1. John, Juliet, Dickens's Villains: Melodrama, Character, Popular Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 31.
2. Meisel, Martin, Realizations: Narrative, Pictorial and Theatrical Arts in Nineteenth Century England (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983), 38.
3. Lockhart, Ellen, “Forms and Themes of Early Melodrama,” in The Melodramatic Moment, 1780–1820, ed. Hambridge, Katherine and Hicks, Jonathan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018).
4. Williams, Carolyn, “Melodrama,” in The New Cambridge History of Victorian Literature, ed. Flint, Kate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 193–219.
5. Fried, Michael, Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and the Beholder in the Age of Diderot (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 92–94. Brooks, Peter also takes up the analysis of spectatorial enthrallment as “The Aesthetics of Astonishment,” in The Melodramatic Imagination: Balzac, Henry James, Melodrama, and the Mode of Excess (1976; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), 24–55.
6. The best account of the subgenres may be found in Buckley, Matthew, “Early English Melodrama,” in The Cambridge Companion to English Melodrama, ed. Williams, Carolyn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
7. This is the argument of Melodrama Unbound: Across History, Media, and National Cultures, ed. Gledhill, Christine and Williams, Linda (New York: Columbia University Press, 2018).
8. See for example Vardac, Nicholas, Stage to Screen: Theatrical Method from Garrick to Griffith (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1949) and Brewster, Ben and Jacobs, Lea, Theater to Cinema: Stage Pictorialism and the Early Feature Film (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
9. Other forms of the strip include William Hogarth's serial paintings and comic strips—at the earlier and later historical moments of stage melodrama. Erving Goffman's frame analysis offers a later, sociological version of strip-thinking.
10. Batchen, Geoffrey, Burning with Desire: The Conception of Photography (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997). But see also Stewart, Garrett, Between Film and Screen: Modernism's Photo Synthesis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).