Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The Effects of Depth and Duration of Seed Burial on Viability, Dormancy, Germination, and Emergence of Ivyleaf Speedwell (Veronica hederifolia)

  • Husrev Mennan (a1) and Bernard H. Zandstra (a1)
Abstract

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of depth and duration of burial on seasonal germination, primary and secondary dormancy, viability, and seedling emergence of ivyleaf speedwell (Veronica hederifolia L.) seeds. The seeds were buried at 0, 5, 10, or 20 cm and retrieved from the field at monthly intervals. The exhumed seeds were germinated at 5 C. In the second experiment, seeds were stored in the laboratory after harvest and tested for germination at monthly intervals. In each experiment, nongerminated seeds were treated with triphenyltetrazolium chloride at monthly intervals to test their viability. The effects of stratification and burial depth on seedling emergence were observed for 1 yr. The seeds exhumed from the soil were dormant at the beginning of the experiment and exhibited dormancy/nondormancy/conditional dormancy cycling throughout the experiment. Depth of burial and time affected seed germination. Seeds retrieved from the soil surface germinated well initially, but germination decreased as depth of burial increased. In the dry storage experiment, seeds had a high level of primary dormancy, and viability decreased over time. Seedling emergence decreased when depth of burial increased. Seedlings emerged nonuniformly throughout the year and demonstrated typical winter annual characteristics.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail: zandstra@msu.edu
References
Hide All
Andersson, L. and Milberg, P. 1998. Variation in seed dormancy among mother plants, populations and years of seed collection. Seed Sci. Res. 8:2938.
Angonin, C., Caussanel, J. P., and Meynard, J. M. 1996. Competition between winter wheat and Veronica hederifolia influence of weed density and the amount and timing of nitrogen application. Weed Res. 36:175187.
Banovetz, S. J. and Scheiner, S. M. 1994. Secondary seed dormancy in Coreopsis lanceolata . Am. Midl. Nat. 131:7583.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1984. Effect of temperature during burial on dormant and non-dormant seeds of Lamium amplexicaule L. and ecological implications. Weed Res. 26:333339.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1985. The annual dormancy cycle in buried weed seeds: a continuum. Bioscience 25:492498.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1986. Temperature requirements for after-ripening in seeds of nine winter annuals. Weed Res. 26:375380.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1987. Temperature requirements for after-ripening in buried seeds of four summer annual weeds. Weed Res. 27:385389.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1995. Variation in the annual dormancy cycle in buried seeds of the weedy winter annual Viola arvensis . Weed Res. 35:353362.
Baskin, J. M., Baskin, C. C., and Van Auken, O. W. 1992. Germination response patterns to temperature during after ripening of achenes of four Texas winter annual Asteraceae. Can. J. Bot. 70:23542358.
Benvenuti, S. and Macchia, M. 1997. Light environment, phytochrome and germination of Datura stramonium L. seeds. Environ. Exp. Bot. 38:6171.
Benvenuti, S., Macchia, M., and Miele, S. 2001. Light, temperature and burial depth effects on Rumex obtusifolius seed germination and emergence. Weed Res. 41:177186.
Bhowmik, P. C. 1997. Weed biology; importance to weed management. Weed Sci. 45:349356.
Blackshaw, R. E. 1992. Soil temperature, soil moisture, and seed burial depth effects on redstem filaree (Erodium cicutarium) emergence. Weed Sci. 40:204207.
Buhler, D. D., Hartzler, R. G., and Forcella, F. 1997. Implications of weed seedbank dynamics to weed management. Weed Sci. 45:329336.
Burnside, O. C., Wilson, R. G., Weisberg, S., and Hubbard, K. G. 1996. Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska. Weed Sci. 44:7486.
Chen, P. H. and Kuo, W. H. J. 1999. Seasonal changes in the germination of buried seeds of Monochoria vaginalis . Weed Res. 39:107115.
Davis, P. H. 1978. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 6:825.
Donald, W. W. 1993. Models and sampling for studying weed seed survival with wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) as a case study. Can. J. Plant Sci. 73:637645.
Eastin, E. F. 1983. Smallflower morningglory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia) germination as influenced by scarification, temperature, and seeding depth. Weed Sci. 31:727730.
Egley, G. 1995. Seed Germination in Soil: Dormancy Cycles 20: Seed Development and Germination. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Grundy, A. C., Mead, A., and Burston, S. 2003. Modeling the emergence response of weed seeds to burial depth: interactions with seed density, weight and shape. J. Appl. Ecol. 40:757770.
Guo-Shuiliang. 1998. Ecological characteristics of Veronica hederifolia in China. Yingyong-sheng tai-Xuebao 9(2):133138.
Hilhorst, H. W. M. 1995. A critical update on seed dormancy, I. Seed Sci. Res. 5:6173.
Honek, A., Martinkova, Z., and Jorosik, V. 1999. Annual cycles of germinability and differences between primary and secondary dormancy in buried seeds of Echinochloa crus-galli . Weed Res. 39:6979.
Kannangara, H. W. and Field, R. J. 1985. Environmental and physiological factors affecting the fate of seeds of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) in arable land in New Zealand. Weed Res. 25:8792.
Longchamps, J. P. and Gora, M. 1979. Influences of oxygen deficiencies on the germination of weed seeds. Oecol. Plant. 14:121126.
Lutman, P. J. P., Cussans, G. W., Wright, K. J., Wilson, B. J., Wright, G. McN., and Lawson, H. M. 2002. The persistence of seeds of 16 weed species over six years in two arable fields. Weed Res. 42:231241.
Mennan, H. 1998. Some biological traits and economic threshold of bifra (Bifora radians Bieb.) and cleavers (Galium aparine L.) in wheat fields of Samsun provice. Cokurova University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences. Plant Protection Department. PhD thesis. 137 p.
Mennan, H. 2003. The effects of depth and duration of burial on seasonal germination, dormancy and viability of Galium aparine and Bifora radians seeds. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 189:304309.
Mennan, H. and Uygur, F. N. 1994. Determination of weed species in wheat fields in Samsun province. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Agricultural Faculty 9/2:2535.
Meyer, S. E., Kitchen, S. G., and Carlson, S. L. 1995. Seed germination timing patterns in intermountain Penestemon (Scrophulariaceae). Am. J. Bot. 82:377389.
Navie, S. C., Panetta, F. D., Mcfadyen, R. E., and Adkins, S. W. 1998. Behavior of buried and surface sown seeds of Parthenium hysterophorus . Weed Res. 38:335341.
Omami, E. N., Haigh, A. M., Medd, R. W., and Nicol, H. I. 1999. Changes in germinability, dormancy and viability of Amaranthus retroflexus as affected by depth and duration of burial. Weed Res. 39:345354.
Roberts, H. A. and Feast, P. M. 1973. Emergence and longevity of seeds of annual weeds in cultivated and undisturbed soil. J. Appl. Ecol. 10:133143.
Roberts, H. A. and Lockett, P. M. 1978. Seed dormancy and periodicity of seedling emergence in Veronica hederifolia L. Weed Res. 18:4148.
Tastan, B. 1988. Biology and control methods of Bifora radians Bieb. in wheat fields of Central Anatolia. Ankara University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences. Plant Protection Department. PhD thesis. 138 p.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed