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BAVARIA (MUNICH)

Extract

The Munich journals have lately reproduced a note published by the official Journal of the Empire regarding a resolution taken by the Bundesrath in its’ session of the 5th instant on the subject of the probable establishment of an Imperial Ministry responsible to the Parliament.

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1 Deutscher Reichsanzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staatsanzeiger, 6 April 1884. For the debate and resolution in the Federal Council, see pp. 33–34.

2 Federal Council.

3 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei; see n. 3 in Berlin section.

4 Oswald von Nostitz-Wallwitz.

5 On 5 March 1884.

6 Hermann von Mittnacht.

7 Friedrich Krafft von Crailsheim. The statement is not datable.

8 Royal Military Order of Saint George.

9 MacDonell is referring to Hofsekretär Philipp Pfister; Ludwig's private secretary was Richard Hornig.

10 In March 1884 the London merchant bank Baring Brothers & Co. offered a loan of six million marks.

11 Otto, Ludwig's brother, and Luitpold, Ludwig's uncle.

12 On 1 June 1884 The Fortnightly Review published an anti-Bismarckian and pro-French article entitled ‘England's Foreign Policy’, signed ‘G’. The speculation over its authorship, which The Times attributed to Gladstone, led to general assessments and comments on foreign policy and Anglo-German relations in the British and German press. Enclosure: translation of article entitled ‘Germany, England, and the “G” article in the Fortnightly Review’ (‘Deutschland, England und der G-Artikel der “Fortnightly Review”’), Allgemeine Zeitung, 6 July 1884.

13 MacDonell is referring to the articles in Le Figaro of 25 and 27 July 1884 entitled ‘Anglais contre Français et Allemands’ and ‘Nos amis les Anglais, nos ennemis les Allemands’ which proposed to make common cause with Germany against British predominance, and to an article in the Kölnische Zeitung of 29 July 1884.

14 Elections to the Reichstag were held on 28 October 1884.

15 Georg von Vollmar.

16 MacDonell is referring to the Anti-Socialist Law of October 1878 (see n. 10 in Dresden section).

17 The Prussian May Laws of 1873–1875, amongst other things, transferred the training and appointment of clergy to state authority, reformed disciplinary authority over church members, regulated the civil aspects of disaffiliation and curtailed various ecclesiastical rights. See also n. 37 in this and n. 131 in Berlin section.

18 At the time of the dispatch the Prussian motion on the question of the Brunswick succession (see n. 65 in Berlin section) had been referred to the judiciary committee (Justitzausschuss) of the Federal Council.

19 Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. See pp. 148–149.

20 The heir presumptive, Prince Wilhelm.

21 Federal Council.

22 On 9 June 1885.

23 Article 76 of the imperial constitution; see n. 66 in Berlin section.

24 For Bavaria's conduct in this matter, see the preceding dispatch. For the Brunswick succession question and the Federal Council's resolution of 2 July 1885, see also n. 65 in Prussia.

25 Philipp Pfister and Richard Hornig.

26 Johann von Lutz.

27 For Article 76 of the imperial constitution, see n. 66 in Berlin section.

28 On 4 and 5 June the Saxon and Württemberg representatives to the Federal Council communicated their position with regard to the original Prussian proposal of 18 May; however, they did not file counterproposals.

29 See pp. 56–57.

30 The ‘Guelph fund’ consisted of the confiscated assets of King Georg V of Hanover. It was administered by a Prussian commission. See also n. 67 in Dresden section.

31 Friedrich Krafft Freiherr von Crailsheim was referring to the modified proposal adopted by the judiciary committee on 1 July 1885 and passed by the Federal Council the following day.

32 Prince Georg Wilhelm.

33 Oswald Freiherr von Fabrice and Oskar Freiherr von Soden.

34 Kölnische Volkszeitung, 24 June 1885.

35 The directive was addressed to the deans (Landdechanten) of the Paderborn diocese; it was dated 17 February 1885.

36 Philipp Krementz. News of his succession as Archbishop of Cologne circulated from early April 1885 and he was officially appointed on 30 July 1885. Melchers, having been dismissed by verdict of the Prussian Royal Court for Church Affairs for violating the May Laws, had been in exile in the Netherlands since 1876. He arrived in Rome on 13 July 1885 and was created cardinal on 27 July.

37 Amongst other things, the Prussian law of 11 May 1873 introduced state supervision for the training of clergy. These provisions were attenuated by the law of 31 May 1882 which, granted exemption from the compulsory state exams for non-theological subjects (Kulturexamen). This was reflected in the Paderborn circular. For the Prussian May Laws of 1873–1875, see also n. 17 in this section and n. 131 in Berlin section.

38 Franz Kaspar Drobe; Bishop of Paderborn.

39 Leo XIII.

40 Zentrumspartei.

41 Crailsheim was referring to the memorandum of 6 January, addressed to the court secretary and Vorstand of the Hof- und Cabinettskasse, Ludwig von Klug.

42 On 15 January 1886.

43 On 21 January 1886.

44 French: ‘attorney general’.

45 Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 11 January 1886; it was referring to a report in the Frankfurter Zeitung.

46 ‘Nichts als Gerüchte’, Münchner Fremdenblatt, 16 January 1887.

47 Lorenz von Düfflipp.

48 Emil von Riedel.

49 Ludwig I.

50 The meeting took place on 30 April 1886.

51 Report of the ministry (Gesamtstaatsministerium) to Ludwig, 5 May 1886.

52 See n. 41 in this section.

53 In a letter dated 14 April 1886, Bismarck advised Ludwig to request that the ministry should apply for the necessary sums in the Bavarian Landtag. In a further letter of 19 May, after the ministry's refusal, Bismarck advised Ludwig, once again, to cut his spending drastically.

54 At the time of the dispatch Lerchenfeld was not in Munich.

55 Drummond is referring to Lerchenfeld's conversations with Bismarck at Friedrichsruh on 23 and 24 May 1886. The report to Crailsheim mentioned in the dispatch, dated 24 May, was received on 26 May.

56 Drummond is referring to the Prussian envoy, Georg von Werthern.

57 Bernhard von Gudden and Franz Carl Müller.

58 On 9 June 1886, on the basis of a psychiatric report of 8 June, Ludwig was declared insane and placed under tutelage. On 11 June, after he was informed of the ministerial decision to appoint Luitpold as Prince Regent, Ludwig was placed in custody.

59 Oberpfleger (head nurse) Barth.

60 Nurses Braun and Mauder; the two other nurses were called Hack und Schneller.

61 Marie.

62 Enclosure: copy of letter (in French) from Count Toerring to MacDonell, Berg, 11 June 1886.

63 For Ludwig's deposition, see n. 58 in this section.

64 The Old Catholic Church came into existence in 1871 in opposition to the First Vatican Council (1869–1870), and especially the dogma of papal infallibility. Despite political support by government officials it was not formally recognized.

65 Drummond is referring to his No 36 of 7 July 1886.

66 Luitpold rejected the Bavarian ministry's resignation of 5 July in his own letter the following day.

67 Leo XIII.

68 Elections for the second chamber of the Bavarian Landtag were held in July 1887.

69 Drummond is probably referring to Luitpold's letter to the ministry of 6 July 1886.

70 See pp. 70–73.

71 Drummond is referring to the speeches of 3 December (Bronsart von Schellendorff) and 4 December 1886 (Moltke) on the occasion of the first reading of the army bill (see n. 119 in Berlin section).

72 For the Bulgarian Question, see pp. 70–73 and 75–77.

73 Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 20 December 1886. The article stressed the need for understanding between the German and Russian governments with regard to the Bulgarian Question – in which German interests ‘are not at stake’ – and that the ‘continued concord’ between the three imperial powers was ‘inconvenient from an English point of view’.

74 See pp. 70–73 and 75–77.

75 Drummond is referring to the assurances of peace given at two New Year's receptions in Paris by the French president, Jules Grévy, and the French prime minister, René Goblet.

76 Elections to the Reichstag were held on 21 February 1887. In the elections of 1884 the Zentrumspartei won twenty-eight of forty-three seats in Bavaria.

77 For the army bill, see n. 119 in Berlin section.

78 Enclosures: newspaper cutting (uncited, undated) which reproduces the original dispatch (in French) from Cardinal Jacobini to the nuncio at Munich, 21 January 1887; cutting (uncited, undated) of the dispatch in German translation.

79 French: ‘nuncio’.

80 Franckenstein to de Pietro, 16 January 1887.

81 For the May Laws, see n. 17 in this section.

82 Drummond is referring to Lodovico Jacobini's telegraphic instructions to Angelo Di Pietro of 1 January, which were forwarded to Franckenstein on 2 January, and to Jacobini's more detailed dispatch to Di Pietro of 3 January. In a further letter of 12 January Di Pietro reminded Frankenstein of the wishes of the Holy See.

83 ‘Papst und Septennat’, Münchner Fremdenblatt, 6 February 1887.

84 The conflict between Germany and Spain was resolved by the arbitration of Pope Leo XIII, whose verdict of 24 October 1885 acknowledged Spanish sovereignty over the Caroline Islands and granted the freedoms of trade and settlement to Germany.

85 Crailsheim visited Berlin from 18 to 22 January 1887.

86 For the letters of 3 and 21 January addressed to the papal nuncio at Munich, Angelo Di Pietro, see previous dispatch.

87 Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 10 February 1887.

88 Grobe Lüge: ‘gross untruth’.

89 Published on 15 February 1887.

90 On 9 February 1887.

91 French: ‘minor indiscretion’.

92 Drummond is referring to the Allgemeine Zeitung of 25 February 1887.

93 Zentrumspartei.

94 The 50th anniversary of Victoria's accession as queen was on 20 June 1887.

95 Max du Jarrys Freiherr von La Roche.

96 Klementine Freiin von Limpöck.

97 Gisela.

98 Alois von Erhardt.

99 Luitpold.

100 Otto suffered from severe mental illness. From the first day of his reign (13 June 1886) Luitpold, under the provisions of the Bavarian constitution of 1818 (Titel II, Articles 9–22), continued to serve as regent, a position which he had already assumed on 10 June 1886 under Ludwig II.

101 On 27 April and 30 June.

102 Drummond is referring to the end of Ludwig II's reign.

103 Friedrich Wilhelm, who suffered from laryngeal cancer, had been treated by Morell Mackenzie since May 1887. Mackenzie's initial assessment indicated a benign tumour. In October Mackenzie attended the crown prince at St Remo.

104 Drummond is referring to the reportage on the Irish Home Rule movement.

105 On 9 July 1864 Thomas Briggs was robbed on a train journey and died after being thrown out of the carriage. The suspect, Franz Müller, who maintained his innocence, was convicted for murder (the first British railway murder) and publicly hanged on 14 November.

106 Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock.

107 William Ballantine.

108 Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Officio sanctissimo (On The Church in Bavaria), dated 22 December 1887, was published in Bavaria on 3 January 1888.

109 Pius VII.

110 The Concordat of 24 October 1817 was published as an appendix to the Religionsedikt, which itself formed part of the Bavarian constitution of 26 May 1818.

111 On 15 September 1821 Maximilian I Joseph declared that the Concordat was to be regarded as state law.

112 Royal decree of 8 April 1852.

113 See n. 64 in this section.

114 See pp. 488–489.

115 Letter from Luitpold to the Bavarian ministry (Gesamtministerium), 6 July 1886.

116 Fulco Luigi Ruffo-Scilla.

117 See pp. 493–497.

118 Enclosures: original encyclical (Sendschreiben Unsers Heiligsten Vaters Leo XIII durch göttliche Vorsehung Papst and die Erzbischöfe und Bischöfe Bayerns), 1888; précis translation of the papal encyclical addressed to the Catholic episcopacy of Bavaria, 22 December 1887.

119 The establishment of non-denominational schools was enabled by Royal Ordinance of 29 August 1873 which introduced the formation of school districts on the basis of municipality rather than parish. However, a revision of the ordinance on 26 August 1883 reinstated confessional schools as the norm.

120 Crailsheim was probably referring to the deliberations in the finance committee of the second chamber (Finanzausschuss); the reading of the budget of the ministry for church and school affairs began on 24 January 1888.

121 For the secret treaty of 7 October 1879 (published on 3 February 1888), see n. 489 in Berlin section.

122 Drummond is referring to the movement of troops from the interior of Russia to Russian Poland (Vistula Land) and the Austro-Hungarian frontier.

123 In the speech of 6 February, to which Drummond is referring, Bismarck famously stated ‘We Germans fear God and nothing else in the world’.

124 Second chamber of the Bavarian Landtag; Schauß delivered his statement during the reading of the budget for elementary schools.

125 Luitpold.

126 Upon hearing the news of Wilhelm I's death, on 10 March, Friedrich III, accompanied by his wife Victoria, left San Remo for Berlin and arrived at Munich the following day.

127 On 16 March 1888.

128 Marie.

129 Oskar von Soden.

130 Heinrich von Soden.

131 Édouard de Lefebvre.

132 On 21 Janaury 1889.

133 Luitpold.

134 Maximilian Joseph Pergler von Perglas.

135 Camille Barrère.

136 Luitpold.

137 The speech was held on 27 July 1889 at the opening of the seventh Deutsches Turnfest at Munich.

138 Luitpold.

139 In a memorandum of 14 June 1888 the Bavarian bishops compiled their grievances regarding the state of the Catholic Church in Bavaria. Minister president Lutz replied on 28 March 1889, and, while making various concessions, insisted on the precedence of state law over ecclesiastical law and the continued practice of the placetum regium (royal approval; see n. 146 in this section). He also repudiated the demands for compulsory daily school masses and the introduction of confessional middle schools (as a rule).

140 Bayerischer Katholikentag (Bavarian Catholic Convention).

141 A statue of Giordano Bruno was unveiled at the Campo de’ Fiori in Rome on, 9 June 1889 (Whit Sunday). The festivities included a procession, a gala dinner and conferences (which had started on the previous evening and ended on 10 June).

142 Leo XIII.

143 Temporal papal sovereignty ended in September 1870 when the Italian army entered Rome.

144 Luitpold.

145 Joseph Geiger, on 6 November 1889.

146 The requirement for a placetum regium (‘royal approval’) of the publication of ecclesiastical laws and ordinances was stipulated by the constitutional edict of 1818. In 1870 (rescript of 9 August) the placetum regium was extended to the decrees of the Vatican Council.

147 See 000–000.

148 The Bavarian government formally regarded the Old Catholics (see n. 64 in this section) as part of the Catholic Church.

149 The motion was dated 19 October 1889. It requested the Prince Regent, Luitpold, to instruct his ministry, firstly, to declare that the placetum regium as defined in section 58 of the constitutional edict of 1818 did not extend to religious dogmas and ethical doctrines, and, secondly, not to treat the Old Catholics as part of the Catholic Church. The motion was passed on 8 November with a majority of 81 to 78 votes.

150 On 6 November 1889.

151 Emil von Riedel, on 6 November.

152 On 8 November 1889.

153 In reaction to an interruption from the left side of the chambers, Daller said that, if provoked, he might ‘speak about the year 1886, when we [i.e. the Right] saved the material existence of the Bavarian royal house’.

154 Daller declared that the Zentrum faction could not accept Lutz’ interpretation of the constitutional edict of 1818 and would retain this position in the reading of the budget for the ministry of cultural affairs.

155 Leo XIII.

156 See pp. 503–506.

157 Luitpold approved of Lutz’ reply (of 28 March 1889) to the Bavarian bishops on 24 June 1889. See n. 139 in this section.

158 See pp. 511–512.

159 Bundesrat (Federal Council).

160 The Jesuits Law of 4 July 1872 banned the Jesuit Order in the German Empire. It was amended in 1904 and repealed in 1917. On the Redemptorist question, see pp. 534–535.

161 On 8 November 1889 the motion, dated 19 October 1889, was carried with 81 to 74 votes.

162 For the dispute over the placetum regium and the Old Catholic question, see the previous dispatch. On the Redemptorist question, see pp. 534–535. The Old Catholic question was partly resolved by a ministerial regulation of 15 March 1890, which denied Old Catholics the right to be recognized and treated as Catholics.

163 Drummond is referring to the decisions of the finance committee of the second chamber of the Bavarian Landtag on 5 March 1890.

164 Georg Hirth.

165 Noisy protests, discordant singing (charivari).

166 Luitpold.

167 Latin ‘pereat’: ‘down with’.

168 On 10 March 1890.

169 Leopold Freiherr von Leonrod.

170 See preceding dispatch.

171 First chamber of the Bavarian Landtag.

172 On 28 March 1890.

173 Enclosure: translated extracts from the Allgemeine Zeitung of 18 and19 June 1890.

174 For the Anglo-German agreement of 1 July 1890, see n. 436 in Berlin section.

175 Luitpold.

176 The manoeuvres were planned from 9 to 11 September.

177 Luitpold.

178 Article 63 refers to the Emperor.

179 On 16 June 1871.

180 As commander of the III German Army Corps.

181 On 12 April 1888.

182 Hugo Graf von Lerchenfeld.

183 Enclosure: précis translation of article in Allgemeine Zeitung of 8 February 1891. The article provided a commentary on the Reichstag debates which took place from 3 to 6 February, concerning colonial and African affairs. It criticized Caprivi's remarks about British sympathies towards Germany as being detrimental to German interests.

184 The right to maintain a separate postal system and to issue stamps was stipulated in the November (Versailles) Treaties of 1870.

185 Dispatch No 43 is not included in FO 9/264.

186 The question of a German Military Penal Code, which had already been under discussion between 1871 and 1881, was taken up by the imperial government in 1890. At the time of the dispatch the draft code, developed by a commission of the Federal Council, was put on hold. The new Military Penal Code was ultimately passed in 1898; it replaced the Bavarian code of 1869 and the Prussian code of 1845. See also p. 525.

187 Hans Karl von Kaltenborn-Stachau and Benignus von Safferling.

188 Leo von Caprivi.

189 Wilhelm II attended the manoeuvres of the first and second Bavarian army corps at Munich from 7 to 11 September.

190 Allgemeine Zeitung of 10 September; the article in question was an excerpt from the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of the same day (morning edition; transmitted by telegram).

191 Luitpold.

192 Barrère was accredited as permanent chargé d'affaires from 1888; Drummond held the rank of minister resident at Munich and Stuttgart.

193 The Sanitary, Maritime and Quarantine Council in Egypt (successor to the Sanitary Administration of Egypt) was founded in 1881 and consisted of fourteen European and nine Egyptian members. Following the international conference at Venice just four Egyptian members remained on the council and an international convention for the protection against cholera was adopted.

194 Wilhelm II's speech at the banquet of the Provincial Diet of Brandenburg on 24 February 1892 was criticized for its neo-absolutistic stance. He depicted opponents to the imperial government as grumblers and ended with the remark, ‘My course is the right one, and I shall continue to steer it’.

195 On 13 March 1892.

196 First chamber.

197 Federal Council.

198 On 8 March 1892.

199 The second chamber made an address on 4 November1891 in which it asked Luitpold to advise the Bavarian plenipotentiaries to the Federal Council to consent only to a German Military Penal Code if the principles of the Bavarian Military Penal Code of 1869 were maintained.

200 Leopold was appointed on 27 June 1892.

201 Enclosure: translation of Prince Bismarck's speech at Kissingen on 24 July 1892.

202 On 12 July 1892.

203 Bismarck stayed at Kissingen from 26 June to 30 July 1892.

204 Der Beobachter: Ein Volksblatt für Schwaben, 12 July 1892. The article in question ended with the remark, ‘It was misfortune for our Fatherland, that Prince Bismarck had not been removed from the helm of the state long ago.’

205 On the army bill presented to the Federal Council on 20 October 1892, see pp. 143–144.

206 Kölnische Zeitung, 24 October 1892.

207 Enclosures: précis translations of articles in Münchner Neueste Nachrichten of 19 October and 26 October 1892 and Münchner Fremdenblatt 26 October 1892.

208 On 19 October 1892.

209 The Reichstag elections were held on 15 June 1893.

210 Leo XIII.

211 Curonia, Livonia, and Estonia were Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire. In 1876, as a prelude to the russification measures of the 1880s, the office of the Baltic Governor-General, established in 1800, was abolished.

212 Enclosure: translation of article ‘The Future of the Baltic Provinces of Russia’, Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, undated.

213 Name not traceable.

214 The article was referring to the Russian press in general and in particular to the Novoye Vremya.

215 The Reichstag was dissolved on 6 May 1893. For the rejection of the army bill and the compromise proposal, see nn. 312 and 322 in Berlin section.

216 In his speech at Neubeuern of 16 April 1893, Daller was referring to the Bavarian members of the Zentrum faction of the Reichstag.

217 Daller was referring to the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

218 On 5 May 1893.

219 Neue Preußische Zeitung (Kreuzzeitung), on 10 May 1893.

220 Bavaria's sovereign rights were upheld in the November (Versailles) Treaties of 1870. These Reservatrechte included the maintenance of separate postal and railway systems, military command to be retained by the king in peacetime, property insurance regulations, citizenship laws, and beer and brandy taxes.

221 See nn. 186 and 199 in this section.

222 On the commercial treaties, see nn. 319 and 354 Berlin section.

223 Law concerning Disability and Old-Age Insurance of 22 June 1889.

224 Benedikt Bachmaier at the peasant's meeting in Poigham on 8 May 1893.

225 Name not traceable.

226 Drummond is referring to Wilhelm II's speech of 9 May in which he criticized the rejection of the army bill.

227 The Franco-Siamese War took place in 1893. On 20 July 1893, at Bangkok, the French presented Siam with an ultimatum, demanding that she renounce her claims to the left bank of the Mekong River.

228 On 2 August 1893.

229 On the Triple Alliance, see n. 174 in Berlin section.

230 On 7 August 1893.

231 Name not traceable.

232 On 26 July 1893.

233 On 8 August 1893.

234 On 10 August 1893.

235 Enclosures: translation of an article entitled ‘Behind the scenes’ [Hinter den Coulissen], Bayerischer Kurier, undated [7 August 1893]; translation of an untitled article from the Allgemeine Zeitung, undated [26 July 1893].

236 The Anti-Jesuit Law of 4 July 1872 banned the Jesuit Order in the German Empire. It was extended by implementing the ordinance of 20 May 1873 to the missionary order of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists). The White Fathers (Societas Missionariorum Africae) were not affected by the Anti-Jesuit Law. In his dispatch Drummond refers to the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, the ban on which was likewise lifted by the Federal Council on 9 July 1894.

237 Andrea Auiti.

238 From 26 to 30 August 1894.

239 The differences originated in Bebel's criticism of the SPD deputies of the Bavarian Landtag which, on 1 June 1894, had approved the state budget, containing ameliorations for lower-grade civil servants.

240 At a Berlin party meeting, on 14 November 1894.

241 On 17 November 1894.

242 Georg von Vollmar's family was elevated to the nobility in 1790; his full name was Ritter von Vollmar auf Veltheim.

243 On 20 November 1894.

244 Münchner Post, 22 November 1894.

245 Spanish: ‘public declaration’.

246 Bebel's initiative to compel Landtag deputies to vote against state budgets was dismissed at the Frankfurt party congress (21 to 27 October 1894).

247 See previous dispatch.

248 For the ‘subversion bill’ (Umsturzvorlage), see n. 381 in Berlin section.

249 Article 130 of the Imperial Criminal Code of 1871 concerned incitement of the people (altered on 20 March 1876).

250 The Prussian Literarisches Büro; see also n. 67 in Dresden section.

251 Article 131 of the Imperial Criminal Code of 1871 concerned contempt of government.

252 On 30 October 1896 a legal dispute between inhabitants of Fuchsmühl (Upper Palatinate) and the local lord of the manor escalated when a detachment of 50 soldiers forcibly intervened against a crowd of 180 people who were insisting on their long-honoured right to cut wood in a forest. Two peasants were killed, some thirty people were wounded.

253 Article 3 of the bill adjusted to Article 23 of the Imperial Press Law, of 7 May 1874, to the proposed amendments to the Imperial Criminal Code. It concerned confiscation of publications without court order.

254 Das Bayerisches Vaterland.

255 Enclosures: original (cutting) from Bayerische Kurier, 5 January 1895 and précis translation.

256 Name not traceable.

257 The correspondent's report, dated Munich 1 January, was published on 3 January 1895.

258 ‘The king's will is the highest law’. Wilhelm signed the Golden Book on 8 September 1891 upon his visit to Munich.

259 For Bismarck's and Caprivi's dismissals, see nn. 252 and 298 in Berlin section.

260 Enclosures: original (cutting) ‘Das höchste Gesetz’, Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 8 January 1895 and précis translation (‘The Highest Law’); original (cutting) ‘Das deutsche Volk und sein Kaiser’, Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 11 January 1895 and précis translation (‘The German People and their Emperor’).

261 Münchner Neueste Nachrichten.

262 Name not traceable.

263 Drummond is referring, amongst other things, to the ‘subversion bill’ (see n. 381 in Berlin section).

264 Alexander III died on 1 November 1894.

265 For the Triple Alliance, see n. 174 in Berlin section.

266 Drummond is referring to New Zealand's proposal to annex Samoa under a British protectorate, which was put forward in April 1894.

267 For the Anglo-Congolese (Anglo-Belgian) agreement, see n. 365 in Berlin section; for the French proceedings in Siam, see n. 227 in this section.

268 See pp. 500–503 and 532–533.

269 On 26 August; the 42nd Katholikentag took place from 25 to 29 August.

270 Leo XIII to Count von Preysing, president of the organizing committee, dated Rome, 30 July 1895.

271 Luitpold.

272 Drummond is referring to the workers’ summer fete at Holzapfelkreuth on 18 August 1895.

273 The ‘Capture of Rome’ of 20 September 1870 marked the incorporation of the Papal States into the Italian kingdom. The rights and prerogatives of the Pope and the Holy See and its relationship with Italy were regulated by the Law of Guarantees of 13 May 1871.

274 Anton von Steichele.

275 Volksverein für das katholische Deutschland, founded in 1890.

276 The debates in the second chamber of the Bavarian Landtag took place on 28 and 29 October. On the ‘subversion bill’ (Umsturzvorlage), see n. 381 in Berlin section.

277 The German Emperor, as King of Prussia, held the presidency of the confederation (Bundespräsidium); he was not president of the Federal Council, which, according to the imperial constitution of 1871, was chaired by the imperial chancellor.

278 On the Transvaal crisis and the ‘Jameson Raid’, see pp. 188–195 and n. 450 in Prussian section.

279 Enclosures: translations of articles in Münchner Neueste Nachrichten of 4, 5 and 8 January 1896.

280 On the ‘Jameson Raid’ and the ensuing Kruger telegram, see pp. 188–195.

281 ‘Uitlanders’, foreign residents of the South African Republic.

282 Issue of 8 June 1896.

283 Karl Camesa-Sasca.

284 On 11 June 1896.

285 The original article used the expression ‘kerndeutsch’.

286 Regen is located in Lower Bavaria.

287 On 22 August 1897.

288 Hugo Graf von Lerchenfeld.

289 Georg Ratzinger.

290 For the German Military Penal Code, see n. 186 in this section.

291 For the Reservatrechte (reserved rights), see n. 220 in this section.

292 Wilhelm II met Luitpold at Würzburg and Nuremberg on 1 and 2 September 1897.

293 For the imperial naval bill, see n. 536 in Berlin section.

294 Schäffle's four-part article ‘Ein Votum für die Marinevorlage’ (‘A vote for the navy bill’) was published in the Allgemeine Zeitung on 23, 29, 30, and 31 December 1897.

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