Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The evolution of top income and wealth shares in Portugal since 1936*

  • Jordi Guilera (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

This paper presents new statistical evidence on the long-term evolution of economic inequality in Portugal. Portuguese tax sources have been employed to estimate top income and wealth shares (TIS and TWS) from 1936 onwards. The new series shows that the Second World War had a negative and non-permanent effect on the evolution of TIS, but not on TWS, which increased until the mid 1950s. From the mid 1950s to the early 1980s, there was a sharp decline in TIS and TWS. Finally, during the 1990s, TIS increased again. The reasons behind the Portuguese distributive pattern seem to be more economic than political.

Resumen

El objetivo de este artículo es presentar nueva información estadística sobre la evolución de las desigualdades económicas en Portugal a largo plazo. La explotación de las fuentes fiscales portuguesas ha permitido la estimación de las top income and wealth shares (TIS y TWS) desde 1936. Estas nuevas series revelan que la Segunda Guerra Mundial tuvo un impacto negativo no permanente sobre las TIS, pero no sobre las TWS. Desde mediados de los cincuenta hasta principios de los ochenta, TIS y TWS cayeron con intensidad. Finalmente, durante los años noventa las TIS volvieron a aumentar. Las razones que hay detrás de la pauta distributiva portuguesa parecen ser más de índole económica que política.

Copyright
References
Hide All
INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTATÍSTICA (1936-1966): Anuário estatístico das contribuiçoes e impostos.
INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTATÍSTICA (1967-1982): Estatísticas das contribuiçoes e impostos.
INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTATÍSTICA (1989-1999): Estatísticas das receitas fiscais.
INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTATÍSTICA (1930-2000): Recenseamento geral da populaçao.
Alvaredo F . (2008): «Top Incomes and Earnings in Portugal 1936-2004». PSE Working Papers no.17.
Alvaredo F. (2009): «Top Income and Earnings in Portugal 1936-2005». Explorations in Economic History, 46 (4), pp. 404-417.
Atkinson A. (2007): «Measuring Top Incomes: Methodological Issues», in A. Atkinson, and T. Piketty (eds), Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century: A Contrast Between Continental European and English Speaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 18-42.
Atkinson A., Gordon J.Harrison A. (1989): «Trends in the Shares of Top Wealth-Holders in Britain 1923-1981». Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 51 (3), pp. 315-332.
Atkinson A.Piketty T. (2007): Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century: A Contrast between Continental European and English Speaking Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Batista D., Martins C., Pinheiro M.Reis J. (1997): «New Estimates for Portugal’s GDP, 1910–1958». História Económica, 7, p. 88.
Deininger K.Squire L. (1996): «A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality». The World Bank Economic Review, 10 (3), pp. 565-591.
Dell F., Piketty T., Saez E. (2005): «Income and wealth concentration in Switzerland over the 20th century», CEPR Discussion Papers no. 5090.
Feenberg D., Poterba J (1993): «Income Inequality and the Incomes of Very High Income Taxpayers: Evidence from Tax Returns». NBER. Working paper no. 4229.
Guilera J. (2008): «Top Income Shares in Portugal Over the Twentieth Century». Working paper E08/195, Documents de treball de la Facultat de Ciències Econòmiques i Empresarials. Col-lecció d’Economia, Universitat de Barcelona.
Kopczuk W., Saez E . (2004): «Top Wealth Shares in the United States: 1916-2000: Evidence from Estate Tax Returns». NBER Working Papers no. 10399.
Kuznets S. (1953): Share of Upper Income Groups in Income and Savings. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Kuznets S. (1955): «Economic Growth and Income Distribution». The American Economic Review, 45 (1), pp. 1-28.
Lains P. (2003a): «Catching up to the European core: Portuguese Economic Growth, 1910-1990». Explorations in Economic History, 40 (4), pp. 369-386.
Lains P . (2003b): «Portugal’s Growth Paradox, 1870-1950». Working Paper 135, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto.
Lains P., Gomes E., Guilera J . (2008): «Are Dictatorships More Unequal? Economic Growth and Wage Inequality during Portugal’s Estado Novo, 1944-1974». Working Papers in Economic History WP 08-08, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Historia Económica e Instituciones.
Leigh A. (2007): «How Closely Do Top Income Shares Track Other Measures of Inequality?». Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, 117 (524), pp. 619-633.
Leitao L. (2001): «Evoluçao e Situaçao da Reforma Fiscal». Ciencia e Técnica Fiscal 387, pp. 7-47.
Oliveira Marques A. H. (1991): História de Portugal. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional — Casa da Moeda.
Piketty T. (2001): Les Hauts Revenues en France au XXè siècle — Inegalités et Redistributions, 1901-1998. Paris: Grasset.
Piketty T. (2007): «Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century: A Summary of the Main Findings», in A. Atkinson, and T. Piketty (eds), Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century: A Contrast Between Continental European and English Speaking Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-17.
Piketty T., Saez E. (2006): «Income Inequality in the United States, 1913-1998». National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 8467.
Piketty T., Postel-Vinay G.Rosenthal J. L. (2006): «Wealth Concentration in a Developing Economy: Paris and France, 1807-1994». American Economic Review, 96 (1), pp. 236-256.
Pinheiro M. (1997): Séries Longas para a Economia Portuguesa. Pós II Guerra Mundial, vol. I — Séries Estatísticas. Lisbon: Banco de Portugal.
Ribeiro J. (1968): «A Contra-reforma Fiscal», in A Reforma Fiscal. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora.
Rodrigues C. F. (1999): «Repartição do Rendimento e Pobreza em Portugal [1994/95] — Uma comparação entre o Painel Dos Agregados Familiares e o Inquérito aos Orçamentos Familiares». Revista De Estatística, V (1), pp. 117-142.
Roine J., Waldenström D. (2007): «Wealth Concentration over the Path of Development: Sweden 1873-2005». Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance no. 677, Stockholm School of Economics.
Roine J.,Waldenström D. (2009): «Wealth Concentration over the Path of Development: Sweden, 1873-2006». Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 111 (1), pp. 151-187.
Valerio N. (1994): As Finanças Públicas Portuguesas entre as duas Guerras Mundiais. Lisbon: Ediçoes Cosmos.
Valerio N. (2001): Estatísticas Históricas Portuguesas. Lisbon: Instituto Nacional de Estatística.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Revista de Historia Economica - Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History
  • ISSN: 0212-6109
  • EISSN: 2041-3335
  • URL: /core/journals/revista-de-historia-economica-journal-of-iberian-and-latin-american-economic-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 18 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 204 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.