Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

‘Steeling’ Young People: Resilience and Youth Policy in Scotland

  • Emma Davidson (a1) and Eric Carlin (a2)

Abstract

This article examines the growth of resilience-focused youth policy in Scotland, and its association with the proliferation of the ACE (Adverse Childhood Experiences) agenda. To do this, it critically compares policy discourse with qualitative data on young people’s experiences of growing up in two similar, low-income neighbourhoods. This combination leads us to problematise resilience-informed practice, relative to the voices of young people. Our review demonstrates that by emphasising individual protective factors, resilience discourse reframes inequalities embedded within certain neighbourhoods, and the specific impacts on young people who live there. The consequence is not an assets-based youth policy that supports all young people, but rather a form of resilience which promotes the ‘steeling’ of young people; making them stronger and more resistant to adversities. These adversities, we conclude, may be preventable within a more just social order.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Becker, H. (1995) ‘Moral entrepreneurs: the creation and enforcement of deviant categories’, in Dolan, P., Canavan, J. and Pinkerton, J. (eds.), Deviance: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach, Lanham, Michigan, USA: General Hall.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977) ‘Toward an experimental ecology of human development’, American Psychologist, 32, 513–31.
Burke-Harris, N. (2014) How Childhood Trauma Effects Health Across a Lifetime, TED Talk, http://www.ted.com/talks/nadine_burke_harris_how_childhood_trauma_affects_health_across_a_lifetime [accessed 16.01.2019].
Cairney, P., Russell, S. and St Denny, E. (2016) ‘The “Scottish approach” to pol-icy and policymaking: what issues are territorial and what are uni-versal?’, Policy and Politics, 44, 3, 333–50.
Carlin, E. (2017) ‘Young people’s transition to adulthood in Pilton, a disadvantaged neighbourhood in Edinburgh’, Doctoral thesis, Birkbeck, University of London.
Couper, S. and Mackie, P. (2016) ‘Polishing the Diamonds’: Addressing Adverse Childhood Experiences in Scotland, Glasgow: Scottish Public Health Network (ScotPHN), https://www.scotphn.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/2016_05_26-ACE-Report-Final-AF.pdf, [accessed 16.01.2019].
Daniel, B. and Wassell, S. (2002) Adolescence: Assessing and Promoting Resilience in Vulnerable Children, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Davidson, E. (2013) ‘Finding the ordinary in the antisocial: young people’s everyday experiences of antisocial behaviour’, Sociological Research Online, 18, 1.
Davidson, E. (2017) ‘Saying it like it is? Power, participation and research involving young people’, Social Inclusion, 5, 3, 228–39.
Davidson, E. and Whittaker, L. (2017) ‘How are you?: Young care leavers’ narratives of support’, in Rogers, R. and Blackman, S. (eds.), The Marginalisation of Young People in the UK, London: Palgrave Press.
Davidson, R. (2008) ‘More than “Just Coping”: the antecedents and dynamics of resilience in a qualitative longitudinal study’, Social Policy and Society, 8, 1, 115–25.
Dolan, P. (2006) ‘Assessment, intervention and self-appraisal tools for family support’, in Dolan, P., Canavan, J. and Pinkerton, J. (eds.), Family Support as Reflective Practice, London: Jessica Kingsley.
Elias, N. (1978) What is Sociology?, London: Hutchinson & Co.
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Sapitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P. and Marks, J. S. (1998) ‘Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 4, 245–58.
Finlay, I., Sheridan, M., McKay, J. and Nudzor, H. (2010) ‘Young people on the margins: in need of more choices and more chances in twenty-first century Scotland’, British Educational Research Journal, 36, 5, 851–67.
Folgheraiter, F. (2007) ‘Relational social work: principles and practices’, Social Policy and Society, 6, 2, 265–74.
France, A. (2008) ‘From being to becoming: the importance of tackling youth poverty in transitions to adulthood’, Social Policy and Society, 7, 4, 495505.
Furlong, A. and Cartmel, F. (1997) Young People and Social Change: Individualization and Risk in Late Modernity, Buckingham, England: Open University Press.
Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, California, USA: Stanford University Press.
Gilligan, R. (2006) ‘Adversity, resilience and young people: the protective value of positive school and spare time experiences’, Children and Society, 14, 3747.
Harrison, E. (2012) ‘Bouncing back? Recession, resilience and everyday lives’, Critical Social Policy, 33, 97113.
Independent Advisor on Poverty and Inequality (2016) Shifting the Curve: A Report to the First Minister, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/01/1984 [accessed 16.01.2019].
Joseph, J. (2013) ‘Resilience as embedded neoliberalism: a governmentality approach’, Resilience, 1, 1, 3852.
Julkunen, I. (2001) ‘Coping and mental well-being among unemployed youth - a Northern European perspective’, Journal of Youth Studies, 4, 3, 261–78.
Mahoney, J. (2000) ‘School extracurricular activity participation as a moderator in the development of anti-social patterns’, Child Development, 71, 2, 502–16.
Newman, T. and Blackburn, S. (2002) Transitions in the Lives of Children and Young People: Resilience Factors, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Education and Young People Research Unit, https://www2.gov.scot/Publications/2002/10/15650/12263 [accessed 16.01.2019].
Scottish Government (2008a) A Guide to Getting It Right for Every Child, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, https://www2.gov.scot/resource/doc/238985/0065813.pdf [accessed 16.01.2019].
Scottish Government (2008b) The Early Years Framework, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, https://www2.gov.scot/resource/doc/257007/0076309.pdf [accessed 16.01.2019].
Scottish Government (2008c) Achieving Our Potential: A Framework to Tackle Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, https://www.gov.scot/publications/achieving-potential-framework-tackle-poverty-income-inequality-scotland/ [accessed 13.02.2019].
Scottish Government (2012) A Guide to Getting It Right for Every Child, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0045/00458341.pdf [accessed 16.01.2019].
Scottish Government (2017) A Nation with Ambition: The Government’s Programme for Scotland 2017–2018, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, https://www.gov.scot/publications/nation-ambition-governments-programme-scotland-2017-18/ [accessed 16.01.2019].
Scottish Government (2018a) Every Child, Every Chance: Tackling Child Poverty Delivery Plan 2018-2022, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, https://www.gov.scot/publications/child-chance-tackling-child-poverty-delivery-plan-2018-22/ [accessed 16.01.2019].
Scottish Government (2018b) Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2014-17, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, https://www.gov.scot/publications/poverty-income-inequality-scotland-2014-17/ [accessed 16.01.2019].
Scottish Government (2018c) ‘Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)’, Report on Scottish Government Event, Bellahouston Academy, 26 March, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Shean, M. (2015) Current Theories Relating to Resilience and Young People: A Literature Review, Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
Shildrick, T., Blackman, S. and MacDonald, R. (2009) ‘Young people, class and place’, Journal of Youth Studies, 12, 5, 457–65.
Shildrick, T., MacDonald, R., Furlong, A., Roden, J. and Crow, R. (2012) Are ‘Cultures Of Worklessness’ Passed Down Through the Generations?, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Shonkoff, J. P., Garner, A. S., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., McGuinn, L. and Wegner, L. M. (2012) ‘The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress’, Pediatrics, 129, 1, 2011–663.
Small, S. and Memmo, S. (2004) ‘Contemporary models of youth development and problem prevention: towards an integration of terms, concepts and models’, Family Relations, 53, 1, 311.
Stoddart, E. (2015) ‘The named person: surveillance and the wellbeing of children and young people in Scotland’, Surveillance and Society, 13, 1, 102–16.
Ungar, M. (2005) ‘Introduction: Resilience across cultures and contexts’, in Ungar, M. (eds.), Handbook for Working with Children and Youth: Pathways to Resilience Across Cultures and Contexts, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ungar, M. (2012) The Social Ecology of Resilience, New York, NY: Springer.
Ungar, M. (2015) ‘Resilience and culture: the diversity of protective processes and positive adaptation’, in Theron, L. C., Liebenberg, L. and Ungar, M. (eds.), Youth Resilience and Culture, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
The Vision (2018) Retrieved from http://aceawarescotland.com/vision/ [accessed 11.03.19].
Wacquant, L. (1999) ‘Urban marginality in the coming millennium’, Urban Studies, 36, 1639–47.
Zeedyk, S. (2018) ‘Childhood trauma: why I celebrate the ACE-aware movement’s impact’, The Times Educational Supplement, https://www.tes.com/news/childhood-trauma-why-i-celebrate-ace-aware-movements-impact [accessed 16.01.2019].
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Social Policy and Society
  • ISSN: 1474-7464
  • EISSN: 1475-3073
  • URL: /core/journals/social-policy-and-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed