Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-qn7h5 Total loading time: 0.493 Render date: 2022-09-25T01:30:22.585Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Emotional (security) communities: the significance of emotion norms in inter-allied conflict management

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 October 2013

Abstract

What do Al-Qaeda, Human Rights Watch, and NATO have in common? They can all be understood as emotional communities. Emotional communities are ‘groups in which people adhere to the same norms of emotional expression and value – or devalue – the same or related emotions’. This article develops a conceptual framework for a particular type of emotional community in world politics: a security community. It is argued that emotion norms – the expression of appropriate emotions in a given situation – stabilise a security community during inter-allied conflict. The argument is illustrated by an empirical case study of NATO's military intervention in Libya in 2011. The article shows how the conceptualisation of security communities as emotional communities has significant implications for the study of regional peace and security.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © British International Studies Association 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 It should be pointed out that the appraisal of a particular emotion as ‘positive’ or ‘negative’ is solely determined by the members of the emotional community and may thus vary from community to community. For example, transnational criminal networks like the Mafia may perhaps not automatically label ‘greed’ as a strictly negative emotion.

2 Smith, Allen C. and Kleinman, Sherryl, ‘Managing Emotions in Medical School: Students' Contacts with the Living and the Dead’, Social Psychology Quarterly, 52 (1989), pp. 5669CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 Fierke, Karin, Political Self Sacrifice: Agency, Body and Emotion in International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Keck, Margaret and Sikkink, Kathryn, Activists Beyond Borders. Advocacy Networks in International Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998)Google Scholar.

4 Hutchison, Emma and Bleiker, Roland, ‘Emotional Reconciliation Reconstituting Identity and Community after Trauma’, European Journal of Social Theory, 11:3 (2008), pp. 385403CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stetter, Stephan, Masala, Carlo, and Karbowski, Marina (eds), Was die EU im Innersten zusammenhält. Debatten zur Legitimität und Effektivität Internationalen Regierens (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2011)Google Scholar.

5 Rosenwein, Barbara H., Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006), p. 2Google Scholar.

6 Deutsch, Karl W., Burrell, Sidney A., Kann, Robert A., Lee, Maurice Jr., Lichterman, Martin, Lindgren, Raymond E., Loewenheim, Francis L., and Van Wagenen, Richard W., Political Community and the North Atlantic Area. International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957)Google Scholar; Adler, Emanuel and Barnett, Michael, Security Communities (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 Deutsch et al., Community, p. 5.

8 Rose, Mary R., Nadler, Janice, and Clark, Jim, ‘Appropriately Upset? Emotion Norms and Perceptions of Crime Victims’, Law and Human Behavior, 30 (2006), pp. 203–19CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Heise, David R. and Calhan, Cassandra, ‘Emotion Norms in Interpersonal Events’, Social Psychology Quarterly, 58 (1995), pp. 223–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Hochschild, Arlie R., ‘Emotion Work, Feeling Rules and Social Structure’, American Journal of Sociology, 85 (1979), pp. 551–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9 Albert, Mathias and Buzan, Barry, ‘Differentiation Theory: A Sociological Approach to International Relations Theory’, European Journal of International Relations, 16:3 (2010), pp. 315–37Google Scholar; Linklater, Andrew, ‘Process Sociology and International Relations’, Sociological Review, 59:1 (2011), pp. 4864CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

10 Solomon, Ty, ‘I wasn't angry, because I couldn't believe it was happening’: Affect and discourse in response to 9/11’, Review of International Studies, 38 (2012), pp. 907–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mattern, Janice Bially, ‘A Practice Theory of Emotion for International Relations’, in Adler, Emanuel and Pouliot, Vincent (eds), International Practices (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 6386CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Eznack, Lucile, ‘Crises as Signals of Strength: The Significance of Affect in Close Allies' Relationships’, Security Studies, 20:2 (2011), pp. 238–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Linklater, Andrew, The Problem of Harm in World Politics. Theoretical Investigations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mercer, Jonathan, ‘Emotional Beliefs’, International Organization, 64:1 (2010), pp. 131CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Bleiker, Roland and Hutchison, Emma, ‘Fear No More. Emotions and World Politics’, Review of International Studies, 34 (2008), pp. 115–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ross, Andrew, ‘Coming in from the Cold: Constructivism and Emotions’, European Journal of International Relations, 12:2 (2006), pp. 197222CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

11 Darwin, Charles, The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (London: John Murray, 1872)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Freud, Sigmund, The Complete Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (New York, NY: Liveright, 1966)Google Scholar.

12 Erskine, Toni and Lebow, Richard Ned, Tragedy and International Relations (London: Palgrave, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Fierke, Sacrifice; Linklater, Harm; Nussbaum, Martha C., Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; see also Arnold, Magda B., Emotions and Personality (New York, NY: Cassell, 1960)Google Scholar; Solomon, Robert C., The Passions: Emotions and the Meaning of Life (Cambridge: Hackett, 1993)Google Scholar; Hutcheson, Francis, An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense (Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1728/2002)Google Scholar.

13 Elias, Norbert, The Civilizing Process: Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000)Google Scholar.

14 Scheff, Thomas J., Bloody Revenge: Emotions, Nationalism, and War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994)Google Scholar; Goffman, Erving, Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to Face Behavior (Chicago, IL: Aldine, 1967)Google Scholar.

15 Rosenwein, Communities.

16 Gandhi, Leela, Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought, Fin-de-Siècle Radicalism, and the Politics of Friendship (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006)Google Scholar.

17 Hochschild, ‘Emotion’.

18 Reddy, William M., The Navigation of Feeling: A Framework for the History of Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

19 Stearns, Peter N. and Stearns, Carol Z., ‘Emotionology: Clarifying the History of Emotions and Emotional Standards’, American Historical Review, 90:4 (1985), pp. 813–36CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

20 White, G. M., ‘Moral Discourse and the Rhetoric of Emotions’, in Lutz, C. A. and Abu-Lughod, L. (eds), Language and the Politics of Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 4668Google Scholar.

21 Nussbaum, Upheavals; Evans, Dylan, Emotion: The Science of Sentiment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)Google Scholar; Harris, C. R., ‘Cardiovascular Responses of Embarrassment and Effects of Emotional Suppression in a Social Setting’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (2001), pp. 886–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Parrot, W. G. and Harré, R., ‘Embarrassment and the Threat to Character’, in Harré, R. and Parrot, W. G. (eds), The Emotions (London: Sage, 1996), pp. 3956Google Scholar; Solomon, R. C., ‘The Philosophy of Emotion’, in Lewis, M. and Haviland, J. M. (eds), Handbook of Emotions (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1993), pp. 315Google Scholar.

22 Rosenwein, Communities, p. 24.

23 Lewis, Kevin, Gonzalez, Marco, and Kaufman, Jason, ‘Social Selection and Peer Influence in an Online Social Network’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (2012), pp. 6872CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

24 Flam, Helena, ‘Emotional “Man”: I. The Emotional “Man” and the Problem of Collective Action’, International Sociology, 5:1 (1990), pp. 3956CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

25 Rosenwein, Communities, pp. 109, 199.

26 Durkheim, Émile, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (London: Allen & Unwin, 1995 [orig. pub. 1912])Google Scholar; Goffman, Ritual.

27 Heitmeyer, Wilhelm and Hagan, John (eds), The International Handbook of Violence Research (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

28 Deutsch et al., Community, p. 17.

29 Michel, Torsten, ‘Time to Get Emotional: Phronetic Reflections on the Concept of Trust in International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, 18:1 (2012), pp. 122Google Scholar; Rathbun, B. C., ‘Before Hegemony: Generalized Trust and the Creation and Design of International Security Organizations’, International Organization, 65:2 (2011), pp. 243–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Nicholas J. Wheeler, Trust Building Between Enemies in the Nuclear Age, unpublished manuscript (2007), available at: {http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/interpol/research/research-centres-and-institutes/ddmi/research/nuclear-worlds/publicationsontrust/} accessed 4 November 2012.

30 Smith, Eliot R., Seger, Charles R., and Mackie, Diane M., ‘Can Emotions Be Truly Group Level? Evidence For Four Conceptual Criteria’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93 (2007), pp. 431–46CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

31 Eznack, ‘Crises’; Wendt, Alexander, Social Theory of International Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

32 Eznack, ‘Crises’, p. 247.

33 Rappaport, Roy A., Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

34 Collins, Randall, The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), p. 22Google Scholar.

35 Rappaport, Ritual, p. 71.

36 Douglas, Mary, Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology (New York, NY: Pantheon, 1970), p. 21Google Scholar; Kertzer, David I., Rituals, Politics, and Power (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989), p. 4Google Scholar.

37 Durkheim, Elementary, p. 129.

38 Deutsch et al., Community; Adler and Barnett, Communities.

39 Langer, Susanne K., Philosophy in a New Key. A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957 [orig. pub. 1942]), p. xGoogle Scholar.

40 Deutsch, Karl W., Tides Among Nations (New York, NY: Free Press, 1979), p. 201Google Scholar.

41 Deutsch, Tides, p. 202.

42 Bellah, Robert N., ‘Civil Religion in America’, Daedalus, 96 (1967), pp. 121Google Scholar.

43 Planalp, Sally, Communicating Emotions. Social, Moral, and Cultural Processes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 157CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

44 Mattern, Janice Bially, ‘Power in Realist-Constructivist Research’, International Studies Review, 6:2 (2004), pp. 343–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Price, Richard, ‘Reversing the Gun Sights: Transnational Civil Society Targets Land Mines’, International Organization, 52:3 (1998), pp. 613–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

45 Deutsch et al., Community, p. 40.

46 Adler, Emanuel, ‘Imagined (Security) Communities: Cognitive Regions in International Relations’, Millenium 26:2 (1997), pp. 249–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar, esp. p. 335.

47 Cox, Michael, ‘Beyond the West: Terrors in Transatlantica’, European Journal of International Relations, 11:2 (2005), pp. 203–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Pouliot, Vincent, ‘The Alive and Well Transatlantic Security Community: A Theoretical Reply to Michael Cox’, European Journal of International Relations, 12:1 (2006), pp. 119–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Bjola, Corneliu and Kornprobst, Markus, ‘Security Communities and the Habitus of Restraint. Germany and the United States on Iraq’, Review of International Studies, 33 (2007), pp. 285305CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Anderson, Jeffrey, Ikenberry, G. John, and Risse, Thomas (eds), The End of the West? Crises and Change in the Atlantic Order (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008)Google Scholar; Kitchen, Veronica M., ‘Argument and Identity Change in the Atlantic Security Community’, Security Dialogue, 40:1 (2009), pp. 95114CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

48 Frevert, Ute, Emotions in History – Lost and Found (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

49 Planalp, Emotions, p. 33.

50 Oatley, Keith and Jenkins, Jennifer M., Understanding Emotions (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1996), p. 181Google Scholar.

51 Damasio, Antonio, Self Comes to Mind. Constructing the Conscious Brain (New York, NY: Pantheon, 2010)Google Scholar.

52 Elias, Process; Elias, Norbert and Scotson, John L., The Established and the Outsiders: A Sociological Enquiry into Community Problems (London: Frank Cass, 1965)Google Scholar.

53 Elias and Scotson, Established, pp. 8, 12.

54 Ibid., pp. 13, 42.

55 Deutsch et al., Community, p. 28; Adler, Emanuel, ‘The Change of Change: Peaceful Transitions of Power in the Multilateral Age’, in Kupchan, Charles A., Adler, Emanuel, Coicaud, Jean-Marc, and Khong, Yuen Foong (eds), Power in Transition: The Peaceful Change of International Order (New York, NY: United Nations University Press, 2001), pp. 138–58Google Scholar, esp. p. 147.

56 Elias, Process.

57 Planalp, Emotions, p. 55.

58 Lazarus, R. S., Emotion and Adaptation (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 287Google Scholar.

59 Michel, Torsten, ‘Time to Get Emotional: Phronetic Reflections on the Concept of Trust in International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, 0:0 (2012), pp. 122Google Scholar, esp. p. 18.

60 Booth, Ken and Wheeler, Nicholas J., The Security Dilemma: Fear, Cooperation and Trust in World Politics (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), p. 229Google Scholar.

61 Michel, ‘Time’, p. 18.

62 Mattern, Janice Bially, Ordering International Politics. Identity, Crisis, and Representational Force (New York, NY: Routledge, 2005), pp. 95–6Google Scholar.

63 Ibid., pp. 6, 97.

64 Adler, Emanuel, Communitarian International Relations. The Epistemic Foundations of International Relations (New York, NY: Routledge, 2005), p. 17Google Scholar; Pouliot, Vincent, ‘The Logic of Practicality. A Theory of Practice of Security Communities’, International Organization, 62:2 (2008), pp. 257–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar; see also Adler, Emanuel and Greve, Patricia, ‘When Security Community Meets Balance of Power. Overlapping Regional Mechanisms of Security Governance’, Review of International Studies, 35:1 (2009), pp. 5984CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Adler, Emanuel and Pouliot, Vincent (eds), International Practices (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

65 Pouliot, Logic, pp. 278–9.

66 Adler, Imagined, p. 263, emphasis added.

67 Pouliot, ‘Logic’, p. 260.

68 Hopf, Ted, ‘The Logic of Habit in International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, 16:4 (2010), pp. 539–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar, esp. p. 553.

69 Ibid., p. 540.

70 Ibid., p. 553.

71 Ibid.

72 Ibid.

73 Ibid.

74 Hopf, ‘Logic’, p. 544.

75 Eznack, ‘Crises’.

76 Eznack, ‘Crises’, p. 244.

77 Eznack, ‘Crises’, pp. 240, 248; also Eznack, Lucile, Crises in the Atlantic Alliance (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 32–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

78 Adler and Barnett, Communities.

79 Linklater, Harm; Barbalet, J. (ed.), Emotions and Sociology (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002)Google ScholarPubMed.

80 Deutsch et al., Community, p. 48.

81 Adler and Barnett, Communities, p. 46.

82 Flam, ‘Emotional’, p. 48; see also Scheff, Revenge, p. 51.

83 Lucile Eznack, Anger toward friends vs. anger toward enemies. How affective dispositions affect states’ emotional reactions to each other's behavior, Paper prepared for the 53rd Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, San Diego (1–4 April 2012).

84 Goffman, Ritual; Elias, Process.

85 Scheff, Revenge, pp. 32, 53.

86 Adler and Barnett, Communities, p. 38.

87 Linklater, Harm; Elias, Norbert, Involvement and Detachment. Contributions to the Sociology of Knowledge (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987)Google Scholar.

88 ‘The Unadventurous Eagle’, The Economist (12 May 2011).

89 Hill, Christopher, The Changing Politics of Foreign Policy (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)Google Scholar.

90 Eznack, ‘Crises’, p. 242.

91 Elias, Process, p. 400.

92 Stearns and Stearns, Emotionology, p. 813.

93 Angela Merkel, Press Statement by Chancellor Angela Merkel on Current Developments in Libya (18 March 2011).

94 Guido Westerwelle, Statement by the German Foreign Minister in the German Bundestag on UN Security Council Resolution 1973 (18 March 2011).

95 Westerwelle, Statement.

96 ‘Setback for Franco-German Relations’, SpiegelOnline (24 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/setback-for-franco-german-relations-paris-and-berlin-at-odds-over-libya-operation-a-752992.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

97 ‘France Plays Hawks, Germany Demurs’, The Guardian (24 March 2011), available at: {http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/mar/24/france-hawk-germany-demurs-libya-europe} accessed 14 March 2013.

98 ‘Libya Crisis Leaves Berlin Isolated’, SpiegelOnline (28 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/a-serious-mistake-of-historic-dimensions-libya-crisis-leaves-berlin-isolated-a753498.html} accessed 4 November 2012.

99 ‘NATO Pushes Allies on Libya’, Army Times (8 June 2011), available at: {http://www.armytimes.com/news/2011/06/ap-nato-pushes-allies-for-more-libya-involvement-060811} accessed 14 March 2013.

100 David Cameron, Prime Minister Statement to the House of Commons Following the UN Security Council Adoption of Resolution 1973 on Lybia (18 March 2011); Sebastian Borger, ‘London kritisiert Berlin wegen Enthaltung’, Der Standard (19 March 2011).

101 Barack H. Obama, Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on Libya (28 March 2011).

102 Obama, Remarks.

103 ‘United in Mutual Annoyance’, SpiegelOnline (6 June 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/united-in-mutual-annoyance-what-s-gone-wrong-with-german-us-relations-a-766826.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

104 ‘Gates Presses Allies To Do More Against Libya’, Army Times (8 June 2011), available at: {http://www.armytimes.com/news/2011/06/ap-gates-presses-allies-to-do-more-against-libya-060811} accessed 14 March 2013.

105 ‘France and Britain Say NATO Is Not Fulfilling Its Role In Libya’, Deutsche Welle (12 April 2011), available at: {http://www.dw.de/france-and-britain-say-nato-not-fulfilling-its-role-in-libya/a-14980521-1} accessed 14 March 2013.

106 Barack Obama, David Cameron, and Nicholas Sarkozy, ‘Libya's Pathway to Peace’, International Herald Tribune (14 April 2011), available at: {http://www.ufppc.org/us-a-world-news-mainmenu-35/10324-document-obama-cameron-a-sarkozy-say-nato-attacks-will-continue-until-gaddafi-goes.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

107 ‘France, UK Say NATO Falling Short On Libya’, CBS News (12 April 2011), available at: {http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-202_162-20053078.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

108 Passive anger is a ‘deliberate and masked way of expressing covert feelings of anger’ by, for example, giving someone the cold shoulder, deprive or exclude someone from something they value, or simply avoiding someone. Long, Jody E., Long, Nicholas James, and Whitson, Signe, The Angry Smile: The Psychology of Passive Aggressive Behavior (Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 2008), p. 12Google Scholar.

109 Peter Müller, ‘Kriegsrat ohne Kanzlerin’, SpiegelOnline (27 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/g-8-gipfel-in-deauville-kriegsrat-ohne-kanzlerin-a-765366.html} accessed 4 November 2012.

110 Severin Weiland and Roland Nelles, ‘Berlin lässt seine Verbündeten alleine kämpfen’, Spiegel Online (18 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/libyen-einsatz-berlin-laesst-seine-verbuendeten-alleine-kaempfen-a-751673.html} accessed 4 November 2012.

111 ‘Merkel Praises NATO for Libya Campaign’, The Local (18 March 2011), available at: {http://www.thelocal.de/national/20110827-37221.html} accessed 4 November 2012.

112 Guido Westerwelle, ‘Interview with German Foreign Minister’, SpiegelOnline (21 March 2011), available at: {http//www.spiegel.de/international/germany/Spiegel-interview-with-german-foreign-minister-gadhafi-must-go-ther-s-no-question-a-752164.html} accessed 4 November 2012.

113 Joschka Fischer, ‘Deutsche Außenpolitik – eine Farce’, Süddeutsche Zeitung (24 March 2011).

114 ‘Koalition der Kämpfer’, SpiegelOnline (22 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/militaereinsatz-in-libyen-koalition-der-kaempfer-a-752488.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

115 ‘Westerwelle vollzieht Kehrtwende bei Nato-Militäreinsatz’, Süddeutsche Zeitung (28 August 2011), available at: {http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/die-deutschen-und-der-krieg-in-libyen-westerwelle-vollzieht-kehrtwende-bei-nato-militaereinsatz-1.1135764} accessed 14 March 2013.

116 Elias, Process, pp. 414–15.

117 Hutchison and Bleiker, Reconciliation; Scheff, Revenge.

118 Ulrike Guérot, Germany in Europe: Angela's Walk of Shame, The European Council on Foreign Relations (24 March 2011), available at: {http://ecfr.eu/blog/entry/germany_in_europe_angelas_walk_of_shame} accessed 4 November 2012.

119 The Presidential Medal of Freedom is awarded to individuals that have made ‘an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors’ (EO 9586). Recipients include Mother Teresa, Lech Walesa, and Stephen Hawking.

120 Flam, ‘Emotional’, p. 49.

121 Merkel, Angela and Obama, Barack H., Remarks by President Obama and Chancellor Merkel in a Joint Press Conference, Washington, DC (7 June 2011)Google Scholar.

122 Merkel and Obama, Remarks.

123 Barack H. Obama, ‘Interview with President Obama’, Der Tagesspiegel (5 June 2011).

124 Quoted in Dan Bilefsky and Mark Landler, ‘As U.N. Backs Military Action in Libya, U.S. Role Is Unclear’, New York Times (17 March 2011).

125 David Cameron and Nicholas Sarkozy, Joint Statement by the French President and the British Prime Minister (28 March 2011).

126 Merkel and Obama, Remarks; Guido Westerwelle, ‘Westerwelle lobt Nato-Einsatz jetzt doch’, Die Zeit Online (27 August 2011), available at: {http://www.zeit.de/politik/Deutschland/2011-08/westerwelle-nato-einsatz/komplettansicht} accessed 4 November 2012.

127 Guido Westerwelle, Speech at the UN Human Rights Council, Geneva (28 February 2011).

128 ‘Später Respekt für Nato-Einsatz’, FocusOnline (27 August 2011), available at: {http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/krise-in-der-arabischen-welt/libyen/militaerisches-eingreifen-in-libyen-spaeter-respekt-fuer-nato-einsatz_aid_659482.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

129 ‘Merkel fordert Gaddafi zum Rücktritt auf’, FocusOnline (27 February 2011), available at: {http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/krise-in-der-arabischen-welt/libyen-merkel-fordert-gaddafi-zum-ruecktritt-auf_aid_603850.html} accessed 14 March 2013; Angela Merkel, Press Statement, Berlin (20 October 2011).

130 ‘Wulff nennt Gaddafi einen Psychopathen’, FocusOnline (24 February 2011), available at: {http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/krise-in-der-arabischen-welt/krise-in-libyen-wulff-nennt-gaddafi-einen-psychopathen_aid_603237.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

131 Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Opening Remarks by NATO Secretary General at the Working Lunch of NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs with Libya Partners at Berlin (14 April 2011).

132 NATO, Statement on Libya Following the Working Lunch of NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs with non-NATO contributors in Berlin to Operation Unified Protector (14 April 2011).

133 Barack H. Obama, Presidential Statement on Libya (22 August 2011).

134 David Cameron, Libya Statement in Full (18 March 2011).

135 Wolfers, Arnold, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962), p 34Google Scholar.

136 Flam, ‘Emotional’, p. 49.

137 Adler and Barnett, Communities.

138 On norms being ‘unlearnt’ see, for example, Panke, Diana and Petersohn, Ulrich, ‘Why International Norms Disappear Sometimes’, European Journal of International Relations, 18:4 (2012), pp. 719–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

45
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Emotional (security) communities: the significance of emotion norms in inter-allied conflict management
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Emotional (security) communities: the significance of emotion norms in inter-allied conflict management
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Emotional (security) communities: the significance of emotion norms in inter-allied conflict management
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *