Skip to main content

2,4-D Past, Present, and Future: A Review

  • Mark A. Peterson (a1), Steve A. McMaster (a2), Dean E. Riechers (a3), Josh Skelton (a3) and Phillip W. Stahlman (a4)...

Since its discovery and initial commercialization in the 1940s, 2,4-D has been an important tool for weed control in a wide variety of crop and noncrop uses. Work studying its chemistry, physiology, mode of action, toxicology, environmental behavior, and efficacy has not only helped elucidate the characteristics of 2,4-D but also provided basic methods that have been used to investigate the properties of hundreds of herbicides that followed it. Much of the information published by researchers over 60 yr ago is still pertinent to understanding the performance of 2,4-D today. Further, new studies continue to be published, especially regarding the mechanisms of 2,4-D action at the molecular level. New uses for 2,4-D, sometimes enabled by biotechnology, continue to be developed. This review strives to provide an overall understanding of 2,4-D activity in plants, plant sensitivity to 2,4-D, toxicological impacts, and current and future uses.

Desde su descubrimiento y su comercialización inicial en los años 1940s, el 2,4-D ha sido una herramienta importante para el control de malezas en una amplia variedad de cultivos y para usos no agrícolas. Trabajos estudiando su química, fisiología, modo de acción, toxicología, comportamiento en el ambiente, y eficacia han ayudado no solamente a elucidar las características del 2,4-D, pero también han brindado métodos básicos que han sido usados para investigar las propiedades de cientos de herbicidas que lo han seguido. La mayoría de la información publicada por investigadores durante los últimos 60 años es todavía pertinente para el entendimiento del desempeño de 2,4-D, hoy en día. Además, nuevos estudios continúan siendo publicados, especialmente en relación a los mecanismos de acción del 2,4-D a nivel molecular. Nuevos usos para el 2,4-D, algunas veces producto de la biotecnología, continúan siendo desarrollados. Esta revisión busca brindar un entendimiento general de la actividad de 2,4-D en las plantas, la sensibilidad de las plantas al 2,4-D, los impactos toxicológicos, y sus usos presentes y futuros.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      2,4-D Past, Present, and Future: A Review
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      2,4-D Past, Present, and Future: A Review
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      2,4-D Past, Present, and Future: A Review
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Hide All
Adele, P, Reichhart, D, Salaün, J-P, Benveniste, I, Durst, F (1981) Induction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activity by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in higher plant tissue. Plant Sci Lett 22:3946
Agbakoba, CS, Goodin, JR (1969) Effect of stage of growth of field bindweed on absorption and translocation of 14C-labeled 2,4-D and picloram. Weed Sci 17:436438
Aldrich, RJ, Willard, C (1952) Factors affecting the pre-emergence use of 2,4-D in corn. Weeds 1:338345
Al-Khatib, K, Parker, R, Fuerst, EP (1992a) Foliar absorption and translocation of herbicides from aqueous solution and treated soil. Weed Sci 40:281287
Al-Khatib, K, Parker, R, Fuerst, EP (1992b) Rose (Rosa dilecta) response to simulated herbicide drift. HortTechnology 2:394398
Al-Khatib, K, Parker, R, Fuerst, EP (1992c) Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) response to simulated drift from selected herbicides. Weed Technol 6:975979
Andersen, SM, Clay, S, Wrage, L, Matthees, D (2004) Soybean foliage residues of dicamba and 2,4-D and correlation to application rates and yield. Agron J 96:750760
Andrilenas, PA (1974) Farmers' Use of Pesticides in 1971—Quantities. Agricultural Economics Report No. 252. USDAERS
Anonymous (1948) Comparison of metallic salts, amine salts, and esters of 2,4-D. Report of the Policy Committee on Herbicides NCWCC, North Central Weed Control Conference. Pages 6 p
Anonymous (1953) Weed control in field crops. Recommendations of the Research Committee of the NCWCC. Page 22 in 1953 North Central Weed Control Conference Research Report
Anonymous (2005) 2,4-D Master Label. Accessed January, 2015
Anonymous (2007) 2,4-D. in Senseman, SA, ed. Herbicide Handbook. 9th edn. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America
Anonymous (2009) Poast Plus herbicide product label. EPA Reg. No. 7969-88. BASF Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Anonymous (2012) Tralkoxydim Herbicide product label. Registration No. 30176. Inc. NA. Calgary, Alberta: Nufarm Agriculture Inc.
Anonymous (2014a) Enlist Duo herbicide product label. Specimen label no. D02-407-001. Indianapolis, IN: Dow AgroSciences
Anonymous (2014b) Grape—Agricultural Pest Management. Herbicide Treatment Table. University of California. Accessed July, 2015
Anonymous (2015a) Enlist Weed Control System Technical Bulletin. Indianapolis, IN: Dow AgroSciences. 13 p
Anonymous (2015b) State of Washington, Dept. of Ecology: Aquatic Plant Management—Aquatic Herbicides. Accessed July, 2015
Appleby, A (1998) The practical implications of hormetic effects of herbicides on plants. Hum Exp Toxicol 17:270271
Audus, LJ (1950) Biological detoxication of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in soils: isolation of an effective organism. Nature 166:356
Aylward, LL, Morgan, MK, Arbuckle, TE, Barr, DB, Burns, CJ, Alexander, BH, Hays, SM (2010) Biomonitoring data for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the United States and Canada: interpretation in a public health risk assessment context using biomonitoring equivalents. Environ Health Perspect 118:177181
Baker, E, Bukovac, M (1971) Characterization of the components of plant cuticles in relation to the penetration of 2,4-D. Ann Appl Biol 67:243253
Baker, E, Hunt, GM (1981) Developmental changes in leaf epicuticular waxes in relation to foliar penetration. New Phytol 88:731747
Banks, PA, Schroeder, J (2002) Carrier volume affects herbicide activity in simulated spray drift studies. Weed Technol 16:833837
Barrett, M (1997) Regulation of xenobiotic degrading enzymes with insecticides and other synergists. Pages 289304 in Hatzios, KK, ed. Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer
Basler, E, Todd, GW, Meyer, RE (1961) Effects of moisture stress on absorption, translocation, and distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in bean plants. Plant Physiol 36:573
Bayley, C, Trolinder, N, Ray, C, Morgan, M, Quisenberry, JE, Ow, DW (1992) Engineering 2,4-D resistance into cotton. Theor Appl Genet 83:645649
Beckie, HJ, Reboud, X (2009) Selecting for weed resistance: herbicide rotation and mixture. Weed Technol 23:363370
Behrens, R, Lueschen, W (1979) Dicamba volatility. Weed Sci 27:486493
Benbrook, CM (2012) Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US—the first sixteen years. Environ Sci Eur 24:21904715
Bennet, R (1989) The effects of 2,4-D iso-octyl ester/ioxynil herbicide in the liquid and vapour phases on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants. S Afr J Plant Soil 6:2431
Bernards, ML, Crespo, RJ, Kruger, GR, Gaussoin, R, Tranel, PJ (2012) A waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) population resistant to 2,4-D. Weed Sci 60:379384
Bhatti, MA, AlKhatib, K, Parker, R (1996) Wine grape (Vitis vinifera) response to repeated exposure of selected sulfonylurea herbicides and 2,4-D. Weed Technol 10:951956
Biediger, DL, Baumann, PA, Weaver, DN, Chandler, JM, Merkle, MG (1992) Interactions between primisulfuron and selected soil-applied insecticides in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 6:807812
Bode, LE (1988) Spray Application Technology—WSSA Monograph 4. Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America
Borges, S, Dzubow, C, Orrick, G, Stavola, A (2004) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxacetic acid analysis of risks to endangered and threatened salmon and steelhead. USEPA Environmental Field Branch Office of Pesticide Programs, USA.
Bramble, WC, Burns, WR (1974) A long-term ecological study of game food and cover on a sprayed utility right-of-way. University P No. 918. Pages 16 p
Breeze, VG (1993) Phytotoxicity of herbicide vapor. Pages 2954 in Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. New York, NY: Springer
Breeze, VG, West, CJ (1987) Long-term and short-term effects of vapor of the herbicide 2,4-D butyl on the growth of tomato plants. Weed Res 27:1321
Bridges, DC (1992) Crop Losses Due to Weeds in the United States, 1992. Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America
Brookes, G, Carpenter, J, McHughen, A (2012) A review and assessment of ‘Impact of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US—the first sixteen years: Benbrook C (2012)'. Environmental Sciences Europe Vol 24: 24 (September 2012). Dorchester, UK: PG Economics. 14 p
Brown, DW, Al-Khatib, K, Regehr, DL, Stahlman, PW, Loughin, TM (2004) Safening grain sorghum injury from metsulfuron with growth regulator herbicides. Weed Sci 52:319325
Burgoyne, TW, Hites, RA (1993) Effect of temperature and wind direction on the atmospheric concentrations of alpha-endosulfan. Environ Sci Technol 27:910914
Burns, CJ, Swaen, GM (2012) Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology. Crit Rev Toxicol 42:768786
Burns, ER, Buchanan, GA, Hiltbold, A (1969) Absorption and translocation of 2,4-D by wolftail (Carex cherokeensis Schwein). Weed Sci 17:401404
Burnside, O, Wicks, G (1972) Competitiveness and herbicide tolerance of sorghum hybrids. Weed Sci 20:314316
Burnside, OC, Bovey, RW, Elmore, CL, Johnson, RA, Knake, EL, Lembi, CA, Nalewaja, JD, Newton, M, Szmedra, P, Watterberg, EV (1996) Biologic and economic assessment of benefits from use of phenoxy herbicides in the United States. Special NAPIAP report no. 1-PA-96
Bus, JS, Leber, AP (2001) Miscellaneous chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. Patty's Toxicology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
Bussan, A, Colquhoun, JB, Cullen, E, Davis, VM, Gevens, A, Groves, R, Heider, D, Nice, G, Ruark, M (2014) Commercial Vegetable Production in Wisconsin. UW-Extension Bulletin A3422. University of Wisconsin-Extension
Cantor, KP, Blair, A, Everett, G, Gibson, R, Burmeister, LF, Brown, LM, Schuman, L, Dick, FR (1992) Pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Res 52:24472455
Carlsen, S, Spliid, NH, Svensmark, B (2006) Drift of 10 herbicides after tractor spray application. 2. Primary drift (droplet drift). Chemosphere 64:778786
[CAST] Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1975) The phenoxy herbicides. Weed Sci 23:253263
[CAST] Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (2014) Benefits of Controlling Nuisance Aquatic Plants and Algae in the United States. CAST Commentary QTA2012-1. Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.
[CDMS] Crop Data Management Systems (2015) Label Database. Crop Data Management Systems, Inc. Accessed July, 2015
Cedergreen, N (2008) Herbicides can stimulate plant growth. Weed Res 48:429438
Charles, GW, Constable, GA, Llewellyn, DJ, Hickman, MA (2007) Tolerance of cotton expressing a 2,4-D detoxification gene to 2,4-D applied in the field. Aust J Agric Res 58:780787
Charles, JM, Bond, DM, Jeffries, TK, Yano, BL, Stott, WT, Johnson, KA, Cunny, HC, Wilson, RD, Bus, JS (1996a) Chronic dietary toxicity/oncogenicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rodents. Toxicol Sci 33:166172
Charles, JM, Cunny, HC, Wilson, RD, Bus, JS (1996b) Comparative subchronic studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, amine, and ester in rats. Toxicol Sci 33:161165
Charles, JM, Hanley, TR, Wilson, RD, Van Ravenzwaay, B, Bus, JS (2001) Developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its forms. Toxicol Sci 60:121131
Chen, X, Naramoto, S, Robert, S, Tejos, R, Löfke, C, Lin, D, Yang, Z, Friml, J (2012) ABP1 and ROP6 GTPase signaling regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis in Arabidopsis roots. Curr Biol 22:13261332
Coady, K, Marino, T, Thomas, J, Sosinski, L, Neal, B, Hammond, L (2013) An evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the amphibian metamorphosis assay and the fish short-term reproduction assay. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 90:143150
Coady, KK, Lynn Kan, H, Schisler, MR, Bhaskar Gollapudi, B, Neal, B, Williams, A, LeBaron, MJ (2014) Evaluation of potential endocrine activity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using in vitro assays. Toxicol In Vitro 28:10181025
Cobb, AH, Reade, JP (2010a) Auxin-type herbicides. Pages 133156 in Herbicides and Plant Physiology. 2nd edn. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
Cobb, AH, Reade, JPH (2010b) Herbicide uptake and movement. Pages 5069 in Herbicides and Plant Physiology. 2nd edn. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
Coble, HD, Slife, FW (1971) Root disfunction in honeyvine milkweed caused by 2,4-D. Weed Sci 19:13
Coble, HD, Slife, FW, Butler, HS (1970) Absorption, metabolism, and translocation of 2,4-D by honeyvine milkweed. Weed Sci 18:653656
Conley, SP, Bradley, KW (2005) Wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield response to henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) interference and simulated winterkill. Weed Technol 19:902906
Cota, JA (2004) USDA Forest Service, National Report of Pesticide Use on National Forest System Lands. Online at Accessed July 15, 2015
Coupland, D (1994) Resistance to the auxin analog herbicides. Pages 171214 in Herbicide Resistance in Plants: Biology and Biochemistry. Boca Raton, FL: CRC
Coupland, D, Jackson, M (1991) Effects of mecoprop (an auxin analogue) on ethylene evolution and epinasty in two biotypes of Stellaria media . Ann Bot 68:167172
Coupland, D, Lutman, PJ, Heath, C (1990) Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of mecoprop in a sensitive and a resistant biotype of Stellaria media . Pestic Biochem Physiol 36:6167
Craigmyle, BD, Ellis, JM, Bradley, KW (2013) Influence of herbicide programs on weed management in soybean with resistance to glufosinate and 2,4-D. Weed Technol 27:7884
Currier, H, Dybing, C (1959) Foliar penetration of herbicides: review and present status. Weeds 7:195213
Davidonis, GH, Hamilton, RH, Mumma, RO (1980) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in soybean root callus—evidence for the conversion of 2,4-D amino-acid conjugates to free 2,4-D. Plant Physiol 66:537540
Delbarre, A, Muller, P, Imhoff, V, Guern, J (1996) Comparison of mechanisms controlling uptake and accumulation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthalene-1-acetic acid, and indole-3-acetic acid in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Planta 198:532541
Delvo, H, Lin, B (1994) Pesticides. Pages 86106 in Anderson, M, ed. Agricultural Handbook no. AH-705, Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service
De Roos, A, Zahm, S, Cantor, K, Weisenburger, D, Holmes, F, Burmeister, L, Blair, A (2003) Integrative assessment of multiple pesticides as risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men. Occup Environ Med 60:e11
Derscheid, LA, Stahler, LM, Kratochvil, DE (1951) Differential responses of barley varieties to 2,4-dichlorophenoxacetic acid (2,4-D). Agron J 44:182188
de Ruiter, H, Straatman, K, Meinen, E (1993) The influence of a fatty amine surfactant on foliar absorption and translocation of the trolamine salt and iso-octyl ester of 2,4-D. Pestic Sci 38:145154
Devine, MD, Hall, LM (1990) Implications of sucrose transport mechanisms for the translocation of herbicides. Weed Sci: 299304
Devine, T, Seaney, R, Linscott, D, Hagin, R, Brace, N (1975) Results of breeding for tolerance to 2,4-D in birdsfoot trefoil. Crop Sci 15:721724
Dharmasiri, N, Dharmasiri, S, Estelle, M (2005) The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature 435:441445
Diggle, AJ, Neve, PB, Smith, FP (2003) Herbicides used in combination can reduce the probability of herbicide resistance in finite weed populations. Weed Res 43:371382
Duncan, C, Clark, J (2005) Invasive Plants of Range and Wildlands and their Environmental, Economical and Societal Impacts. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America
Egan, JF, Barlow, KM, Mortensen, DA (2014) A meta-analysis on the effects of 2,4-D and dicamba drift on soybean and cotton. Weed Sci 62:193206
Ellis, JM, Ruen, DC, Moechnig, MM, Scherder, EF, Rosenbaum, K, Campbell, LA, Haile, F, Granke, LL (2014) Enlist E3 Soybean Weed Control Systems in Midwest North Central Weed Science Society Proceedings. Las Cruces, NM: North Central Weed Science Society[Abstract]
Elmore C (1996a) Use of 2,4-D in orchards, vineyards, and soft fruit in the United States. in Biologic and Economic Assessment of Benefits from Use of Phenoxy Herbicides in the United States. USDA/National Pesticide Impact Assessment Program Report No. 1-PA-96
Elmore CL (1996b) Use of phenoxy herbicides in turfgrass in the United States. in Biologic and Economic Assessment of Benefits from Use of Phenoxy Herbicides in the United States. USDA/National Pesticide Impact Assessment Program Report No. 1-PA-96
Enders, TA, Oh, S, Yang, Z, Montgomery, BL, Strader, LC (2015) Genome sequencing of Arabidopsis abp1-5 reveals second-site mutations that may affect phenotypes. Plant Cell 27:18201826
Enders, TA, Strader, LC (2015) Auxin activity: past, present, and future. Am J Bot 102:180196
European Commission (2001) Review report for the active substance 2,4-D. 7599/VI/97-final. In Directorate E—Food Safety: Plant Health, Animal Health and Welfare, International Questions. Berlaymont, Brussels: European Commission
Everitt, JD, Keeling, JW (2009) Cotton growth and yield response to simulated 2,4-D and dicamba drift. Weed Technol 23:503506
Eytcheson, AN, Reynolds, D, Irby, J, Steckel, L, Walton, L, Haygood, R, Ellis, D, Richburg, J (2012) Volatility of GF-2726 as Compared with Other Auxin Herbicides. Orlando, FL Beltwide Cotton Conference
Fagliari, JR, Oliveira, RS Jr., Constantin, J (2005) Impact of sublethal doses of 2,4–D, simulating drift, on tomato yield. J Environ Sci Health Part B 40:201206
Farwell, S, Robinson, E, Powell, W, Adams, D (1976) Survey of airborne 2,4-D in south-central Washington. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 26:224230
Fernandez-Cornejo, J, Osteen, C, Nehring, R, Wechsler, SJ (2014) Pesticide Use Peaked in 1981, Then Trended Downward, Driven by Technological Innovations and Other Factors. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service
Feung, C, Loerch, S, Hamilton, RH, Mumma, RO (1978) Comparative metabolic fate of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in plants and plant tissue culture. J Agric Food Chem 26:10641067
Feung, C-S, Hamilton, RH, Mumma, RO (1973) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. V. Identification of metabolites in soybean callus tissue cultures. J Agric Food Chem 21:637640
Feung, C-S, Hamilton, RH, Mumma, RO (1975) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. VII. Comparison of metabolites from five species of plant callus tissue cultures. J Agric Food Chem 23:373376
Feung, C-S, Mumma, RO, Hamilton, RH (1974) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. VI. Biological properties of amino acid conjugates. J Agric Food Chem 22:307309
Fites, R, Slife, F, Hanson, J (1964) Translocation and metabolism of radioactive 2,4-D in jimsonweed. Weeds 12:180183
Fletcher, RA, Drexler, DM (1980) Interactions of diclofop-methy and 2,4-D in cultivated oats (Avena sativa). Weed Sci 28:363366
Flint, JL, Barrett, M (1989a) Antagonism of glyphosate toxicity to johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) by 2,4-D and dicamba. Weed Sci 37:700705
Flint, JL, Barrett, M (1989b) Effects of glyphosate combinations with 2,4-D or dicamba on field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). Weed Sci 37:1218
Forthoffer, N, Helvig, C, Dillon, N, Benveniste, I, Zimmerlin, A, Tardif, F, Salaün, J-P (2001) Induction and inactivation of a cytochrome P450 conferring herbicide resistance in wheat seedlings. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 26:916
Franke, W (1967) Mechanisms of foliar penetration of solutions. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 18:281300
Freyman, S, Hamman, WM (1979) Effect of phenoxy herbicides on cold hardiness of winter wheat. Can J Plant Sci 59:237240
Friesen, HA, Walker, HR (1956) A comparison of MCP and 2,4-D for the control of annual weeds in grain crops. Can J Plant Sci 37:6981
Fults, JL, Payne, MG (1955) The effect of 2,4-D and maleic hydrazide on sprouting, yields and color in Red McClure potatoes. Am J Potato Res 32:451459
Gao, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhang, D, Dai, X, Estelle, M, Zhao, Y (2015) Auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) is not required for either auxin signaling or Arabidopsis development. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 112:22752280
Garabrant, DH, Philbert, MA (2002) Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) epidemiology and toxicology. CRC Crit Toxicol 32:233257
Gershater, M, Sharples, K, Edwards, R (2006) Carboxylesterase activities toward pesticide esters in crops and weeds. Phytochemistry 67:25612567
Gershater, MC, Cummins, I, Edwards, R (2007) Role of a carboxylesterase in herbicide bioactivation in Arabidopsis thaliana . J Biol Chem 282:2146021466
Gershater, MC, Edwards, R (2007) Regulating biological activity in plants with carboxylesterases. Plant Sci 173:579588
Gertsch, ME (1953) The influence of various carriers upon the inhibitory effectiveness of 2,4-D sprays. Weeds 2:3342
Gervais, JA, Luukinen, B, Buhl, K, Stone, D (2008) 2,4-D Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services.,4-DTech.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2015
Gile, JD (1983) Relative airborne losses of commercial 2,4-D formulations from a simulated wheat field. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12:465469
Gillespie, GR, Nalewaja, JD (1989) Influence of 2,4-D and MCPA formulations and oil on diclofop phytotoxicity. Weed Sci 37:380384
Gilreath, JP, Chase, CA, Locascio, SJ (2001) Crop injury from sublethal rates of herbicide. III. Pepper. HortScience 36:677681
Gingell, R, O'Donoghue, J, Staab, RJ, Daly, IW, Bernard, BK, Ranpuria, A, Wilkinson, EJ, Woltering, D, Johns, PA, Montgomery, SB (2001) Phenol and phenolics. Patty's Toxicology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
Gleason, C, Foley, RC, Singh, KB (2011) Mutant analysis in Arabidopsis provides insight into the molecular mode of action of the auxinic herbicide dicamba. PloS ONE 6:e17245
Goggin, DE, Powles, SB (2014) Detoxification of 2,4-D in resistant wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) (161) in Proceedings of the Weed Science Society of America Meetings. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America
Gollapudi, BB, Charles, JM, Linscombe, V, Day, SJ, Bus, JS (1999) Evaluation of the genotoxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its derivatives in mammalian cell cultures. Mutat Res/Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 444:217225
Goodman, JE, Loftus, CT, Zu, K (2015) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer: meta-analyses of the published literature. Ann Epidemiol 25:626636
Greenham, C (1968) Studies on herbicide contents in roots of skeleton weed (Chondrilla juncea L.) following leaf applications. Weed Res 8: 272282
Grones, P, Chen, X, Simon, S, Kaufmann, WA, De Rycke, R, Nodzyński, T, Zažímalová, E, Friml, J (2015) Auxin-binding pocket of ABP1 is crucial for its gain-of-function cellular and developmental roles. J Exp Bot 66:50555065
Grones, P, Friml, J (2015) Auxin transporters and binding proteins at a glance. J Cell Sci 128:17
Grossmann, K (2010) Auxin herbicides: current status of mechanism and mode of action. Pest Manag Sci 66:113120
Grossmann, K, Caspar, G, Kwiatkowski, J, Bowe, SJ (2002) On the mechanism of selectivity of the corn herbicide BAS 662H: a combination of the novel auxin transport inhibitor diflufenzopyr and the auxin herbicide dicamba. Pest Manag Sci 58:10021014
Guilfoyle, T (2007) Plant biology: sticking with auxin. Nature 446:621622
Gunsolus, JL, Curran, WS (1991) Herbicide Mode of Action and Injury Symptoms, North Central Regional Extension Publication 377. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Services
Hager, AG (2012) Growth regulator herbicides for burndown applications. Accessed June 15, 2015
Hall, C, Edgington, LV, Switzer, CM (1982) Translocation of different 2,4-D, bentazon, diclofop, or diclofop-methyl combinations in oat (Avena sativa) and soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci 30:676682
Hall, JC, Swanton, CJ (1988) Selectivity of 2,4-D in Solanum ptycanthum Dun. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Weed Res 28:117126
Haller, WT (2014) Chemical control of aquatic weeds. Pages 7188 in Gettys, LA, Haller, WT, Petty, DG, eds. Biology and Control of Aquatic Plants: A Best Management Practices Handbook. 3rd edn. Marietta, GA: Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation
Hamilton, RH, Hurter, J, Hall, JK, Ercegovich, CD (1971) Metabolism of phenoxyacetic acids; metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by bean plants. J Agric Food Chem 19:480483
Han, H, Yu, Q, Cawthray, GR, Powles, SB (2013) Enhanced herbicide metabolism induced by 2,4-D in herbicide susceptible Lolium rigidum provides protection against diclofop-methyl. Pest Manag Sci 69:9961000
Hatterman-Valenti, H, Christians, N, Owen, MD (1995) Effect of 2,4-D and triclopyr on annual bedding plants. J Environ Hort 13:122122
Hatterman-Valenti, H, Mayland, P (2005) Annual flower injury from sublethal rates of dicamba, 2,4-D, and premixed 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba. HortScience 40:680684
Hatzios, K, Hock, B, Elstner, E (2005) Metabolism and elimination of toxicants. Pages 469518 in Plant Toxicology. 4th edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Hauser, EW (1955) Absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by soybean and corn plants. Agron J 47:3236
Haydu, JJ, Hodges, AW, Hall, CR (2009) Economic impacts of the turfgrass and lawncare industry in the United States. Document FE632. Gainesville, FL: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Hayes, HM, Tarone, RE, Cantor, KP, Jessen, CR, McCurnin, DM, Richardson, RC (1991) Case-control study of canine malignant lymphoma: positive association with dog owner's use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides. J Natl Cancer Inst 83:12261231
Hays, SM, Aylward, LL, Driver, J, Ross, J, Kirman, C (2012) 2,4-D Exposure and risk assessment: comparison of external dose and biomonitoring-based approaches. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 64:481489
Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (2005) Re-evaluation of the Lawn and Turf Uses of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid [2,4-D]. Ottawa, ON: Pest Management Regulatory Agency
Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (2007) Re-evaluations of the Agricultural, Forestry, Aquatic and Industrial Site Uses of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid [2,4-D]. Ottawa, ON: Pest Management Regulatory Agency
Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (2008) Re-evaluation decision (2,4-Dichlorphenoxy)acetic Acid [2,4-D]. RVD2008-11. Ottawa, ON: Pest Management Regulatory Agency
Heap, I (2015) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Accessed July 1, 2015
Helvig, C, Tardif, FJ, Seyer, A, Powles, SB, Mioskowski, C, Durst, F, Salaün, J-P (1996) Selective inhibition of a cytochrome P450 enzyme in wheat that oxidizes both the natural substrate lauric acid and the synthetic herbicide diclofop. Pestic Biochem Physiol 54:161171
Hemphill, DD, Montgomery, ML (1981) Response of vegetable crops to sublethal application of 2,4-D. Weed Sci 29:632635
Hill, BD, Todd, BG, Stobbe, EH (1980) Effect of 2,4-D on the hydrolysis of diclofop-methyl in wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci 28:725729
Hillger, D, Qin, K, Simpson, D, Havens, P (2012) Reduction in drift and volatility of EnlistTM Duo with Colex-D. Page 31 in North Central Weed Science Society Proceedings, Vol. 67. Las Cruces, NM: North Central Weed Science Society
Hirose, S, Kawahigashi, H, Tagiri, A, Imaishi, H, Ohkawa, H, Ohkawa, Y (2007) Tissue-specific expression of rice CYP72A21 induced by auxins and herbicides. Plant Biotechnol Rep 1:2736
Hoar, SK, Blair, A, Holmes, FF, Boysen, CD, Robel, RJ, Hoover, R, Fraumeni, JF Jr. (1986) Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. JAMA 256:11411147
Holloway, PJ, Edgerton, BM (1992) Effects of formulation with different adjuvants on foliar uptake of difenzoquat and 2,4-D—model experiments with wild oat and field bean. Weed Res 32:183195
Industry Task Force II on 2-DRD (2009a) 2,4-D: Tested & Proven. Accessed January, 2015
Industry Task Force II on 2-DRD (2009b) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) Herbicide Active Ingredient Quick Reference Guide. Accessed July 1, 2015
Jacobson, A, Shimabukuro, RH, McMichael, C (1985) Response of wheat and oat seedlings to root-applied diclofop-methyl and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Pestic Biochem Physiol 24:6167
Johanson, N, Muzik, T (1961) Some effects of 2,4-D on wheat yield and root growth. Bot Gaz 122:188194
Johnson, VA, Fisher, LR, Jordan, DL, Edmisten, KE, Stewart, AM, York, AC (2012) Cotton, peanut, and soybean response to sublethal rates of dicamba, glufosinate, and 2,4-D. Weed Technol 26:195206
Jordan, T, Romanowski, R (1974) Comparison of dicamba and 2,4-D injury to field grown tomatoes. HortScience 9:7475
Jugulam, M, Dimeo, N, Veldhuis, LJ, Walsh, M, Hall, JC (2013) Investigation of MCPA (4-chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). J Agric Food Chem 61:1251612521
Jugulam, M, Godar, AS (2014) Cross-resistance of broadleaf weeds to 2,4-D and dicamba (107). in Proceedings of the Weed Science Society of America Meetings. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Accessed July 1, 2015
Jugulam, M, Walsh, M, Hall, JC (2014) Introgression of phenoxy herbicide resistance from Raphanus raphanistrum into Raphanus sativus . Plant Breed 133:489492
Jurado, S, Abraham, Z, Manzano, C, López-Torrejón, G, Pacios, LF, Del Pozo, JC (2010) The Arabidopsis cell cycle F-box protein SKP2A binds to auxin. Plant Cell 22:38913904
Kafiz, B, Caussanel, J, Scalla, R, Gaillardon, P (1989) Interaction between diclofop-methyl and 2,4-D in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.), and fate of diclofop-methyl in cultivated oat. Weed Res 29:299305
Kaneene, J, Miller, R (1999) Re-analysis of 2,4-D use and the occurrence of canine malignant lymphoma. Vet Hum Toxicol 41:164170
Kaufman, PB (1953) Gross morphological responses of the rice plant to 2,4-D. Weeds 2:223253
Kelley, KB, Riechers, DE (2007) Recent developments in auxin biology and new opportunities for auxinic herbicide research. Pestic Biochem Physiol 89:111
Kelley, KB, Wax, LM, Hager, AG, Riechers, DE (2005) Soybean response to plant growth regulator herbicides is affected by other postemergence herbicides. Weed Sci 53:101112
Kennepohl, E, Munro, I, Robert, I, William, C (2001) Phenoxy herbicides (2,4-D). Pages 16231638 in Krieger, RI, Krieger, WC, eds. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Kepinski, S, Leyser, O (2005) The Arabidopsis F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature 435:446451
Kirby, C (1980) The hormone weedkillers: a short history of their discovery and development. Croyden, UK: British Crop Protection Council. p55
Kirkwood, RC (1999) Recent developments in our understanding of the plant cuticle as a barrier to the foliar uptake of pesticides. Pestic Sci 55:6977
Klein, R (2013) Harvest Aids Recommended for Winter Wheat. UNL CropWatch, University of Nebraska. Accessed January, 2015
Klingman, DL (1953) Effects of varying rates of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T at different stages of growth on winter wheat. Agron J 45:606610
Knoche, M (1994) Effect of droplet size and carrier volume on performance of foliage-applied herbicides. Crop Prot 13:163178
Knoche, M, Bukovac, MJ (1999) Spray application factors and plant growth regulator performance: II. Foliar uptake of gibberellic acid and 2,4-D. Pestic Sci 55:166174
Kogan, M, Bayer, D (1996) Herbicide uptake as influenced by plant water status. Pestic Biochem Physiol 56:174182
Korasick, DA, Jez, JM, Strader, LC (2015) Refining the nuclear auxin response pathway through structural biology. Curr Opin Plant Biol 27:2228
Kreuz, K, Fonné-Pfister, R (1992) Herbicide–insecticide interaction in maize: malathion inhibits cytochrome P450-dependent primisulfuron metabolism. Pestic Biochem Physiol 43:232240
Lange, A, Fischer, B, Hamilton, D, Agamalian, H (1968) Weed control in California vineyards. Calif Agric 22(10):67
Lee, D, Hanna, W, Buntin, G, Dosier, W, Timper, P, Wilson, J (2012) Pearl Millet for Grain. Bulletin 1216. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Extension Service. 8 p
Lee, S, Sundaram, S, Armitage, L, Evans, JP, Hawkes, T, Kepinski, S, Ferro, N, Napier, RM (2014) Defining binding efficiency and specificity of auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptor complex formation. ACS Chem Biol 9:673682
Leon, RG, Ferrell, JA, Brecke, BJ (2014) Impact of exposure to 2,4-D and dicamba on peanut injury and yield. Weed Technol 28:465470
Li, M, Tank, H, Kennedy, A, Zhang, H, Downer, B, Ouse, D, Liu, L (2013). Enlist Duo herbicide: a novel 2,4-D plus glyphosate premix formulation with low potential for off-target movement. in Pesticide Formulation and Delivery Systems. Volume 32. Innovating Legacy Products for New Uses. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International
Li, M, Tank, H, Liu, L, Qin, K, Wilson, SL, Ouse, DG (2010) High-strength, herbicidal compositions of glyphosate and 2,4-D salts. U.S. patent application 12/763,566
Lin, B, Padgitt, M, Bull, L, Delvo, H, Shank, D (1995) Pesticide and Fertilizer Use and Trends in U.S. Agriculture. Agricultural Economics Research Report 717. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service
Linn, MB, Slife, FW, Butler, HJ (1959) Prevent 2,4-D injury to crops and ornamental plants. Circular 808. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics
Liu, Z (2004) Effects of surfactants on foliar uptake of herbicides—a complex scenario. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 35:149153
Loomis, D, Guyton, K, Grosse, Y, El Ghissasi, F, Bouvard, V, Benbrahim-Tallaa, L, Guha, N, Mattock, H, Straif, K (2015) Carcinogenicity of lindane, DDT, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Lancet Oncol 16:891892
Loos, M (1969) Degradation of herbicides. Pages 1825 in Herbicides. 1st edn. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker
Loubser, J, Cairns, A (1989) Abnormalities of the growth point and ear of barley caused by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. S Afr J Plant Soil 6:103107
Loux, M (2010) Resist the temptation to apply 2,4-D to emerged wheat in fall. C.O.R.N. Newsletter. Columbus: The Ohio State University
Loux, M, Doohan, D, Dobbels, A, Johnson, WG, Young, BG, Legleiter, TR, Hager, AG (2015) Weed Control Guide for Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Pub# WS16/Bulletin 789/IL15. The Ohio State University, Purdue University, and the University of Illinois. 212 p
Lutman, P, Heath, C (1990) Variations in the resistance of Stellaria media to mecoprop due to biotype, application method, and 1-aminobenzotriazole. Weed Res 30:129137
Lyon, D, DeBoer, K, Harveson, R, Hein, G, Hergert, G, Holman, T, Nelson, L, Johnson, J, Nleya, T, Krall, J, Nielsen, D, Vigil, M (2008) Proso Millet in the Great Plains. EC137. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension Service. 20 p
Ma, R, Kaundun, SS, Tranel, PJ, Riggins, CW, McGinness, DL, Hager, AG, Hawkes, T, McIndoe, E, Riechers, DE (2013) Distinct detoxification mechanisms confer resistance to mesotrione and atrazine in a population of waterhemp. Plant Physiol 163:363377
Maibach, H, Feldmann, R (1974) Systemic absorption of pesticides through the skin of man. Pages 120127 in Occupational Exposure to Pesticides. Report to the Federal Working Group on Pest Management from the Task Group on Occupational Exposure to Pesticides. Washington, DC: Federal Working Group on Pest Management
Manalil, S, Busi, R, Renton, M, Powles, SB (2011) Rapid evolution of herbicide resistance by low herbicide dosages. Weed Sci 59:210217
Marple, ME, Al-Khatib, K, Peterson, DE (2008) Cotton injury and yield as affected by simulated drift of 2,4-D and dicamba. Weed Technol 22:609614
Marshall, RJ, Nel, PC (1981) Effect of post-emergence applied 2,4-D and MCPA on growth and yield of grain sorghum. Pages 2729 in Proceedings of the Fourth National Weeds Conference of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa National Weeds Conference of South Africa
Martin, RA, Edgington, L (1981) Comparative systemic translocation of several xenobiotics and sucrose. Pestic Biochem Physiol 16:8796
Marty, MS, Neal, BH, Zablotny, CL, Yano, BL, Andrus, AK, Woolhiser, MR, Boverhof, DR, Saghir, SA, Perala, AW, Passage, JK (2013) An F1-extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study in Crl: CD (SD) rats with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Toxicol Sci 136:527547
McCarty, LB, Murphy, TR (1994) Control of turfgrass weeds. Pages 209248 in Turgeon, AJ, ed. Control of Turfgrass Weeds. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America
McSteen, P (2010) Auxin and monocot development. Cold Spring Harbor Perspect Biology 2:a001479
Milesi, C, Running, SW, Elvidge, CD, Dietz, JB, Tuttle, BT, Nemani, RR (2005) Mapping and modeling the biogeochemical cycling of turf grasses in the United States. Environ Manag 36:426438
Miller, D, Vidrine, P, Kelly, S, Frederick, R (2003) Effects of pre-plant application of 2,4-D on cotton. LA Agric 46:35
Mithila, J, Hall, J (2005) Comparison of ABP1 over-expressing Arabidopsis and under-expressing tobacco with an auxinic herbicide-resistant wild mustard (Brassica kaber) biotype. Plant Sci 169:2128
Mithila, J, Hall, JC, Johnson, WG, Kelley, KB, Riechers, DE (2011) Evolution of resistance to auxinic herbicides: historical perspectives, mechanisms of resistance, and implications for broadleaf weed management in agronomic crops. Weed Sci 59:445457
Mockaitis, K, Estelle, M (2008) Auxin receptors and plant development: a new signaling paradigm. Ann Rev Cell Dev Biol 24:5580
Moechnig, M, Deneke, D (2009) Harvest Aid Weed Control in Small Grain. South Dakota State University. Accesed November 10, 2015
Moechnig, M, Deneke, D, Wrage, L (2011) Weed Control in Small Grain and Millet: 2011. FS525A. South Dakota Cooperative Extension Service. Accessed November 10, 2015
Mohseni-Moghadam, M, Doohan, D (2015) Response of bell pepper and broccoli to simulated drift rates of 2,4-D and dicamba. Weed Technol 29:226232
Monaco, TJ, Weller, SC, Ashton, FM (2002) Weed Science: Principles and Practices. 4th edn. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 671 p
Montgomery, ML, Chang, YL, Freed, VH (1971) Comparative metabolism of 2,4-D by bean and corn plants. J Agric Food Chem 19:12191221
Moore, JH (2008). A review of 2,4-D formulations and vapour drift. Pages 9397 in Douglas, A, ed. 2008 Weed Updates, Western Australia. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia
Morrison, W, Segarra, E, Gwinn, C, Abernathy, J (1994) The biologic and economic assessment of pesticides on grain sorghum. National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Report
Mougin, C, Polge, N, Scalla, R, Cabanne, F (1991) Interactions of various agrochemicals with cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases of wheat cells. Pestic Biochem Physiol 40:111
Mueller, TC, Barrett, M, Witt, WW (1990) A basis for the antagonistic effect of 2,4-D on haloxyfop-methyl toxicity to Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). Weed Sci 38:103107
Munoz, PR, Quesenberry, K, Blount, A, Ferrell, J, Dubeux, J Jr. (2015) A new red clover 2,4-D-resistant cultivar to improve broadleaf weed control and elucidate the molecular mechanism of resistance. Pages 3140 in Molecular Breeding of Forage and Turf. Cham, Switzerland: Springer
Munro, IC, Carlo, GL, Orr, JC, Sund, KG, Wilson, RM, Kennepohl, E, Lynch, BS, Jablinske, M (1992) A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D. Int J Toxicol 11:559664
Nalewaja, JD, Arnold, WE (1970). Weed control methods, losses and costs due to weeds, and benefits of weed control in wheat and other small grains. Pages 4864 in 1st FAO International Conference on Weed Control. No. WC/70: WP/5. Davis, CA University of California
[NASS] National Agricultural Statistics Service (1991) Agricultural Chemical Usage 1990 Field Crops Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agricuture National Agricultural Statistics Service
[NASS] National Agricultural Statistics Service (1994) Agrichemical Survey 1993, Fruits Summary. AG Ch 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service
[NASS] National Agricultural Statistics Service (2015) NASS Quick Stats. Accessed January, 2015
[NASSHighlights] National Agricultural Statistics Service Highlights (2012) 2012 Agricultural Chemical Use Survey—Soybeans. No. Pages 2013–1. Accessed January, 2015
[NASSHighlights] National Agricultural Statistics Service Highlights (2013) 2012 Agricultural Chemical Use Survey—Wheat. No. Pages 2013–1. Accessed January, 2015
Nelson, LS, Owens, CS, Getsinger, KD (2003) Response of wild rice to selected aquatic herbicides. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. ERDC/EL Technical Report 03-14. Pages 18 p
New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Authority (2003) Substances to be transferred to the HSNO Act under section 160(1)(a): phenoxy herbicides. Accessed November 10, 2015
Nice, G, Johnson, WG, Baumann, T (2004) Amine or Ester, Which is Better? Accessed May 13, 2015
Norris, LA, Freed, VH (1966) Absorption and translocation characteristics of several phenoxyalkyl acid herbicides in bigleaf maple. Weed Res 6:203211
Norris, RF (1974) Penetration of 2,4-D in relation to cuticle thickness. Am J Bot 61:7479
Ogg, AG, Ahmedullah, MA, Wright, GM (1991) Influence of repeated applications of 2,4-D on yield and juice quality of concord grapes (Vitis labruscana). Weed Sci 39:284295
Olson, P, Zalik, S, Breakey, W, Brown, D (1951) Sensitivity of wheat and barley at different stages of growth to treatment with 2,4-D. Agron J 43:7783
Olson, WA, Nalewaja, JD (1981) Antagonistic effects of MCPA on wild oat (Avena fatua) control with diclofop. Weed Sci 29:566571
O'Sullivan, PA, Born, WHV, Friesen, HA (1977) Influence of herbicides for broad-leaved weeds and adjuvants with diclofop-methyl on wild oat control. Can J Plant Sci 57:117125
Pallas, J Jr., Williams, G (1962) Foliar absorption and translocation of P32 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as affected by soil-moisture tension. Bot Gaz 123:175180
Pallas, JE Jr. (1960) Effects of temperature and humidity on foliar absorption and translocation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzoic acid. Plant Physiol 35:575
Pasquer, F, Ochsner, U, Zarn, J, Keller, B (2006) Common and distinct gene expression patterns induced by the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl in wheat. Pest Manag Sci 62:11551167
Peachey, E (2014) Vegetation management in orchards, vineyards, and berries. Pages L1L23 in Peachy, E, ed. Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Extension Service. Accessed November 10, 2015
Peer, WA (2013) From perception to attenuation: auxin signalling and responses. Current Opin Plant Biol 16:561568
Perkins, EJ, Stiff, CM, Lurquin, PF (1987) Use of Alcaligenes eutrophus as a source of genes for 2,4-D resistance in plants. Weed Sci 35:1218
Peterson, DE (1997) Wheat Production Handbook. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University
Peterson, GE (1967) The discovery and development of 2,4-D. Agric Hist 41:243254
Peterson, MA, Shan, G, Walsh, TA, Wright, TR (2011) Utility of Aryloxyalkanoate Dioxygenase Transgenes for Development of New Herbicide Resistant Crop Technologies. Information Systems for Biotechnology, May. Accessed November 10, 2015
Phillips, W (1958) The effect of 2,4-D on the yield of Midland grain sorghum. Weeds 6:271280
Phipps, HM (1963) The role of 2,4-D in the appearance of a leaf blight of some plains tree species. Forest Sci 9:283288
Pierre-Jerome, E, Moss, BL, Nemhauser, JL (2013) Tuning the auxin transcriptional response. J Exp Bot 64:25572563
Pillmoor, JB, Gaunt, JK (1981) The behaviour and mode of action of the phenoxyacetic acids in plants. Pages 147218 in Hutson, DH, Roberts, TR, eds. Progress in Pesticide Biochemistry. Volume 1. Chichester, UK: Wiley
Powles, SB, Yu, Q (2010) Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:317347
Preston, C (2004) Herbicide resistance in weeds endowed by enhanced detoxification: complications for management. Weed Sci 52:448453
Preston, C, Tardif, FJ, Christopher, JT, Powles, SB (1996) Multiple resistance to dissimilar herbicide chemistries in a biotype of Lolium rigidum due to enhanced activity of several herbicide degrading enzymes. Pestic Biochem Physiol 54:123134
Price, C, Klingman, G (1958) Wheat and oats varietal responses to applications of alkanolamine salt of 2,4-D. Agron J 50:200204
Prigge, MJ, Lavy, M, Ashton, NW, Estelle, M (2010) Physcomitrella patens auxin-resistant mutants affect conserved elements of an auxin-signaling pathway. Curr Biol 20:19071912
Quehee, SS, Sutherland, RG (1973) Penetration of amine salt formulations of 2,4-D into sunflower. Weed Sci 21:115118
Quehee, SS, Sutherland, RG (1974) Volatilization of various esters and salts of 2,4-D. Weed Sci 22:313318
Reddy, SS, Stahlman, PW, Geier, PW, Bean, BW, Dozier, T (2014) Grain sorghum response and Palmer amaranth control with postemergence application of fluthiacet-methyl. Int J Pest Manag 60:147152
Riar, DS, Burke, IC, Yenish, JP, Bell, J, Gill, K (2011) Inheritance and physiological basis for 2,4-D resistance in prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.). J Agric Food Chem 59:94179423
Richardson, RG (1977) Review of foliar absorption and translocation of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Weed Res 17:259272
Riechers, DE, Kreuz, K, Zhang, Q (2010) Detoxification without intoxication: herbicide safeners activate plant defense gene expression. Plant Physiol 153:313
Riechers, DE, Wax, LM, Liebl, RA, Bullock, DG (1995) Surfactant effects on glyphosate efficacy. Weed Technol 9:281285
Riederer, M (2005) Uptake and transport of xenobiotics. Chapter 3 in Hock, B, Elstner, E, eds. Plant Toxicology. 4th edn. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker
Robertson, MM, Kirkwood, RC (1969) Mode of action of foliage-applied translocated herbicides with particular reference to phenoxy-acid compounds. I. Mechanism and factors influencing herbicide absorption. Weed Res 9:224240
Robertson, MM, Kirkwood, RC (1970) Mode of action of foliage-applied translocated herbicides with particular reference to phenoxy-acid compounds. II. Mechanism and factors influencing translocation, metabolism, and biochemical inhibition. Weed Res 10:94120
Robinson, AP, Davis, VM, Simpson, DM, Johnson, WG (2013) Response of soybean yield components to 2,4-D. Weed Sci 61:6876
Robinson, AP, Simpson, DM, Johnson, WG (2012) Summer annual weed control with 2,4-D and glyphosate. Weed Technol 26:657660
Robinson, AP, Simpson, DM, Johnson, WG (2015) Response of aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 transformed soybean yield components to postemergence 2,4-D. Weed Sci 63:242247
Rodgers, EG (1952) Brittleness and other responses of corn to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant Physiol 27:153
Roider, CA, Griffin, JL, Harrison, SA, Jones, CA (2008) Carrier volume affects wheat response to simulated glyphosate drift. Weed Technol 22:453458
Ruen, DC, Moechnig, MM, Scherder, EF, Rosenbaum, K, Campbell, LA, Haile, F, Granke, LL, Ellis, JM (2014) Enlist Corn Weed Control Systems in Midwest 2014 North Central Weed Science Society Conference Proceedings. Las Cruces, NM North Central Weed Science Society
Sabba, RP (2003) Inheritance of resistance to clopyralid and picloram in yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) is controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. J Hered 94:523527
Saghir, SA, Marty, MS, Zablotny, CL, Passage, JK, Perala, AW, Neal, BH, Hammond, L, Bus, JS (2013) Life-stage-, sex-, and dose-dependent dietary toxicokinetics and relationship to toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in rats: implications for toxicity test dose selection, design, and interpretation. Toxicol Sci 136:294307
Salaün, J-P, Simon, A, Durst, F (1986) Specific induction of lauric acid ω-hydroxylase by clofibrate, diethylhexyl-phthalate and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in higher plants. Lipids 21:776779
Salehin, M, Bagchi, R, Estelle, M (2015) SCFTIR1/AFB-based auxin perception: mechanism and role in plant growth and development. Plant Cell 27:919
Samtani, JB, Masiunas, JB, Appleby, JE (2008) Injury on white oak seedlings from herbicide exposure simulating drift. HortScience 43:20762080
Sandermann, H, Scheel, D, Trenck, Tvd (1984) Use of plant cell cultures to study the metabolism of environmental chemicals. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 8:167182
Sandmann, ER, de Beer, PR, van Dyk, LP (1991) Atmospheric pollution by auxin-type herbicides in Tala Valley, Natal. Chemosphere 22:137145
Sargent, J (1965) The penetration of growth regulators into leaves. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 16:112
Sargent, J, Blackman, G (1972) Studies on foliar penetration IX. Patterns of penetration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid into the leaves of different species. J Exp Bot 23:830841
Schultz, ME, Burnside, OC (1980) Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D and glyphosate in hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum). Weed Sci 28:1320
Sciumbato, AS, Chandler, JM, Senseman, SA, Bovey, RW, Smith, KL (2004) Determining exposure to auxin-like herbicides. I. Quantifying injury to cotton and soybean 1. Weed Technol 18:11251134
Sciumbato, AS, Senseman, SA, Steele, GL, Chandler, JM, Cothren, JT (2014) The effect of 2,4-D drift rates on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and yield. Plant Health Prog 15:7
Scott, BJ, Norsworthy, J, Barber, T, Hardke, J (2013). Rice weed control. Pages 5362 in Arkansas Rice Production Handbook. MP192 Revised. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, November 2013
Shaner, DL (2014) Herbicide Handbook of the Weed Science Society of America. Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America
Sharma, MP, Vanden Born, WH (1970) Foliar penetration of picloram and 2,4-D in aspen and balsam poplar. Weed Sci 18:5763
Shaw, WC, Willard, CJ, Bernard, RL (1955) The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on wheat, oats, and barley. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin 761. Pages 24 p
Shepard, JP, Creighton, J, Duzan, H (2004) Forestry herbicides in the United States: an overview. Wildl Soc Bull 32:10201027
Shi, J-H, Yang, Z-B (2011) Is ABP1 an auxin receptor yet? Mol Plant 4:635640
Shimabukuro, RH, Hoffer, BL (1991) Metabolism of diclofop-methyl in susceptible and resistant biotypes of Lolium rigidum . Pestic Biochem Physiol 39:251260
Shimizu-Mitao, Y, Kakimoto, T (2014) Auxin sensitivities of all Arabidopsis Aux/IAAs for degradation in the presence of every TIR1/AFB. Plant Cell Physiol 55:14501459
Simpson, DM, Diehl, KE, Stoller, EW (1994) 2,4-D safening of nicosulfuron and terbufos interaction in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 8:547552
Simpson, DM, Rosenbaum, K, Ellis, JM, Richburg, JS, Haile, F, Granke, LL, Thompson, GD, Haygood, RA, Walton, LC (2014) Palmer amaranth weed control with Enlist weed control systems. Page 68 in Proceedings of the 2014 North Central Weed Science Society. Las Cruces, NM: North Central Weed Science Society
Smith, AE (1989) Degradation, fate, and persistence of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides in soil. Rev Weed Sci 4:124
Smith, LL, Geronimo, J (1984) Response of seven crops to foliar applications of six auxin-like herbicides. Down to Earth 40:8
Smith Jr RJ (1988) Weed thresholds in southern US rice, Oryza sativa . Weed Tech 2:232241
Smith, T (2015) Weed Management in Orchards. Accessed July 1, 2015
Solomon, K, Harris, S, Stephenson, G (1993) Applicator and bystander exposure to home garden and landscape pesticides. Pages 262274 in Racke, KD, Leslie, AR, eds. Pesticides in Urban Environments, Fate and Signifigance. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society
Sosnoskie, LM, Culpepper, AS, Braxton, LB, Richburg, JS (2015) Evaluating the volatility of three formulations of 2,4-D when applied in the field. Weed Technol 29:177184
Stahlman, P, Wicks, G, Smith, C, Fredricksen, R (2000) Weeds and their control in sorghum. Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Pp 535590
Staswick, PE, Serban, B, Rowe, M, Tiryaki, I, Maldonado, MT, Maldonado, MC, Suza, W (2005) Characterization of an Arabidopsis enzyme family that conjugates amino acids to indole-3-acetic acid. Plant Cell 17:616627
Steenson, T, Walker, N (1957) The pathway of breakdown of 2: 4-dichloro-and 4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxyacetic acid by bacteria. J Gen Microbiol 16:146155
Sterling, T, Hall, J (1997) Mechanism of action of natural auxins and the auxinic herbicides. Rev Toxicol 1:111142
Stevens, P, Bukovac, M (1987) Effects of spray application parameters on foliar uptake and translocation of daminozide and 2,4-D-triethanolamine in Vicia faba . Crop Prot 6:163170
Stewart, WS, Hield, HZ (1950) Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichIorophenoxyacetic acid on fruit drop, fruit production, and leaf drop of lemon trees. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 55:163171
Streber, WR, Timmis, KN, Zenk, MH (1987) Analysis, cloning, and high-level expression of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate monooxygenase gene tfdA of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. J Bacteriol 169:29502955
Subramanian, MV, Brunn, SA, Bernasconi, P, Patel, BC, Reagan, JD (1997) Revisiting auxin transport inhibition as a mode of action for herbicides. Weed Sci 45:621627
Swan, DG (1971) Competition of blue mustard with winter wheat. Weed Sci 19:340342
Swarup, K, Benková, E, Swarup, R, Casimiro, I, Péret, B, Yang, Y, Parry, G, Nielsen, E, De Smet, I, Vanneste, S (2008) The auxin influx carrier LAX3 promotes lateral root emergence. Nature Cell Biol 10:946954
Szabo, S, Buchholtz, K (1961) Penetration of living and non-living surfaces by 2,4-D as influenced by ionic additives. Weeds 9:177184
Tan, X, Calderon-Villalobos, LIA, Sharon, M, Zheng, C, Robinson, CV, Estelle, M, Zheng, N (2007) Mechanism of auxin perception by the TIR1 ubiquitin ligase. Nature 446:640645
Taton, M, Ullmann, P, Benveniste, P, Rahier, A (1988) Interaction of triazole fungicides and plant growth regulators with microsomal cytochrome P-450-dependent obtusifoliol 14α-methyl demethylase. Pestic Biochem Physiol 30:178189
Taylor, S, Baltensperger, D, Quesenberry, K (1989) Recurrent half-sib family selection for 2,4-D tolerance in red clover. Crop Sci 29:11091114
Thompson, MA, Steckel, LE, Ellis, AT, Mueller, TC (2007) Soybean tolerance to early preplant applications of 2,4-D ester, 2,4-D amine, and dicamba. Weed Technol 21:882885
Thompson, WM, Nissen, SJ, Masters, RA (1996) Adjuvant effects on imazethapyr, 2,4-D and picloram absorption by leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). Weed Sci 44:469475
Timchalk, C (2004) Comparative inter-species pharmacokinetics of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides and related organic acids: evidence that the dog is not a relevant species for evaluation of human health risk. Toxicology 200:119
Todd, BG, Stobbe, EH (1980) The basis of the antagonistic effect of 2,4-D on diclofop-methyl toxicity to wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci 28:371377
Tromas, A, Paponov, I, Perrot-Rechenmann, C (2010) Auxin binding protein 1: functional and evolutionary aspects. Trends Plant Sci 15:436446
Troyer, JR (2001) In the beginning: the multiple discovery of the first hormone herbicides. Weed Sci 49:290297
Turnbull, GC, Stephenson, GR (1985) Translocation of clopyralid and 2,4-D in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). Weed Sci 33:143147
[USEPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2004) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; availability of risk assessment. U.S. Federal Register Notice June 23, 2004, vol. 69, pp. 3501935021.!docketDetail;D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2004-0167. Accessed January 3, 2015
[USEPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2005a) 2,4-D RED Facts. Accessed January 3, 2015
[USEPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2005b) Reregistration Eligibility Decision for 2,4-D. EPA 738-R-05-002. In Office of Pesticide Programs, ed. Washington, DC: USEPA
[USEPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2012) 2,4-D; Order Denying NRDC's Petition to Revoke Tolerances. Washington, DC: Federal Register. Pp 2312523158
[USEPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2013) Human Health Risk Assessment. DP No. D389455. in Office of Pesticide Programs, ed. Washington, DC: USEPA
[USEPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2014) EPA-HQ-OPP-2014-0195, Final Registration—Enlist Duo (10-15-14). in Office of Pesticide Programs, ed. Washington, DC: USEPA
[USGPO] U.S. Government Publishing Office (2012) 40 CFR 180.142 2,4-D; Tolerances for Residues. Accessed August 1, 2015.
Van Eerd, L, McLean, M, Stephenson, G, Hall, J (2004) Resistance to quinclorac and ALS-inhibitor herbicides in Galium spurium is conferred by two distinct genes. Weed Res 44:355365
Van Ravenzwaay, B, Hardwick, T, Needham, D, Pethen, S, Lappin, G (2003) Comparative metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in rat and dog. Xenobiotica 33:805821
Van Rensburg, E, Breeze, VG (1990) Uptake and development of phytotoxicity following exposure to vapour of the herbicide 14C 2,4-D butyl by tomato and lettuce plants. Environ Exp Bot 30:405414
Vila-Aiub, MM, Neve, P, Powles, SB (2009) Fitness costs associated with evolved herbicide resistance alleles in plants. New Phytol 184:751767
von Stackelberg, K (2013) A systematic review of carcinogenic outcomes and potential mechanisms from exposure to 2,4-D and MCPA in the environment. J Toxicol Volume 2013, Article ID 371610. Pages 53 p
Wall, DA (1996) Effect of sublethal dosages of 2,4-D on annual broadleaf crops. Can J Plant Sci 76:179185
Walsh, M, Owen, M, Powles, S (2007) Frequency and distribution of herbicide resistance in Raphanus raphanistrum populations randomly collected across the Western Australian wheat belt. Weed Res 47:542550
Walsh, TA, Neal, R, Merlo, AO, Honma, M, Hicks, GR, Wolff, K, Matsumura, W, Davies, JP (2006) Mutations in an auxin receptor homolog AFB5 and in SGT1b confer resistance to synthetic picolinate auxins and not to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or indole-3-acetic acid in Arabidopsis . Plant Physiol 142:542552
Wang, R, Estelle, M (2014) Diversity and specificity: auxin perception and signaling through the TIR1/AFB pathway. Curr Opin Plant Biol 21:5158
Wax, LM, Knuth, LA, Slife, FW (1969) Response of soybeans to 2,4-D, dicamba, and picloram. Weed Sci 17:388393
Weinberg, T, Stephenson, GR, McLean, MD, Hall, JC (2006) MCPA (4-chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.). J Agric Food Chem 54:91269134
[WHO] World Health Organization (1996) Pesticide Residues in Food—1996, 2,4-D. Report of the Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
[WHO] World Health Organization (1997) Pesticide Residues in Food—1997. Part II—Toxicological and Environmental. WHO/PCS. Pp 255346
[WHO] World Health Organization (2015) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. List of Classifications. Volumes 1–113. Accessed October 15, 2015
Wilson, RD, Geronimo, J, Armbruster, JA (1997) 2,4-D dissipation in field soils after applications of 2,4-D dimethylamine salt and 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:12391246
Wilson, RG (1975) Breakdown and movement of formulated 2,4-D compounds in soil–water systems. Ph.D Dissertation. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 85 p
Wilson, RG, Cheng, HH (1976) Breakdown and movement of 2,4-D in soil under field conditions. Weed Sci 24:461466
Wolf, TM, Caldwell, BC, McIntyre, GI, Hsiao, AI (1992) Effect of droplet size and herbicide concentration on absorption and translocation of C-14 2,4-D in oriental mustard (Sisymbrium orientale). Weed Sci 40:568575
Wright, TR, Shan, G, Walsh, TA, Lira, JM, Cui, C, Song, P, Zhuang, M, Arnold, NL, Lin, G, Yau, K (2010) Robust crop resistance to broadleaf and grass herbicides provided by aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase transgenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:2024020245
[WSSA] Weed Science Society of America (2014) Herbicide Handbook. 10th edn. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America
Xu, T, Wang, Y, Liu, X, Gao, S, Qi, M, Li, T (2015) Solanum lycopersicum IAA15 functions in the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide mechanism of action by mediating abscisic acid signalling. J Exp Bot 66:39773990
Yang, H, Murphy, AS (2009) Functional expression and characterization of Arabidopsis ABCB, AUX 1 and PIN auxin transporters in Schizosaccharomyces pombe . Plant J 59:179191
Yeary, RA (1986) Urinary excretion of 2,4-D in commercial lawn specialists. Appl Ind Hyg 1:119121
Yu, H, Moss, BL, Jang, SS, Prigge, M, Klavins, E, Nemhauser, JL, Estelle, M (2013a) Mutations in the TIR1 auxin receptor that increase affinity for auxin/indole-3-acetic acid proteins result in auxin hypersensitivity. Plant Physiol 162:295303
Yu, Q, Han, H, Cawthray, GR, Wang, SF, Powles, SB (2013b) Enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism in low herbicide-dose selected resistant Lolium rigidum . Plant Cell Environ 36:818827
Yu, Q, Powles, S (2014) Metabolism-based herbicide resistance and cross-resistance in crop weeds: a threat to herbicide sustainability and global crop production. Plant Physiol 166:11061118
Zahm, SH, Weisenburger, DD, Babbitt, PA, Saal, RC, Vaught, JB, Cantor, KP, Blair, A (1990) A case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in eastern Nebraska. Epidemiology 1:349356
Zazimalova, E, Petrasek, J, Benkova, E (2014) Auxin and its Role in Plant Development. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag ISBN 978-3-7091-1526-8 (e-book). DOI: . 444 p
Zimmerlin, A, Durst, F (1992) Aryl hydroxylation of the herbicide diclofop by a wheat cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase substrate specificity and physiological activity. Plant Physiol 100:874881
Zimmerlin, A, Salaün, J-P, Durst, F, Mioskowski, C (1992) Cytochrome P-450-dependent hydroxylation of lauric acid at the subterminal position and oxidation of unsaturated analogs in wheat microsomes. Plant Physiol 100:868873
Zollinger, R, Markell, S, Knodel, J, Gray, J, Jantzi, D, Hagemeister, K, Kilpatrick, P (2012) Pesticide Use and Pest Management Practices for Major Crops in North Dakota, 2012. North Dakota State University in cooperation with North Dakota Agricultural Statistics Serice, Extension Publication W-1711. Accessed January, 2015