Relationships between insufficient potassium and crop maturity in cotton. Agronomy Journal 95:13231329.

144C.S. Wortmann , A.R. Dobermann , R.B. Ferguson , G.W. Hergert , C.A. Shapiro , D.D. Tarkalson , and D.T. Walters 2009. High-yielding corn response to applied phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in Nebraska. Agronomy Journal 101:546555.

146W.L. Nelson , L. Burkhart , and W.E. Colwell 1945. Fruit development, seed quality, chemical composition, and yield of soybeans as affected by potassium and magnesium. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 10:224229.

147R.J. Goos , B.E. Johnson , and B.M. Holmes 1987. Effect of potassium chloride fertilization on two barley cultivars differing in common root rot reaction. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 67:395401.

148M.A. Lueking , J.W. Johnson , and F.L. Himes 1983. Effects of increasing the rates of potassium and nitrapyrin on nitrogen uptake by corn. Agronomy Journal 75:247249.

150R.R. Robinson , C.L. Rhykerd , and C.F. Gross 1962. Potassium uptake by orchardgrass as affected by time, frequency and rate of potassium fertilization. Agronomy Journal 54:351353.

151A.K. Alva 1985. A comparison of fertilizer recommendations by soil testing program and alfalfa yield response in soils of two associations. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 16:213228.

152P.E. Gaspar , D.L. Reeves , T.E. Schumacher , and P.E. Fixen 1994. Oat cultivar response to potassium chloride on soils testing high in potassium. Agronomy Journal 86:255258.

153H. Wittels and L.F. Seatz 1953. Effect of potash fertilization on yield, stalk breakage and mineral composition of corn. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 17:369371.

154J. Clement-Bailey and C.O. Gwathmey 2007. Potassium effects on partitioning, yield, and earliness of contrasting cotton cultivars. Agronomy Journal 99:11301136.

155L.R. Nelson , T.C. Keisling , and F.M. Rouquette Jr 1983. Potassium rates and sources for coastal bermudagrass. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47:963966.

156D.T. Westermann , T.A. Tindall , D.W. James , and R.L. Hurst 1994. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of potatoes: Yield and specific gravity. American Potato Journal 71:417431.

157H.M. Camper and J.A. Lutz Jr 1977. Plowsole placement of fertilizer for soybeans and response to tillage of plowsole. Agronomy Journal 69:701704.

158G.D. Jones , J.A. Lutz Jr, and T.J. Smith 1977. Effects of phosphorus and potassium on soybean nodules and seed yield. Agronomy Journal 69:10031006.

159D. Smith 1975. Effects of potassium topdressing a low fertility silt loam soil on alfalfa herbage yields and composition and on soil K values. Agronomy Journal 67:6064.

160R.S. Rominger , D. Smith , and L.A. Peterson 1976. Yield and chemical composition of alfalfa as influenced by high rates of K topdressed as KCl and K2SO4. Agronomy Journal 68:573577.

161D. Smith and R.R. Smith 1977. Responses of red clover to increasing rates of topdressed potassium fertilizer. Agronomy Journal 69:4548.

162D. Smith and R.D. Powell 1979. Yield of alfalfa as influenced by levels of P and K fertilization. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 10:531543.

163E. Panique , K.A. Kelling , E.E. Schulte , D.E. Hero , W.R. Stevenson , and R.V. James 1997. Potassium rate and source effects on potato yield, quality, and disease interaction. American Potato Journal 74:379398.

164N.K. Fageria , R.J. Wright , V.C. Baligar , and J.R.P. Carvalho 1990. Upland rice response to potassium fertilization on a Brazilian Oxisol. Fertilizer Research 21:141147.

165C.A. Rosolem and J. Nakagawa 2001. Residual and annual potassic fertilization for soybeans. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 59:143149.

166F.R. Cox and E. Uribe 1992. Management and dynamics of potassium in a humid tropical Ultisol under a rice–cowpea rotation. Agronomy Journal 84:655660.

169E.M. Gaydou and J. Arrivets 1983. Effects of phosphorus, potassium, dolomite, and nitrogen fertilization on the quality of soybean. Yields, proteins, and lipids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 31:765769.

170G. Lombin and S. Mustafa 1981. Potassium response of cotton on some Inceptisols and Oxisols of northern Nigeria. Agronomy Journal 73:724729.

171G. Lombin and L. Singh 1986. Fertilizer responses of groundnuts (Arachis hypogae L.) under continuous intensive cultivation in the Nigerian savannah. Fertilizer Research 10:4358.

174S.M. Bokhtiar , A.J.M.S. Karim , K.M. Hossain , T. Hossain , and K. Egashira 2001. Response of radish to varying levels of irrigation water and fertilizer potassium on clay terrace soil of Bangladesh. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32:29792991.

175T. Hymowitz , S.C. Jethmalani , K.L. Tiwari , and W.M. Walker 1971. Effect of inoculum, variety, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on yield, protein and oil content of soybeans at Jabalpur, M. P. India. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 2:283292.

178J.S. Grewal and S.N. Singh 1980. Effect of potassium nutrition on frost damage and yield of potato plants on alluvial soils of the Punjab (India). Plant and Soil 57:105110.

181K.N. Singh and D.P. Sharma 2001. Response of wheat to nitrogen and potassium in saline soils. Experimental Agriculture 37:417427.

183Moinuddin, K. Singh , S.K. Bansal , and N.S. Pasricha 2004. Influence of graded levels of potassium fertilizer on growth, yield, and economic parameters of potato. Journal of Plant Nutrition 27:239259.

184L. Gunarto , M. Yahya , H. Supadmo , and A. Buntan 1985. Response of corn to NPK fertilization grown in a latosol in South Salawesi, Indionesia. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 16:11791188.

186A. Bakhsh , J.K. Khattak , and A.U. Bhatti 1986. Comparative effect of potassium chloride and potassium sulfate on the yield and protein content of wheat in three different rotations. Plant and Soil 96:273277.

188O. Gormus 2002. Effects of rate and time of potassium application on cotton yield and quality in Turkey. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 188:382388.

189H. Nguyen , J.J. Schoenau , D. Nguyen , K. Van Rees , and M. Boehm 2002. Effects of long-term nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization on cassava yield and plant nutrient composition in North Vietnam. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25:425442.

190R.F. Brennan and M.D.A. Bolland 2007. Influence of potassium and nitrogen fertiliser on yield, oil and protein concentration of canola (Brassica napus L.) grain harvested in south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47:976983.

191A.M. Hall 1975. Effect of phosphorus, potassium, and calcium on peanuts at Mauke (Cook Islands). New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3:117120.

192G.W. Rehm , R.C. Sorensen , and R.A. Wiese 1981. Application of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc to corn grown for grain or silage: Early growth and yield. Soil Science Society of America Journal 45:523528.

193R.G. Hoeft , L.M. Walsh , and E.A. Liegel 1975. Effect of seed-placed fertilizer on the emergence (germination) of soybeans (Glycine max L.) and snapbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 6:655664.

194H.A.A. Mascarenhas , R. Hiroce , and N.R. Braga 1976. Cloreto de potassio para a soja. Bragantia 35:CXXVCXXVII.

195L. Sangoi , P.R. Ernani , P. Bianchet , V.P. Vargas , and G.J. Picoli 2009. Efeito de doses de cloreto de potássio sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do milho, em solos com texturas contrastantes. Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo 8:187197.

196D. Curtin , H. Steppuhn , C.A. Campbell , and V.O. Biederbeck 1999. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil treated with chloride and phosphate salts. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79:427429.

197R.J. Roseberg , N.W. Christensen , and T.L. Jackson 1986. Chloride, soil solution osmotic potential, and soil pH effects on nitrification. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50:941945.

198D. Smith and L.A. Peterson 1975. Chlorine concentrations in alfalfa herbage and soil with KCl topdressing of a low fertility silt loam soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 6:521533.

199B.E. Hahn , F.R. Olson , and J.L. Roberts 1942. Influence of potassium chloride on nitrification in Bedford silt loam. Soil Science 54:113121.

201S.E. Younts and R.B. Musgrave 1958. Chemical composition, nutrient absorption, and stalk rot incidence of corn as affected by chloride in potassium fertilizer. Agronomy Journal 50:426429.

202C.A. Timm , R.J. Goos , B.E. Johnson , F.J. Sobolik , and R.W. Stack 1986. Effect of potassium fertilizers on malting barley infected with common root rot. Agronomy Journal 78:197200.

204M. Askegaard and J. Eriksen 2000. Potassium retention and leaching in an organic crop rotation on loamy sand as affected by contrasting potassium budgets. Soil Use and Management 16:200205.

205K.R. Brye and J.M. Norman 2004. Land-use effects on anion-associated cation leaching in response to above-normal precipitation. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 32:235248.

206R.E. Karamanos , J.T. Harapiak , and N.A. Flore 2003. Application of seed-row potash to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on soils with high “available” potassium levels. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 83:291303.

207R.F. Brennan and K.W. Jayasena 2007. Increasing applications of potassium fertiliser to barley crops grown on deficient sandy soils increased grain yields while decreasing some foliar diseases. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58:680689.

208C.A. Grant , L.D. Bailey , and M.C. Therrien 1996. The effect of N, P and KCl fertilizers on grain yield and Cd concentration of malting barley. Fertilizer Research 45:153161.

209J.C. Zubriski , E.H. Vasey , and E.B. Norum 1970. Influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and date of seeding on yield and quality of malting barley. Agronomy Journal 62:216219.

210R.D. Tinline , H. Ukrainetz , and D.T. Spurr 1993. Effect of fertilizers and of liming acid soil on common root rot in wheat, and of chloride on the disease in wheat and barley. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 15:6573.

211W.M. Walker and G.A. Raines 1988. Effect of corn cultivar, phosphorus and potassium on yield and chemical composition. Journal of Plant Nutrition 11:17151726.

212J.R. Heckman 1998. Corn stalk rot suppression and grain yield response to chloride. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21:149155.

213S.A. Ebelhar , E.J. Kamprath , and R.H. Moll 1987. Effects of nitrogen and potassium on growth and cation composition of corn genotypes differing in average ear number. Agronomy Journal 79:875881.

215F.C. Boswell and W.L. Parks 1957. The effect of soil potassium levels on yield, lodging, and mineral composition of corn. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 21:301305.

216W.C. Liebhardt and J.T. Murdock 1965. Effect of potassium on morphology and lodging of corn. Agronomy Journal 57:325328.

217M.U. Haq and A.P. Mallarino 2005. Response of soybean grain oil and protein concentrations to foliar and soil fertilization. Agronomy Journal 97:910918.

218G.E. Helz and A.L. Whiting 1928. Effects of fertilizer treatment on the formation of nodules on the soybean. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 20:975981.

219P. Sharma , E. Duveiller , and R.C. Sharma 2006. Effect of mineral nutrients on spot blotch severity in wheat, and associated increases in grain yield. Field Crops Research 95:426430.

220W.A. Norvell , J. Wu , D.G. Hopkins , and R.M. Welch 2000. Association of cadmium in durum wheat grain with soil chloride and chelate-extractable soil cadmium. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64:21622168.

222O.L. Bennett , R.D. Rouse , D.A. Ashley , and B.D. Doss 1965. Yield, fiber quality and potassium content of irrigated cotton plants as affected by rates of potassium. Agronomy Journal 57:296299.

224K.G. Cassman , T.A. Kerby , B.A. Roberts , D.C. Bryant , and S.L. Higashi 1990. Potassium nutrition effects on lint yield and fiber quality of Acala cotton. Crop Science 30:672677.

225E.B. Minton and M.W. Ebelhar 1991. Potassium and aldicarb-disulfoton effects on verticillium wilt, yield, and quality of cotton. Crop Science 31:209212.

226W.T. Pettigrew , J.J. Heitholt , and W.R. Meredith Jr 1996. Genotypic interactions with potassium and nitrogen in cotton of varied maturity. Agronomy Journal 88:8993.

227W.T. Pettigrew , W.R. Meredith Jr, and L.D. Young 2005. Potassium fertilization effects on cotton lint yield, yield components, and reniform nematode populations. Agronomy Journal 97:12451251.

228J.B. Peters , K.A. Kelling , P.E. Speth , and S.M. Offer 2005. Alfalfa yield and nutrient uptake as affected by pH and applied K. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36:583596.

229G. Rogers , R. Porter , L.C. Jolley , and D.D. Leaver 1977. Management factors and grass tetany in dairy cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal 53:523528.

230Q.M. Ketterings , G. Godwin , J.H. Cherney , and T.F. Kilcer 2005. Potassium management for brown midrib sorghum × sudangrass as replacement for corn silage in the north-eastern USA. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191:4146.

231A.P. Meissner and A.L. Clarke 1977. Response of mown pasture to potassium fertilizer in south-eastern South Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 17:765775.

232J.A. Balasko 1977. Effects of N, P, and K fertilization on yield and quality of tall fescue forage in winter. Agronomy Journal 69:425428.

233R.F. Brennan and M.D.A. Bolland 2006. Soil and tissue tests to predict the potassium requirements of canola in south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 46:675679.

234Y.-M. Li , R.L. Chaney , and A.A. Schneiter 1994. Effect of soil chloride level on cadmium concentration in sunflower kernels. Plant and Soil 167:275280.

236R. Otto , G.C. Vitti , and P.H. de Cerqueira Luz 2010. Manejo da adubação potássica na cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo 34:11371145.

238N.A. Maier , A.P. Dahlenburg , and A.B. Frensham 1986. Potassium nutrition of irrigated potatoes in South Australia. 3. Effect on specific gravity, size and internal bruising of tubers. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 26:737744.

239L.A. Sparrow , A.A. Salardini , and J. Johnstone 1994. Field studies of cadmium in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). III. Response of cv. Russet Burbank to sources of banded potassium. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 45:243249.

240M.J. McLaughlin , N.A. Maier , K. Freeman , K.G. Tiller , C.M.J. Williams , and M.K. Smart 1995. Effect of potassic and phosphatic fertilizer type, fertilizer Cd concentration and zinc rate on cadmium uptake by potatoes. Fertilizer Research 40:6370.

241M.F. Allison , J.H. Fowler , and E.J. Allen 2001. Responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum) to potassium fertilizers. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 136:407426.

242R.E. McDole 1978. Potassium fertilizer trials with potatoes on coarse-textured soils in southeastern Idaho. American Potato Journal 55:161170.

243M. Herlihy and P.J. Carroll 1969. Effects of N, P and K and their interactions on yield, tuber blight and quality of potatoes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 20:513517.

247M.J. McLaughlin , L.T. Palmer , K.G. Tiller , T.A. Beech , and M.K. Smart 1994. Increased soil salinity causes elevated cadmium concentrations in field-grown potato tubers. Journal of Environmental Quality 23:10131018.

248B. Julin , A. Wolk , L. Bergkvist , M. Bottai , and A. Åkesson 2012. Dietary cadmium exposure and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: A population-based prospective cohort study. Cancer Research 72:14591466.

249J.P. Goff and R.L. Horst 1997. Effects of addition of potassium or sodium, but not calcium, to prepartum rations on milk fever in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80:176186.

250R.L. Horst , J.P. Goff , T.A. Reinhardt , and D.R. Buxton 1997. Strategies for preventing milk fever in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 80:12691280.

251R. Allcroft and K.N. Burns 1968. Hypomagnesaemia in cattle. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 16:109128.

254W.A. Albrecht and F.L. Davis 1929. Physiological importance of calcium in legume inoculation. Botanical Gazette 88:310321.

255R.P. Heaney and M.J. Barger-Lux 1994. Low calcium intake: The culprit in many chronic diseases. Journal of Dairy Science 77:11551160.

256K. Wu , W.C. Willett , C.S. Fuchs , G.A. Colditz , and E.L. Giovannucci 2002. Calcium intake and risk of colon cancer in women and men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94:437446.

258B.E.C. Nordin 1997. Calcium and osteoporosis. Nutrition 13:664686.

261R.E. Lucas , E.J. Wheeler , and J.F. Davis 1954. Effect of potassium carriers and phosphate:potash ratios on the yield and quality of potatoes grown in organic soils. American Potato Journal 31:349352.

263R.G. Rowberry , C.G. Sherrell , and G.R. Johnston 1963. Influence of rates of fertilizer and sources of potassium on the yield, specific gravity and cooking quality of Katahdin potatoes. American Potato Journal 40:177181.

264L. Lujan and O. Smith 1964. Potato quality XXV. Specific gravity and after-cooking darkening of Katahdin potatoes as influenced by fertilizers. American Potato Journal 41:274278.

273H. Tributh , E.v. Boguslawski , A.v. Lieres , D. Steffens , and K. Mengel 1987. Effect of potassium removal by crops on transformation of illitic clay minerals. Soil Science 143:404409.

278J. Deist and O. Talibudeen 1967. Ion exchange in soils from the ion pairs K-Ca, K-Rb, and K-Na. Journal of Soil Science 18:125137.

279S. Palaniappan , T.R. Peck , and A.H. Beavers 1973. Effect of application of high rates of potassium on cation exchange capacity and potassium status of two Illinois soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 4:3140.

280K.G. Cassman , B.A. Roberts , T.A. Kerby , D.C. Bryant , and S.L. Higashi 1989. Soil potassium balance and cumulative cotton response to annual potassium additions on a vermiculitic soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53:805812.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
  • ISSN: 1742-1705
  • EISSN: 1742-1713
  • URL: /core/journals/renewable-agriculture-and-food-systems
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Khan Supplementary Material

 Unknown (885 KB)
885 KB