Since the 1960s, Canada's Indigenous peoples have sought to rebuild their nations as well as their economic, political, social, and cultural systems, advancing their claims domestically through political and legal avenues and pressing their agendas internationally. Yet despite the constitutional entrenchment of Aboriginal rights and the Canadian state's choice to engage in a discourse of the inherent rights of Aboriginal peoples, domestic avenues have been marked by a state of “paradigm paralysis,” with Canadian authorities holding steadfast to the colonial paradigm. As a result, courts and politicians alike have failed to question the authority of Canadian governments over First Nations or to affirm the nation-to-nation relationship that once governed the Crown's dealings with Indigenous peoples. Instead, while political avenues have resulted in the recognition of inferior forms of self-government by “superior” Canadian governments, the constitutionally protected rights of Aboriginal peoples have been interpreted by the Supreme Court of Canada in a most limiting way, undermining claims to Aboriginal sovereignty, constraining the cultural autonomy of Aboriginal peoples, and precluding the creation of modern Aboriginal economies. This being the case, the question that arises is, Do global avenues offer greater promise for Indigenous peoples and their aspirations? By examining Indigenous peoples' engagement with trade liberalization mechanisms and intellectual property rights, the authors conclude that while, the international arena and multilateral trade organizations certainly are not predicated on protecting Indigenous peoples or their interests, they can be used to advance the political, social, cultural, and economic aspirations of Indigenous peoples.