Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope’s construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 155–168.
Allan, S., & Gilbert, P. (1997). Submissive behaviour and psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 467–488.
Arnold, J. (1999). Affect in language learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Averill, J. R., & More, T. A. (2000). Happiness. In Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 663–676). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Barsade, S. G., Ward, A. J., Turner, J. D. F., & Sonnenfeld, J. A. (2000). To your heart’s content: A model of affective diversity in top management teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 802–836.
Chastain, K. (1975). Affective and ability factors in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 25, 153–161.
Cooper, H., Okamura, L., & Gurka, V. (1992). Social activity and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 573–583.
Csizér, K., & Kormos, J. (2009). Learning experiences, selves and motivated learning behaviour: A comparative analysis of structural models for Hungarian secondary and university learners of English. In Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 98–119). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Csizér, K., & Lukács, G. (2010). The comparative analysis of motivation, attitudes and selves: The case of English and German in Hungary. System, 38, 1–13.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.
Dewaele, J. M., & MacIntyre, P. (2014). The two faces of Janys? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4, 237–274.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Dörnyei, Z., & Chan, L. (2013). Motivation and vision: An analysis of future L2 self images, sensory styles, and imagery capacity across two target languages. Language Learning, 63, 437–462.
Dörnyei, Z., & Kubanyiova, M. (2014). Motivating learners, motivating teachers: Building vision in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169–200.
Gardner, R. C., Smythe, P. C., Clement, R., & Gliksman, L. (1976). Second language acquisition: A social psychological perspective. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 32, 198–273.
Gilbert, P. (1998). Shame and humiliation in the treatment of complex cases. In Tarrier, N. E., Wells, A. E., & Haddock, G. E. (Eds.), Treating complex cases: The cognitive behavioural therapy approach (pp. 241–271). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Gilbert, P. (2003). Evolution, social roles and the differences in shame and guilt. Social Research, 70, 1205–1230.
Gilbert, P. (2014). Depression: The evolution of powerlessness. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Harder, D. H., & Zalma, A. (1990). Two promising shame and guilt scales: A construct validity comparison. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55, 729–745.
Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of reported L2 use: The Japanese ESL context. Second Language Studies, 20, 29–70.
Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3(1), 51.
Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.
Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300.
Higgins, E. T. (1998). Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as a motivational principle. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 1–46.
Higgins, E. T. (2011). Beyond pleasure and pain: How motivation works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Higgins, E. T., Shah, J., & Friedman, R. (1997). Emotional responses to goal attainment: Strength of regulatory focus as moderator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 515–525.
Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43, 154–167.
Islam, M., Lamb, M., & Chambers, G. (2013). The L2 motivational self system and national interest: A Pakistani perspective. System, 4, 231–244.
Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Kaufman, G. (1996). The psychology of shame: Theory and treatment of shame-based syndromes. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
Keltner, D., & Harker, L. (1998). The forms and functions of the nonverbal signal of shame. In Gilbert, P. and Andrews, B. (Eds.), Shame: Interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, and culture (pp. 78–98). Oxford University Press on Demand.
Kim, T. Y. (2009). The sociocultural interface between ideal self and ought-to self: A case study of two Korean students’ ESL motivation. In Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 274–294). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Kleinmann, H. H. (1977). Avoidance behavior in adult second language acquisition. Language Learning, 27, 93–17.
Kormos, J., & Csizér, K. (2008). Age-related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves and motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 58, 327–355.
Kormos, J., Kiddle, T., & Csiźer, K. (2011). Systems of goals, attitudes, and self-related beliefs in second-language-learning motivation. Applied Linguistics, 32, 495–516.
Lamb, M. (2012). A self-system perspective on young adolescents’ motivation to learn English in urban and rural settings. Language Learning, 62, 997–1023.
Lewis, H. B. (1971). Shame and guilt in neurosis. New York, NY: International Universities Press.
Lockwood, P., Jordan, C. H., & Kunda, Z. (2002). Motivation by positive or negative role models: Regulatory focus determines who will best inspire us. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 854–864.
Lucas, R. E. (2001). Pleasant affect and sociability: Towards a comprehensive model of extraverted feelings and behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, 5610.
Lutwak, N., & Ferrari, J. R. (1996). Moral affect and cognitive processes: Differentiating shame from guilt among men and women. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 891–896.
Lyubomirsky, S., & Tucker, K. L. (1998). Implications of individual differences in subjective happiness for perceiving, interpreting, and thinking about life events. Motivation and Emotion, 22, 155–186.
MacIntyre, P. D. (2002). Motivation, anxiety and emotion in second language acquisition. Individual Differences and Instructed Language Learning, 2, 45–68.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 3–26.
MacIntyre, P., & Gardner, R. (1994). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44, 283–305.
MacIntyre, P., & Gregersen, T. (2012). Emotions that facilitate language learning: The positive-broadening power of the imagination. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 2, 193–213.
MacIntyre, P. D., Mackinnon, S. P., & Clément, R. (2009). From integrative motivation to possible selves: The baby, the bathwater and the future of language learning motivation research. In Dörnyei, Z. and Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 43–65). North York, ON: Multilingual Matters.
MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 545–562.
Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.
Molden, D. C., Lee, A. Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Motivations for promotion and prevention. In Shah, J. Y. & Gardner, W. L. (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 169–187). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Noels, K. A. (2003). Learning Spanish as a second language: Learners’ orientations and perceptions of their teachers’ communication style. In Dörnyei, Z. (Ed.), Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning (pp. 97–136). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Osborne, J. W. (2003). Effect sizes and the disattenuation of correlation and regression coefficients: Lessons from educational psychology. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 8(11). Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=8&n=11.
Papi, M. (2010). The L2 motivational self system, L2 anxiety, and motivated behavior: A structural equation modeling approach. System, 38, 467–479.
Papi, M., & Teimouri, Y. (2012). Dynamics of selves and motivation: A cross-sectional study in the EFL context of Iran. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22, 287–309.
Papi, M., & Teimouri, Y. (2014). Language learner motivational types: A cluster analysis study. Language Learning, 64, 493–525.
Pedhazur, E. J., (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research (3rd ed.). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Matos, M. (2011). Can shame memories become a key to identity? The centrality of shame memories predicts psychopathology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 281–290.
Plonsky, L., & Gonulal, T. (2015). Methodological synthesis in quantitative L2 research: A review of reviews and a case study of exploratory factor analysis. Language Learning, 65, 9–36.
Prior, M., & Kasper, G. (2016). Emotion in multilingual interaction. John Benjamin’s.
Ryan, S. (2009). Self and identity in L2 motivation in Japan: The ideal L2 self and Japanese learners of English. In Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 120–143). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect: A review of the anxiety literature. Language Learning, 28, 129–142.
Staw, B. M., & Barsade, S. G. (1993). Affect and managerial performance: A test of the sadder-but-wiser vs. happier-and-smarter hypothesis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 304–331.
Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M. (2009). The L2 motivational self system amongst Chinese, Japanese, and Iranian learners of English: A comparative study. In Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 66–97). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Tahmouresi, S., & Teimouri, Y. (2016). L2 shame-proneness and L2 guilt-proneness as two distinct individual differences: Validation of a scenario-based questionnaire. Paper presented at Annual Conference of the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Orlando, FL, April 2016.
Tangney, J. E, Niedenthal, E. M., Covert, M. V., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). Are shame and guilt related to distinct self-discrepancies? A test of Higgins’ (1987) hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 256–268.
Tangney, J. P. & Dearing, R. L. (2002). Shame and guilt. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Ushioda, E. (2001). Language learning at university: Exploring the role of motivational thinking. In Dörnyei, Z. & Schmidt, R. (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (Technical Report #23, pp. 93–125). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 54–66.
Young, D. J. (1986). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. Foreign Language Annals, 19, 439–445.