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Realism

  • Ian Duncan
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References
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Notes

1. [Eliot, George], “Art and Belles Lettres,” Westminster Review 65 (April 1856): 626.

2. [Lewes, G. H.], “Realism in Art: Recent German Fiction,” Westminster Review 70 (October 1858): 274.

3. Lewes, “Realism in Art,” 274.

4. Eliot, , “Art and Belles Lettres,” 626; Adam Bede, ed. Martin, Carol A. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 162.

5. Watt, Ian, The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957).

6. Whewell, William, The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences: Founded upon their History, 2 vols. (London: J. W. Parker, 1847), 2: 17, 24.

7. Levine, George, “George Eliot's Hypothesis of Reality,” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 35, no. 1 (1980): 1–28, 24.

8. Gallagher, Catherine, “The Rise of Fictionality,” in The Novel, Vol. 1: History, Geography, and Culture, ed. Moretti, Franco (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006), 336–63; George Eliot: Immanent Victorian,” Representations 90, no. 1 (2005): 6174.

9. See MacKay, Marina, “The Wartime Rise of The Rise of the Novel,” Representations 119, no. 1 (2012): 119–43.

10. Moretti, Franco, The Way of the World: The Bildungsroman in European Culture (London: Verso, 1987); “Serious Century,” in The Novel, Vol. 1, ed. Moretti, 364–400.

11. Lukács, Georg, Studies in European Realism: A Sociological Survey of the Writings of Balzac, Stendhal, Zola, Tolstoy, Gorki and Others, trans. Bone, Edith (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964).

12. Ermarth, Elizabeth Deeds, Realism and Consensus in the English Novel: Time, Space and Narrative (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).

13. Greiner, Rae, Sympathetic Realism in Nineteenth-Century British Fiction (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012); Vernon, James, Distant Strangers: How Britain Became Modern (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014), 1819.

14. Greiner, Sympathetic Realism, 17–23.

15. Lukács, Studies in European Realism, 3, 8.

16. Eliot, George, Middlemarch, ed. Ashton, Rosemary (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1994), 3.

17. Plotz, John, “Is Realism Failing? The Rise of Secondary Worlds,” Novel 50, no. 3 (2017): 426–35, 427.

18. Anderson, Amanda, Bleak Liberalism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 4677.

19. Grosz, Elizabeth, Becoming Undone: Darwinian Reflections on Life, Politics, and Art (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011), 11–25, 2635.

20. Eliot, Middlemarch, 788.

21. Darwin, Charles, On the Origin of Species, ed. Bynum, William (London: Penguin, 2009), 436.

22. James, Henry, review in The Nation, December 21, 1865, in Charles Dickens: The Critical Heritage, ed. Collins, Philip (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), 471.

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Victorian Literature and Culture
  • ISSN: 1060-1503
  • EISSN: 1470-1553
  • URL: /core/journals/victorian-literature-and-culture
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