Skip to main content Accessibility help

Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica): A Review

  • Carol Mallory-Smith (a1), Andrew R. Kniss (a2), Drew J. Lyon (a3) and Robert S. Zemetra (a1)


In 1994, the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program was initiated with funding from a special USDA grant. The 15-yr program provided $4.1 million to support jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) research and technology transfer projects in 10 western states. These projects resulted in approximately 80 refereed manuscripts, including journal articles and extension publications. The research covered various topics related to the biology and ecology of jointed goatgrass as well as its management and control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems. This review summarizes the research on jointed goatgrass published after Donald and Ogg’s 1991 review, most of which was conducted as part of the USDA-funded National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program. Specific topics that were studied and reviewed here include A. cylindrica genetics, especially as it relates to gene flow and hybridization rates with wheat and fertility of the resulting hybrids; vernalization requirements; seed dormancy, longevity, and germination requirements; competitiveness with wheat; and herbicide resistance acquired through evolution or gene flow from wheat. With respect to management, a wide variety of practices were evaluated, including various tillage types and frequencies; crop rotations, especially diversified wheat production systems that include spring-seeded annual crops; competitive wheat cultivars, seeding dates, seeding density, and row spacing; fertility management, including nitrogen application timing and placement; and field burning. Finally, many studies evaluated the use of herbicides, especially the introduction of imazamox in imidazolinone-resistant wheat cultivars, as well as comparison of adjuvant systems and application timings. In addition to the many management practices that were studied individually, several integrated management systems were evaluated that combined crop rotations, tillage, and herbicide programs. Between 1993 and 2013, weed scientists in 14 western states estimated that jointed goatgrass infestations decreased by 45% to 55% and attributed the reduction to the implementation of more diverse crop rotations, improved cultural practices, and use of imazamox-resistant wheat technology. This is evidence that the practical implications of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program have been successfully implemented by growers throughout the western United States.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Carol Mallory-Smith, Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331. (Email:


Hide All
Anderson, JA, Matthiesen, L, Hegstad, J (2004) Resistance to an imidazolinone herbicide is conferred by a gene on chromosome on 6DL in the wheat line cv 9804. Weed Sci 52:8390
Anderson, RL (1993) Crop residue reduces jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) seedling growth. Weed Technol 7:717722
Anderson, RL (1997) Cultural systems can reduce reproductive potential of winter annual grasses. Weed Technol 11:608613
Anderson, RL (1998) Seedling emergence of winter annual grasses as affected by limited tillage and crop canopy. Weed Technol 12:262267
Anderson, RL (2004) Sequencing crops to minimize selection pressure for weeds in the Central Great Plains. Weed Technol 18:157164
Ball, DA, Young, FL, Ogg, AG Jr (1999) Control of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) with imazamox in herbicide-resistant wheat. Weed Technol 13:7782
Beck, KG, Sebastian, JR, Chapman, PL (1995) Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) and downy brome (Bromus tectorum) control in perennial grasses. Weed Technol 9:255259
Burke, IC (2017) Jointed Goatgrass Biotype Resistant to Beyond Discovered in Eastern Washington. Accessed: July 14, 2017
Burnside, OC, Wilson, RG, Weisberg, S, Hubbard, KG (1996) Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska. Weed Sci 44:7486
Cannon, JB (2006) Jointed Goatgrass: Outcrossing, Competition with Winter Wheat, and Response to Timing and Rate of Imazamox. Master’s thesis. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 77 p
Carleton, MA (1915) Hard Wheats Winning Their Way. USDA Yearbook 1914. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pp 391420
Clark, JA, Martin, JH, Ball, CR (1922) Classification of American Wheat Varieties. Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; no. 1074. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 221 p
Daugovish, O, Lyon, DJ, Baltensperger, DD (1999) Cropping systems to control winter annual grasses in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technol 13:120126
Donald, WW (1984) Vernalization requirements for flowering of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci 32:631637
Donald, WW (1991) Seed survival, germination ability, and emergence of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci 39:210216
Donald, WW, Ogg, AG Jr (1991) Biology and control of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), a review. Weed Technol 5:317
Dotray, P, Young, F (1993) Characterization of root and shoot development of goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci 41:353361
Endo, TR (1988) Induction of chromosomal changes by a chromosome of Aegilops cylindrica L. in common wheat. J Hered 79:366370
Evans, JO, Morishita, DW, Maxwell, BD (1999) Integrated management strategies for jointed goatgrass control in winter wheat in the Intermountain region. Weed Sci 52:155159
Fandrich, L, Mallory-Smith, CA (2005) Temperature effects on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) seed germination. Weed Sci 53:594599
Fandrich, L, Mallory-Smith, CA (2006a) Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) seed germination and production varies by spikelet position on the spike. Weed Sci 54:443451
Fandrich, L, Mallory-Smith, CA (2006b) Vernalization responses of field grown jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), winter wheat, and spring wheat. Weed Sci 54:695704
Fandrich, L, Mallory-Smith, CA, Zemetra, RS, Hansen, JL (2008) Vernalization responses of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), wheat, and wheat by jointed goatgrass hybrid plants. Weed Sci 56:534542
Frihauf, JC, Miller, SD, Alford, CM (2005) Imazamox rates, timings, and adjuvants affect imidazolinone-tolerant winter wheat cultivars. Weed Technol 19:599607
Gaines, TA, Henry, WB, Byrne, PF, Westra, P, Nissen, SJ, Shaner, DL (2008) Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) by imidazolinone-resistant wheat hybridization under field conditions. Weed Sci 56:3236
Geier, PW, Stahlman, PW (1996) Dose-responses of weeds and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) to MON 37500. Weed Technol 10:870875
Geier, PW, Stahlman, PW (2009) Nitrogen concentration and application timing affect imazamox efficacy in winter wheat. Crop Protect 28:573576
Geier, PW, Stahlman, PW, White, AD, Miller, SD, Alford, CM, Lyon, DJ (2004) Imazamox for winter annual grass control in imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat. Weed Technol 18:924930
Gandhi, H, Vales, MI, Mallory-Smith, C, Riera-Lizarazu, O (2009) Genetic structure of Aegilops cylindrica host in its native range and in the United States of America. Theor Appl Genet 119:10131025
Gandhi, H, Vales, MI, Watson, C, Mallory-Smith, C, Mori, N, Rehman, M, Zemetra, RS, Riera-Lizarazu, O (2005) Chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite analysis of Aegilops cylindrica . Theor Appl Genet 111:561572
Guadagnuolo, R, Savova-Bianchi, D, Felber, F (2001) Gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.), as revealed by RAPD and microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 103:18
Hanson, BD, Fandrich, L, Shaner, DL, Westra, P, Nissen, SJ (2007) Recovery of imidazolinone-resistant hard red wheat lines following imazamox application. Crop Sci 47:20582066
Hanson, BD, Mallory-Smith, CA, Price, WJ, Shafii, B, Thill, DC, Zemetra, RS (2005) Interspecific hybridization: potential for movement of herbicide resistance from wheat (Triticum aestivum) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Technol 19:674682
Hanson, BD, Shaner, DL, Westra, P, Nissen, SJ (2006) Response of selected hard red wheat lines to imazamox as affected by number and location of resistance genes, parental background, and growth habit. Crop Sci 46:12061211
Hanson, DE, Ball, DA, Mallory-Smith, CA (2002) Herbicide resistance in jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica): simulated responses to agronomic practices. Weed Technol 16:156163
Harris, PA, Stahlman, PW (1996) Soil bacteria as selective biological control agents of winter annual grass weeds in winter wheat. Appl Soil Ecol 3:275281
Ingegneri, LM, Quinn, MP, Hulting, AG, Mallory, CA (2015) A short growing season negatively affects progeny vigor in jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Agric Sci 6:315324
Jasieniuk, M, Maxwell, BD, Anderson, RL, Evans, JO, Lyon, DJ, Miller, SD, Morishita, DW, Ogg, AG Jr, Seefeldt, S, Stahlman, PW, Northam, FE, Westra, P, Kebede, Z, Wicks, GA (1999) Site-to-site and year-to-year variation in Triticum aestivumAegilops cylindrica interference relationships. Weed Sci 47:529537
Jasieniuk, M, Maxwell, BD, Anderson, RL, Evans, JO, Lyon, DJ, Miller, SD, Morishita, SW, Ogg, AG Jr, Seefeldt, SS, Stahlman, PW, Northam, FE, Westra, P, Kebede, Z, Wicks, GA (2001) Evaluation of models predicting winter wheat yield as a function of winter wheat and jointed goatgrass densities. Weed Sci 49:4860
Johnston, CO, Heyne, EG (1960) Distribution of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) in Kansas. Trans Kans Acad Sci 63:239242
Johnston, CO, Parker, JH (1929) Aegilops cylindrica Host, a wheat-field weed in Kansas. Trans Acad Sci 32:8082
Kappler, BF, Lyon, DJ, Stahlman, PW, Miller, SD, Eskridge, KM (2002) Wheat plant density influences jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) competitiveness. Weed Technol 16:102108
Kennedy, AC, Stubbs, TL (2007) Management effects on the incidence of jointed goatgrass inhibitory rhizobacteria. Biol Control 40:213221
Kimber, G, Sears, ER (1987) Evolution in the genus Triticum and the origin of cultivated wheat. Pages 154–164. in Heyne EG ed., Wheat and Wheat Improvement. 2nd ed, Agronomy Monograph 13 Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy
Kniss, AR, Lyon, DJ, Miller, SD (2008) Jointed goatgrass management with imazamox-resistant cultivars in a winter wheat-fallow rotation. Crop Sci 48:24142420
Kroiss, LJ, Tempalli, P, Hansen, JL, Vales, MI, Riera-Lizarazu, O, Zemetra, RS, Mallory-Smith, CA (2004) Marker-assessed retention of wheat chromatin in wheat (Triticum aestivum) by jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) backcross derivatives. Crop Sci 44:14291433
Khush, GS (1973) Cytogenetics of Aneuploids. New York: Academic Press
Law, CN, Worland, AJ, Hollins, TW, Koebner, RMD, Scott, PR (1988) The genetics of two sources of resistance to eyespot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) in wheat. Pages 835–840 in Koebner RMD, Miller TD, eds. Proceedings of the Seventh International Wheat Genetics Symposium. Cambridge, UK: Institute of Plant Science Research
Lyon, DJ, Baltensperger, DD (1995) Cropping systems control winter annual grass weeds in winter wheat. J Prod. Agri 8:535539
Lyon, DJ, Baltensperger, DD, Rush, IG (1992) Viability, germination, and emergence of cattle-fed jointed goatgrass seed. J Prod Agric 5:282285
Lyon, DJ, Rush, IG (1993) Processing reduces seed germination and emergence of jointed goatgrass. J Prod Agric 6:395398
Lyon, DJ, Smith, JA, Jones, DD (1994) Sampling wheat (Triticum aestivum) at the elevator for jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Technol 8:6468
Martins, BAB, Leonard, JM, Sun, L, Zemetra, RS, Mallory-Smith, C (2016) Selection pressure effects on the proportion and movement of resistant alleles introgressed from wheat to Aegilops cylindrica . Weed Res 56:293303
Martins, BAB, Sun, L, Mallory-Smith, C (2015) Resistance allele movement between imazamox-resistant wheat and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in Eastern Oregon wheat fields. Weed Sci 63:855863
Mayfield, L (1927) Goatgrass—a weed pest of central Kansas wheat fields. Kansas Agricultural Student 7:4041
Mesbah, AO, Miller, SD (1999) Fertilizer placement affects jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) competition in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technol 13:374377
Morrison, LA, Riera-Lizarazu, O, Cremieux, L, Mallory-Smith, CA (2002) Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) × wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hybrids. Crop Sci 42:18631872
Ogg, AG Jr (1993) Jointed goatgrass survey—1993: magnitude and scope of the problem. Pages 611 in Westra P & Anderson R eds, Proceedings of the Jointed Goatgrass Symposium. Denver, CO: Colorado State University
Ogg, AG Jr (2012) Final report: National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program (1994–2009). Accessed: May 22, 2017
Ogg, AG Jr, Seefeldt, SS (1999) Characterizing traits that enhance the competitiveness of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) against jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci 47:7480
Peeper, TF, Kelley, JP, Stone, AE, Roberts, JR, Solie, JB, Armstrong, ML (1999) Influence of cultural practices on jointed goatgrass density in continuous winter wheat. Weed Sci 52:164165
Perez-Jones, A, Mallory-Smith, CA, Hansen, J, Zemetra, RS (2006a) Introgression of an imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) into jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host). Theor Appl Genet 114:177186
Perez-Jones, A, Mallory-Smith, CA, Riera-Lizarazu, O, Watson, CJW, Wang, Z, Rehman, M, Zemetra, RS (2006b) Introgression of a foot rot resistance gene from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) into jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Crop Sci 46:21552160
Perez-Jones, A, Martins, BAB, Mallory-Smith, C (2010) Hybridization in a commercial production field between imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) results in pollen-mediated gene flow of Imi1 . Weed Sci 58:395401
Pester, TA, Nissen, SJ, Westra, P (2001) Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of imazamox in jointed goatgrass and feral rye. Weed Sci 49:607612
Pester, TA, Ward, SW, Fenwick, AL, Westra, P, Nissen, S (2003) Genetic diversity of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) determined with RAPD and AFLP markers. Weed Sci 51:287293
Pester, TA, Westra, P, Anderson, RL, Stahlman, PW, Wicks, GA, Lyon, DJ, Miller, SD (1999) Integrated management systems for jointed goatgrass in the Central Great Plains. Weed Sci 52:159164
Porter, KB, Worrall, WD, Gardenhire, JH, Gilmore, EC, McDaniel, ME, Tuleen, NA (1987) Registration of ‘TAM 107’ wheat. Crop Sci 27:818
Quimby, PC, King, LR, Grey, WE (2002) Biological control as a means of enhancing the sustainability of crop/land management systems. Agri Ecosyst Environ 88:147152
Quinn, M, Morishita, D, Evans, J, Whitesides, R, White, T (2007, revised 2016) Jointed Goatgrass Best Management Practices (BMP) Intermountain Region. Extension Bulletin 2003E. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Extension. 9 p
Quinn, M, Morishita, DW, Price, WJ (2006) Determining physiological maturation of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) caryopses. Weed Technol 20:921933
Rainbolt, CR, Thill, DC, Yenish, JP, Ball, DA (2004) Herbicide-resistant grass weed development in imidazolinone-resistant wheat: weed biology and herbicide rotation. Weed Technol 18:860868
Rehman, M (2005) Effect of Transgene Genome Location on the Risk of Gene Migration from Herbicide Resistant Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host). Ph.D dissertation. University of Idaho Moscow. 147 p
Rehman, M, Hansen, JL, Brown, J, Price, W, Zemetra, RS, Mallory-Smith, C (2006a) Effect of wheat genotype on the phenotype of wheat × jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) hybrids. Weed Sci 54:690694
Rehman, M, Hansen, JL, Mallory-Smith, CA, Hang, A, Burton, C, Zemetra, RS (2010) Determining the pollen parent of field grown backcross progenies of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) × jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) host hybrids using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Crop Sci 50:14741479
Rehman, M, Hansen, JL, Mallory-Smith, CA, Zemetra, RS (2016) Impact of transgene genome location on gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.). Pest Manag Sci 73:15931597
Rehman, M, Hansen, JL, Zemetra, RS (2006b) Hybrids and amphidiploids of Aegilops cylindrica and Triticum aestivum; production, morphology and fertility. Pak J Biol Sci 9:15631566
Schmale, D, Anderson, R, Lyon, D, Klein, B (2008, revised 2016) Jointed Goatgrass Best Management Practices Central Great Plains. Extension Bulletin 2033E. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Extension. 22 p
Schmale, D, Peeper, T, Stahlman, P (2009, revised 2016) Jointed Goatgrass Best Management Practices Southern Great Plains. Extension Management 011E. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Extension. 18 p
Seefeldt, SS, Ogg, AG Jr, Hou, Y (1999) Near-isogenic lines for Triticum aestivum height and crop competiveness. Weed Sci 47:316320
Seefeldt, SS, Zemetra, R, Young, FL, Jones, SS (1998) Production of herbicide-resistant jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) × wheat (Triticum aestivum) hybrids in the field by natural hybridization. Weed Sci 46:632634
Snyder, J, Mallory-Smith, C, Hansen, J, Balter, S, Zemetra, RS (2000) Seed production on Triticum aestivum by Aegilops cylindrica hybrids in the field. Weed Sci 48:588593
Tan, S, Evans, RR, Dahmer, ML, Singh, BK, Shaner, DL (2005) Imidazolinone-tolerant crops: history, status and future. Pest Manag. Science 61:246257
Walenta, DL, Yenish, JP, Young, FL, Ball, DA (2002) Vernalization response of plants grown from spikelets of spring and fall cohorts of jointed goatgrass. Weed Sci 50:461465
Walsh, M, Newman, P, Powles, S (2013) Targeting weed seeds in-crop: a new weed control paradigm for global agriculture. Weed Technol 27:431436
Walters, CG, Young, FL, Young, DL (2012) Economics of alternative management practices for jointed goatgrass in winter wheat in the Pacific Northwest. Crop Manag 11, 10.1094/CM-2012-0227-01-RV
Wang, Z, Hang, A, Hansen, J, Burton, C, Mallory-Smith, CA, Zemetra, RS (2000) Visualization of the A and B genome chromosomes in wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) × jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) backcross progenies. Genome 43:10381044
Wang, Z, Zemetra, RS, Hansen, J, Hang, A, Mallory-Smith, CA, Burton, C (2002) Determination of the paternity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) × jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) BC1 plants using genomic in situ hybridization technique. Crop Sci 42:939943
Wang, Z, Zemetra, RS, Hansen, J, Mallory-Smith, CA (2001) The fertility of wheat × jointed goatgrass hybrid and its backcross progenies and the implication for gene flow between the two species. Weed Sci 49:340345
Westra, P (1989) Integrated jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) control. Proc West Soc Weed Sci 42:8384
Westra, P (1999) Effects of individual cultural practices on jointed goatgrass management. Weed Sci 52:151152
White, AD, Stahlman, PW, Northam, FE (2004) Impact of integrated management systems on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) populations. Weed Sci 52:10101017
Wiese, AF, Salisbury, CD, Bean, BW (1995) Downy brome (Bromus tectorum), jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) and horseweed (Conyza canadensis) control in fallow. Weed Technol 9:249254
Wilson, DW, Miller, SD (2002) Seed longevity of ten weed species ten years after burial at two different depths in Wyoming. Weed Sci 55:44
Yenish, JP, Ball, DA, Schirman, R (2009, revised 2016) Integrated management of jointed goatgrass in the Pacific Northwest. Extension Bulletin 2042E. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Extension. 11 p
Yenish, JP, Young, FL (2004) Winter wheat competition against jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) as influenced by wheat plant height, seeding rate, and seed size. Weed Sci 52:9961001
Young, FL, Ball, DA, Thill, DC, Alldredge, JR, Ogg, AG Jr, Seefeldt, S (2010) Integrated weed management systems identified for jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in the Pacific Northwest. Weed Technol 24:430439
Young, FL, Gallandt, ER, Alldredge, JR (2000) Predicting winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield loss based on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) populations from the previous season. Weed Technol 14:423427
Young, FL, Ogg, AG Jr, Dotray, PA (1990) Effect of postharvest field burning on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) germination. Weed Technol 4:123127
Young, FL, Seefeldt, SS, Barnes, GF (1999) Planting geometry of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) can reduce jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) spikelet production. Weed Technol 13:183190
Young, FL, Yenish, JP, Ball, DA, Thill, DC (2009) Integrated management of jointed goatgrass in the Pacific Northwest. Weed Sci 62:7980
Young, FL, Yenish, JP, Walenta, DL, Ball, DA, Alldredge, JR (2003) Spring-germinating jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) produces viable spikelets in spring-seeded wheat. Weed Sci 51:379385
Zemetra, RS, Hansen, J, Mallory-Smith, CA (1998) Potential for gene transfer between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci 46:313317
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed