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Notes

1. Marx, Karl, Capital, Vol. 1 (New York: Penguin, 1990), 874.

2. I am thinking here of Giovanni Arrighi, Eric Hobsbawm, and Immanuel Wallerstein. Andre Gunder Frank and Maxine Berg offer crucial correctives to the Eurocentrism of these historical accounts, which tend to exceptionalize the European development of capitalism in a world economic context largely impervious and oblivious to English Industrial Revolution.

3. Neeson, J. M., Commoners: Common Right, Enclosure and Social Change in England, 1700–1820 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

4. Neeson's account of the process enclosure emphasizes the ambivalence and diversity of responses to agricultural improvement. She argues that historical accounts of the process have mistakenly presumed that there was a distinctly positive impact of the “efficiency” of agricultural techniques, when in fact many of the changes seem to have had a neutral or negative effect.

5. Neeson, Commoners, 5.

6. The transition of the informal rule of the East India Company to the direct rule of British Parliament following the Government of India Act of 1858 can be understood in a metonymic relation to the transition from informal piecemeal enclosure to the Parliamentary intervention of the Inclosure Act.

7. Gaskell, Elizabeth, North and South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 356.

8. Eliot, George, Adam Bede (New York: Penguin, 2008), 17.

9. Trollope, Anthony, The Way We Live Now (New York: Penguin, 1994), 44.

10. James, Henry, The Portrait of a Lady (New York: Penguin, 2011), 1.

11. Gaskell, North and South, 356.

12. Eliot, Adam Bede, 17.

13. Trollope, The Way We Live Now, 44.

14. James, Portrait, 2.

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Victorian Literature and Culture
  • ISSN: 1060-1503
  • EISSN: 1470-1553
  • URL: /core/journals/victorian-literature-and-culture
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