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    O’Toole, Tina 2013. The Irish New Woman.

    O’Toole, Tina 2013. The Irish New Woman.



  • Daniel Brown (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 06 December 2010

The title of George Egerton's first collection of short stories, Keynotes (1893), announces a concern with the beginnings of sequences, the first principles from which larger patterns are orchestrated. The stories introduce premises from which new social and sexual relations may be engendered and individual existential choices made, a philosophical intent that harks back to the preoccupation in classical Greek thought with the nature of the Good Life and how to live it, which Friedrich Nietzsche renews for modern Western philosophy. Egerton's broad but nonetheless radical engagement with Nietzschean thought can be traced through the references she makes to the philosopher in Keynotes, which are widely credited with being the first in English literature. Indeed, such allusions are, as Iveta Jusová observes, “the most frequent literary reference[s] in Egerton's texts” (53). They were also recognised and mobilised against her by some of her earliest critics.

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Barbara De Mille . “Cruel Illusions: Nietzsche, Conrad, Hardy, and the ‘Shadowy Ideal.’Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 30.4 (Autumn 1990): 697714.

Sigmund Freud . The Origins of Psycho-Analysis, Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, Drafts and Notes: 1887–1902. Ed. Marie Bonaparte , Anna Freud , and Ernst Kris . Trans. Eric Mosbacher and James Strachey . London: Imago, 1954.

Ann Heilmann . New Woman Fiction: Women Writing First-Wave Feminism. London: Macmillan, 2000.

Lyn Pykett . The “Improper” Feminine: The Woman's Sensation Novel and New Woman Writing. London: Routledge, 1992.

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Victorian Literature and Culture
  • ISSN: 1060-1503
  • EISSN: 1470-1553
  • URL: /core/journals/victorian-literature-and-culture
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