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Responsible reconstruction after war: meeting local needs for building peace

  • CHRISTINE CUBITT
Abstract

Contemporary peacebuilding operations are often mandated to rebuild ‘collapsed’ or weak states and provide unique opportunities for internationals to exert far reaching influence in their reconstruction. The responsibility to help secure peaceful transformations and longer term stability is profound. This article explores the issue of efficacy and propriety in reconstruction programming and draws from field work in Sierra Leone – a rare example of ‘success’ for international partners in peacebuilding missions. The assertion is made that, despite the euphoria over the mission in Sierra Leone, the peacebuilding operations were more about the mechanics of statebuilding than the local politics of building peace, and that there was a distinct disconnect between the policy rhetoric and the policy practice. The argument is put that the pressing local concern of giving citizens a stake in government was not best served in the reconstruction project because the wider and more influential objectives of the peacebuilding mission were about meeting international goals not local aspirations. This reality has come at the cost of exploiting a unique opportunity for creative thinking about the kind of state structures which can better address the main challenges for sustainable peace facing post-war states like Sierra Leone.

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1 Paris, Roland, ‘Saving Liberal Peacebuilding’, Review of International Studies, 36 (2010), pp. 337–65.

2 Berdal, Mats, Building Peace After War (Abingdon: Routledge, 2009).

3 Berdal, Building Peace After War; Doyle, Michael W. and Sambanis, Nicholas, Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations (Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2006).

4 See Richmond, Oliver, ‘Resistance and the Post-liberal Peace’, Millennium Journal of International Studies, 38 (2010), pp. 665–92.

5 Newman, Edward, Paris, Roland, and Richmond, Oliver (eds), New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding (Tokyo and New York: United Nations University Press, 2009); Jarstad, Anna and Sisk, Timothy, From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

6 Paris, Roland, At War's End (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Fukuyama, Francis, Carothers, Thomas, Mansfield, Edward, Snyder, J., and Berman, S., ‘The Debate on “Sequencing”’, Journal of Democracy, 8 (2007), pp. 422.

7 See Roberts, David, ‘Post-conflict Peacebuilding, Liberal Irrelevance and the Locus of Legitimacy’, International Peacekeeping, 18:4 (2011), p. 416.

8 Goodhand, Jonathan and Sedra, Marc, ‘Who Owns the Peace? Aid, Reconstruction and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan’, Disasters, 34 (2010), pp. 78102; Donais, Timothy, ‘Empowerment or Imposition? Dilemmas of Local Ownership in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Processes’, Peace and Change 34 (2009), pp. 326; Ignatieff, Michael, Empire Lite: Nation-Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan (London: Vintage, 2003).

9 Papagianni, K., ‘Transitional Politics in Post-Conflict Countries: the Importance of Consultative and Inclusive Political Processes’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 3 (2009), pp. 4763; Pugh, Mike, Cooper, Neil, and Turner, Mandy (eds), Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding (Basingstoke, Hants: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008); Chopra, Jarat and Hohe, Tanja, ‘Participatory Peacebuilding’, in Keating, T. and Knight, A. (eds), Building Sustainable Peace (Alberta and Tokyo: University of Alberta Press and United Nations University Press, 2004).

10 See Roberts, David, Liberal Peacebuilding and Global Governance: Beyond the Metropolis (London and New York: Routledge, 2011); and Cubitt, Christine, Local and Global Dynamics of Peacebuilding: Postconflict Reconstruction in Sierra Leone (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2011), p. 58.

11 Pugh, et al., Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding; Duffield, Mark, Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples (Cambridge: Polity, 2007); Mac Ginty, Roger, No War, No Peace: the Rejuvenation of Stalled Peace Processes and Peace Accords (Houndsmill, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2006).

12 Chandler, David, Empire in Denial: the Politics of State-Building (London: Pluto, 2006); Bendana, A., ‘From Peacebuilding to Statebuilding: One Step Forward and Two Steps Back?’, Development, 48 (2005), pp. 515.

13 Suhrke, Astri, ‘The Dangers of a Tight Embrace: Externally Assisted Statebuilding in Afghanistan’, in Paris, Roland and Sisk, Timothy (eds), The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations (London: Routledge, 2009); Krause, K. and Jutersonke, O., ‘Peace, Security and Development in Postconflict Environments’, Security Dialogue, 36:4 (2005), pp. 447–62.

14 Roberts, David, ‘Beyond the Metropolis? Popular Peace and Postconflict Peacebuilding’, Review of International Studies (2011). Available on CJO 2011 doi:10.1017/S0260210511000234.

15 Mac Ginty, Roger, ‘Hybrid Peace: the Interaction between Top Down and Bottom Up Peace’, Security Dialogue, 41:4 (2010); Chandler, David, International Statebuilding: The Rise of Post-Liberal Governance (Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, England; New York: Routledge, 2010); Oliver Richmond, ‘Beyond Liberal Peace? Responses to Backsliding’, in Newman, et al., New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding.

16 Paris, ‘Saving Liberal Peacebuilding’, p. 354.

17 For example, Michael Barnett's ‘republican’ model for building peace – see Barnett, Michael, ‘Building a Republican Peace: Stabilising States after War’, International Security, 30:4 (2006), pp. 87112; Chandler's critique of unaccountable and non-liberal behaviour of global actors – see Chandler, Empire in Denial and Duffield's or Richmond's ideas about an ‘emancipatory’ approach to peacebuilding – Duffield, Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples; Richmond, Oliver, ‘Emancipatory Forms of Human Security and Liberal Peacebuilding’, International Journal, 62:3 (2007).

18 Williams defines market democracies as those states which encompass a liberal democratic polity and market-oriented economy; see Williams, Paul, ‘International Peacekeeping: The Challenges of Statebuilding and Regionalization’, International Affairs, 81:1 (2005), p. 168.

19 Roland Paris, At War's End.

20 Paris, Roland, ‘International Peacebuilding and the “Mission Civilisatrice”’, Review of International Studies, 28 (2002), pp. 637–56; Barnett, M. and Zürcher, C., ‘The Peacebuilder's Contract: How External State-Building Reinforces Weak Statehood’, in Paris, Roland and Sisk, Timothy (eds), The Contradictions of State Building: Confronting the Dilemmas of Post-War Peace Operations (London: Routledge, 2008).

21 DFID, Building the State and Securing The Peace (London: Department for International Development, 2009).

22 DIE, The Convergence of Peacebuilding and State Building: Addressing a Common Purpose from Different Perspectives (Bonn: German Development Institute, 2009).

23 OECD, Dili Declaration: a New Vision for Peacebuilding and Statebuilding (Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2010).

24 Chandler, David, ‘The Security-Development Nexus and The Rise of “Anti-Foreign Policy”’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 10 (2007), pp. 362–86; IPA, ‘The Security-Development Nexus: Research Findings and Policy Implications’, in The Security-Development Nexus Program (New York: International Peace Academy, 2006); DFID, Fighting Poverty to Build a Safer World: a Strategy for Security and Development (London: Department for International Development, 2005); Krause and Jutersonke, ‘Peace, security and development in post-conflict environments’.

25 Jason Franks, ‘Beware of Liberal Peacebuilders Bearing Gifts: the Deviancy of Liberal Peace in Palestine and Israel’, in Newman, et al. (eds), New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding; Edward Newman, ‘Liberal Peacebuilding Debates’, in Newman. et al. (eds), New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding; Bellamy, Alex, ‘The Next Stage in Peace Operations Theory’, International Peacekeeping, 11:1 (2004), pp. 1738.

26 Boege, Volker, Brown, Anne, Clements, Kevin, and Nolan, Anna, ‘Building Peace and Political Community in Hybrid Political Orders’, International Peacekeeping, 16 (2009), pp. 599615.

27 Zaum, Dominik, The Sovereignty Paradox: the Norms and Politics of International Statebuilding (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007); Pouligny, Beatrice, Peace Operations Seen From Below: UN Missions and Local People (London: C. Hurst & Co., 2006).

28 Chandler, ‘The Security-Development Nexus and the Rise of “Anti-Foreign Policy”’.

29 Chopra, Tanja, ‘When Peacebuilding Contradicts Statebuilding: Notes from the Arid Lands of Kenya’, International Peacekeeping, 16:4 (2009), pp. 531–45; Jarstad and Sisk, From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding; Call, Charles and Wyeth, Vanessa, Building States to Build Peace (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner; London: Eurospan [distributor], 2008).

30 UN, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (Brahimi Report) (New York: General Assembly and Security Council, 2000); Annan, Kofi, ‘Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa’, South African Journal of International Affairs, 7:1 (2000), pp. 15.

31 Boutros Boutros-Ghali, ‘An Agenda For Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping’, vol. II (1992).

32 Pugh, Michael‘The Political Economy of Peacebuilding: a Critical Theory Perspective’, International Journal of Peace Studies, 10:2 (2005); Mark Duffield, Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples.

33 UN, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, report of the Secretary-General's high level panel on threats, challenges and change (New York: UN Publications, 2004).

34 Pouligny, Peace Operations Seen From Below.

35 Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795); Barash, David (ed.), Approaches to Peace: A Reader in Peace Studies (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); Jabri, Vivienne, War And The Transformation of Global Politics, Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), p. 127.

36 Eriksen, Stein Sundstøl, ‘The Liberal Peace is Neither: Peacebuilding, Statebuilding and the Reproduction of Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo’, International Peacekeeping, 16:5 (2009), pp. 652–66.

37 Ibid.

38 Boege, et al., ‘Building Peace and Political Community in Hybrid Political Orders’.

39 TRC, Witness to Truth, (Freetown: Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2004); Adebajo, A., ‘Sierra Leone: a Feast for the Sobels’, in Adebajo, A. (ed.), Building Peace in West Africa: Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau (Boulder and London: Lynne Reinner, 2002); Zack-Williams, Tunde, ‘Sierra Leone: the Political Economy of Civil War, 1991–98’, Third World Quarterly, 20:1 (1999), pp. 143–62; Richards, Paul, Fighting for the Rainforest: War, Youth and Resources in Sierra Leone (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1996).

40 See Young, Crawford, ‘The Colonial State and its Political Legacy’, in Rothchild, Donald and Chazan, Naomi (eds) Precarious Balance: State and Society in Africa (Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1988), pp. 2566.

41 Kup, Alexander Peter, Sierra Leone: a Concise History (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975); Fyfe, Christopher, Sierra Leone Inheritance (London: Oxford University Press, 1964); Lewis, R, Sierra Leone: a Modern Portrait, Corona Library Series (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1954).

42 Forna, Aminatta, The Devil that Danced on the Water (London: Harper Collins, 2002).

43 Gberie, Lansana, A Dirty War in West Africa: the RUF and the Destruction of Sierra Leone (London, C. Hurst & Co., 2005).

44 TRC, Witness to Truth, executive summary, para. 14.

45 Reno, William, Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), cited in Keen, David, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (Oxford: James Curry, 2005), p. 23.

46 Reno, William, Warlord Politics and African States (London: Lynne Reinner, 1998).

47 This group was to provide a strong body of recruits for the rebellion which followed and which, after initial ‘revolutionary’ traits, soon descended into anarchy, criminality, and collapse of the state.

48 Adebajo, ‘Sierra Leone: a Feast for the Sobels’; Bangura, Yusuf, ‘The Political and Cultural Dynamics of the Sierra Leone War: a Critique of Paul Richards’, in Abdullah, Ibrahim (ed.), Between Democracy and Terror (Senegal: CODESRIA, 2004).

49 TRC, Witness to Truth, vol. 2, C.2:66, p. 68.

50 Reynolds, Andrew, The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); Belmont, K., Mainwaring, Scott, and Reynolds, Andrew, ‘Introduction’, in Reynolds, A. (ed.), The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy.

51 Ginifer, Jeremy, Evaluation of the Conflict Prevention Pools (London: Department for International Development, 2004).

52 It should be noted that reform of the NEC was quite problematic and that it took two attempts by international partners to ensure its independence. Irregularities were unearthed after the 2002 and 2004 polls resulting in the sacking of all but two members of staff and a thorough ‘clean up’ for the 2007 elections. See Europa, Election Observation Report: Sierra Leone Presidential and Parliamentary Elections, 14 May 2002 (European Union, 2002); Sesay, M. G. and Hughes, Charlie, Go Beyond First Aid: Democracy Assistance and the Challenges of Institution Building in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone (The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations, 2005).

53 For example the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and the Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC) formed themselves into political parties for the post-conflict elections – RUF Party (RUFP) and the Peace and Liberation Party (PLP). Neither party survived to contest the 2007 elections

54 The All Peoples’ Congress (APC), the Sierra Leone Peoples’ Party (SLPP) and the newly formed Peoples’ Movement for Democratic Change (PMDC)

55 Utas, Mats, ‘The Rewards of Political Violence: Remobilising Ex-combatants in Postwar Sierra Leone’, Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

56 Christensen, Maya and Utas, Mats, ‘Mercenaries of Democracy: the ‘Politricks’ of Remobilised Combatants in the 2007 General Elections, Sierra Leone’, African Affairs, 107:429 (2008), pp. 515–39; Lisa Denney, ‘Sierra Leone: Wave of Violence or Wake Up Call?’, Afriko (18 June 2009), available at: {http://www.afrika.no/Detailed/18449.html} accessed 27 October 2011.

57 Cubitt, Local and Global Dynamics of Peacebuilding: Postconflict Reconstruction in Sierra Leone.

58 Zack-Williams, Tunde and Gbla, Osman, ‘The Conduct of the Elections: Challenges of Peacebuilding and Democratisation’, in Zack-Williams, Tunde (ed.), The Search for Sustainable Democracy, Development and Peace: the Sierra Leone 2007 Elections (Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2008); Wai, Zubairu, ‘The Role of Youths and the Sierra Leone Diaspora in Democratic Awakening’, in Zack-Williams, Tunde (ed.), The Search for Sustainable Democracy, Development and Peace: the Sierra Leone 2007 Elections.

59 Statement delivered by his Excellency the President at Kenema, Bo, Makeni and Pork Loko from 26–30 January 2003 and available from Sierra Leone Web at: {http://www.sierra-leone.org/GOSL/kabbah-012603.html} accessed 5 February 2009.

60 DfID, Evaluation of DfID Country Programmes: Sierra Leone (London: Department for International Development, 2008); EU, Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the Period 2008–2013 [edited by Europa] (Freetown: European Community, 2007); Jabbi, Sonnia-Magba Bu-buakei and Kpaka, Salia, Reconstruction National Integrity System Survey: Sierra Leone [edited by Tiri] (Freetown and London: National Accountability Group, 2007).

61 DfID, Evaluation of DfID Country Programmes: Sierra Leone; EU, Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the Period 2008–2013; Jackson, Paul, ‘Chiefs Money and Politicians: Rebuilding Local Government in Post-War Sierra Leone’, Public Administration and Development, 25 (2005), pp. 4958.

62 Jackson, Paul, ‘Reshuffling an Old Deck of Cards? The Politics of Local Government Reform in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs, 106:422 (2007), pp. 95111; Fanthorpe, Richard, ‘On the Limits of the Liberal Peace: Chiefs and Democratic Decentralisation in Post-War Sierra Leone’, Africa Affairs, 105:418 (2005), pp. 2749.

63 Sonnia-Magba Bu-buakei Jabbi and Salia Kpaka, Reconstruction National Integrity System Survey: Sierra Leone; Hanlon, J., ‘Is The International Community Helping to Recreate the Preconditions for War in Sierra Leone?’, The Round Table: the Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 381 (2005).

64 See Carothers, Thomas, ‘The End of the Transition Paradigm’, in Carothers, Thomas (ed.), Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion (2004) (Washington: Carnegie Endowment, 2002).

65 Anonymous interviews, Freetown (May 2009).

66 Interview with the leader of the opposition Peoples’ Movement for Democratic Change, Freetown (March 2007).

67 Interview with the leader of the opposition All Peoples’ Congress, Freetown (March 2007).

68 All Africa, article by Pel Koroma entitled Conduct Workshop for Parliamentarians, dated 3 January 2007. Available at: {http://allafrica.com/stories/200712031626.html} accessed 27 September 2011.

69 Anonymous interview, Freetown (March 2007).

70 Ibid.

71 Various anonymous interviews, Freetown (March 2007).

72 DfID, Synthesis of Country Programme Evaluations Conducted in Fragile States (London: Department for International Development, 2010).

73 Maya Christensen and Mats Utas, ‘Mercenaries of Democracy: the “Politricks” of Remobilised Combatants in the 2007 General Elections, Sierra Leone’; Mats Utas, ‘The Rewards of Political Violence: Remobilising Ex-combatants in Postwar Sierra Leone’.

74 A. K. Bangura and S. K. Ganji, ‘Sierra Leone's Judiciary: Colonial Traditions and Post-Colonial Legality’, Patriotic Vanguard (2009).

75 Gloppen, S., Gargarella, R. and Skaar, E. (eds), Democratization and the Judiciary: the Accountability Function of Courts in New Democracies (London: Frank Cass, 2004).

76 EU, Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the Period 2008–2013; See also Sierra Leone Web (26 October 2002), available at: {http://www.sierra-leone.org/Archives/slnews1002.html} accessed 28 August 2010.

77 DfID, Annual Review of DfID Support to the Anti-Corruption Commission Phase 2 in Sierra Leone (London: Department for International Development, 2007).

78 Interview with principal investigating officer of the ACC, Freetown (March 2007).

79 See Human Rights Watch ,Sierra Leone Country Report 2010, available at: {http://www.hrw.org/en/world-report-2010/sierra-leone} accessed 30 August 2010.

80 Ibid.

81 See The Monitor, official newsletter of the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Programme, Vol. 25 (July 2007), available at: {www.slcmp.org} accessed 21 January 2009.

82 DfID, Evaluation of DfID Country Programmes: Sierra Leone; EU, Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the Period 2008–2013.

83 Various anonymous interviews, Freetown (March 2007).

84 TIRI, Integrity in Reconstruction: Executive Summary Sierra Leone (London: TIRI, 2007).

85 Cubitt, Local and Global Dynamics of Peacebuilding; see also Belloni, Roberto, ‘Civil Society in War to Democracy Transitions’, in Jarstad, and Sisk, (eds), From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding.

86 Thomson, Brian, Sierra Leone: Reform or Relapse? (London: Chatham House, 2007); see also Julie Hearn and Mark Robinson, ‘Civil Society and Democracy Assistance in Africa’, in Burnell, Peter, Democracy Assistance: International Co-Operation for Democratization (London: Frank Cass, 2000), pp. 241–62.

87 ICG, Sierra Leone: A New Era of Reform? (International Crisis Group, 2008).

88 For example the Women's Forum, Civil Society Movement and Council of Churches.

89 See Chandler, David, ‘Race, Culture and Civil Society: Peacebuilding Discourse and the Understanding of Difference’, Security Dialogue, 41 (2010), pp. 369–90.

91 Brian Thomson, Sierra Leone: Reform or Relapse?

92 Dale, Pamela, ‘Barriers to Justice in Sierra Leone’, in Justice For the Poor (The World Bank, 2007).

93 IRIN, ‘Sierra Leone: Sexual Violence Defies New Law’, IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis (30 July 2009), available at: {http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=85511} accessed 3 February 2011; IRIN, ‘Sierra Leone: Sex Crimes Continue in Peacetime’, IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis (20 June 2008), available at: {http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=78853} accessed 3 February 2011.

94 IRIN, ‘Sierra Leone: Sex Crimes Continue in Peacetime’.

95 Kelly, Daniel, ‘Haitian Amputees: Lessons Learned from Sierra Leone’, The New England Journal of Medicine (2010), available at: {http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMpv1002391} accessed 7 February 2011; ICTJ, Report and Proposals for the Implementation of Reparations in Sierra Leone (International Centre for Transitional Justice, 2009), available at: {http://www.ictj.org/static/Africa/SierraLeone/ICTJ_SL_ReparationsRpt_Dec2009.pdf} accessed 7 February 2011.

96 Ovadiya, M. and Zampaglione, G., Escaping Stigma and Neglect: People with Disabilities in Sierra Leone (Washington DC: World Bank, 2009); Sesay, Mohamed Gibril and Suma, Mohamed, DDR and Transitional Justice in Sierra Leone (International Centre for Transitional Justice, 2009); see also INFOSUD Human Rights Tribunal, ‘Sierra Leone's war amputees angrily await reparations’ (23 December 2008), avaiaable at: {http://www.humanrights-geneva.info/Sierra-Leone-s-War-Amputees,3956} accessed 3 February 2011.

97 UN Human Development Index (2009).

98 Thomas Carothers, ‘The End of the Transition Paradigm’.

99 Diamond, Larry, Developing Democracy: Towards Consolidation (Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1999), p. 20; Bratton, Michael, Mattes, Robert, and Gyimah-Boadi, E., Public Opinion, Democracy, and Market Reform in Africa (London, Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 14.

100 van de Walle, Nicolas, African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis, 1979–1999 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001).

101 Norris, Pippa, Democratic Deficit: Critical Citizens Revisited (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

102 GoSL, The National Recovery Strategy Sierra Leone 2002–2003 (Freetown: GoSL, 2002).

103 TRC, Witness to Truth, vol. 2, C.2: 67.

104 See Brynen, Rex, A Very Political Reconstruction: Peacebuilding and Foreign Aid in the West Bank and Gaza (Washington, DC: USIP Press, 2000).

105 Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility – introduced in 1987 by the IMF on similar principles to SAPs but involving larger budgets and closer monitoring of domestic economic management for countries which were eligible under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and which had received concessional loans and grants. It was replaced by the Poverty Reduction Growth Facility in 1999.

106 Easterly, William, The White Man's Burden (1st edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Cammack, Diana, ‘The Logic of African Neo-patrimonialism: What Role for Donors?’, Development Policy Review, 25 (2007), pp. 599614.

107 Joseph Stiglitz, Towards a New Paradigm for Development: Strategies, Policies and Processes.

108 Ibid.; Cheru, Fantu and Bradford, Colin I., The Millennium Development Goals: Raising the Resources to Tackle World Poverty (London: Zed Books, 2005).

109 IMF/IDA, Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative Decision Point Document (International Monetary Fund and International Development Association, 2002).

110 Ibid.

111 See Jonathan Goodhand and Mark Sedra, ‘Who Owns the Peace? Aid, Reconstruction and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan’; Goodhand and Sedra question the extent to which MDGs are relevant or operationalisable in a country like Afghanistan that has never had a service delivery state and is emerging from a long conflict.

112 GoSL, Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (Freetown: Government of the Republic of Sierra Leone, 2001).

113 IMF Sierra Leone Country Page, available at: {http://www.imf.org/external/country/SLE/index.htm} accessed 10 May 2011; DfID Sierra Leone country Page, available at: {http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Where-we-work/Africa-West-Central/Sierra-Leone/} accessed 10 May 2011.

114 World Bank, AFDB/IDA/IFC Joint Country Assistance Strategy 2009–2012 (African Development Bank, 2010).

115 GoSL, Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey: (CWIQ 2007) (Freetown: Statistics Sierra Leone, 2007).

116 All data from IMF country statistics. Available at: {www.imf.org}.

117 World Bank, AFDB/IDA/IFC Joint Country Assistance Strategy 2009–2012.

118 Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International, 2009).

119 ICG, ‘Liberia and Sierra Leone: Rebuilding Failed States’, Crisis Group Africa Report No. 87 (Dakar and Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2004).

120 World Bank Doing Business Data Sets, available at: {http://www.doingbusiness.org/economyrankings/} accessed 31 August 2010.

121 DDI, Standards and Guidelines for Sierra Leone's Artisanal Diamond Mining Sector (Diamond Development Initiative International, 2008).

122 Ibid.

123 Paul Jackson, ‘Reshuffling an Old Deck of Cards? The Politics of Local Government Reform in Sierra Leone’; Le Billon, Philippe, Resources for Peace? Managing Revenues from Extractive Industries in Post-Conflict Environments, ed. Political Economy Research Institute (Centre on International Cooperation, 2008); Maconachie, Roy and Binns, Tony, ‘Farming Miners or Mining Farmers? Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone’, Journal of Rural Studies, 23 (2007), pp. 367–80.

124 The most significant recent investment is the US $400 million agri-business deal to produce bio-fuels from sugarcane. There is currently a high demand for this commodity on the global markets. The government claims this project will create 4,000 new jobs through direct employment, contracting and out-grower agreements. The deal involves leasing 10,000 hectares of farmland over a period of 50 years in the underdeveloped north of the country. The final product – ethanol – will be for export to Europe and also for ‘local consumption’; see also Cubitt, Christine, ‘Employment in Sierra Leone: What Happened to Post-Conflict Job Creation?’, African Security Review, 20:1 (2011); and Fanthorpe, Richard and Maconachie, Roy, ‘Beyond the “Crisis of Youth”? Mining, Farming and Civil Society in Post-War Sierra Leone’, African Affairs, 109 (2010), pp. 252–72.

125 GoSL, Letter of Intent (IMF, 2006).

126 Sonnia-Magba Bi-Buakei Jabbi and Salia Kpaka, Report of the Need Assessment Survey on Public Finance and Budget Transparency in Sierra Leone.

127 Interview with former Finance Minister, Mr John Benjamin (11 December 2008).

128 UNDP, Peacebuilding Fund Supported Projects: Summary of Progress (Freetown: United Nations Development Programme, 2008).

129 Zoellick, Robert, The World Bank is Committed to Helping Africa out of the Economic Crisis (World Bank, 2010).

130 IMF, Sierra Leone: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper – Annual Progress Report (Washington, 2007).

131 Chandler, David, ‘Back to the Future? The Limits of neo-Wilsonian Ideals of Exporting Democracy’, Review of International Studies, 32 (2006), pp. 475–94.

132 Cubitt, ‘Employment in Sierra Leone: What Happened to Post-Conflict Job Creation?’

133 See Roberts, ‘Post-conflict peacebuilding, liberal irrelevance and the locus of legitimacy’.

134 Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping.

135 Roberts, ‘Post-conflict Peacebuilding, Liberal Irrelevance and the Locus of Legitimacy’, p. 422.

136 Mark Duffield, Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples; DfID, Fighting Poverty to Build a Safer World: a Strategy for Security and Development (London: Department for International Development, 2005); Solana, Javier, A Secure Europe in a Better World: European Security Strategy (Paris: European Institute for Security Studies, 2003); DAC, DAC Guidelines on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-Operation (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1997).

137 King, Gary and Murray, Christopher J., ‘Rethinking Human Security’, Political Science Quarterly, 116 (2001), pp. 585610; Mack, Andre, The Human Security Report Project: Background Paper, ed. Human Security Centre (Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2002); CHS, Human Security Now (New York: Commission for Human Security, 2003); HSC, The Human Security Report 2005; War and Peace in the 21st Century edited by Human Security Centre (Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2005).

138 Chabal, Patrick, Africa: the Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed; Pietermaritzburg, 2009).

139 See Roberts, ‘Beyond the Metropolis? Popular Peace and Postconflict Peacebuilding’.

140 Brahimi, Lakhdar, State Building in Crisis and Post-Conflict Countries (Vienna, Austria: United Nations, 2007), p. 3.

141 Liden, Kristoffer, Mac Ginty, Roger and Richmond, Oliver P., ‘Introduction: Beyond Northern Epistemologies of Peace: Liberal Peacebuilding Reconstructed’, International Peacekeeping, 16:5 (2009), pp. 587–98.

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