The Pirapemas Lineament is a remarkable 200-km-long, NE–SW trending structure in the Barreirinhas Basin, one of the several Brazilian coastal basins. This lineament splits the study area in two sectors of distinctive morphology, drainage patterns, and sedimentary covers. Terrain northward of the lineament presents a smooth topography with sub-parallel to sub-dendritic drainage patterns, whereas a dissected plateau characterized by incised valleys and rectangular drainage pattern occurs southward, suggesting a structural control by joints and faults. Geological field data, crossed with thermal luminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, revealed that the surface southward of the lineament consists mostly of Miocene and late Pleistocene sedimentary deposits, represented by the Barreiras Formation and the Post-Barreiras sediments, respectively. In contrast, relatively younger sands mantle most of the northward terrain, as indicated by well-preserved paleodune deposits that grade into active aeolian dunes of the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park. Geomorphological and geological data analysis suggests that the northern sector is under the effect of subsidence, proving that the Pirapemas Lineament is an active agent modeling the landscape in the region. Geophysical data (gravity and seismic) confirm that such a structural feature is the surface expression of an active deep-seated basement fault.