Skip to main content

Did Sea-Level Changes Affect the Brazilian Amazon Forest During the Holocene?

  • Mayra Nina Araujo Silva (a1), Marcelo C L Cohen (a1), Dilce F Rossetti (a2) and Luiz C R Pessenda (a3)

In order to contribute to the discussion of Holocene climate changes, four sediment cores were collected from the northern Brazilian Amazonia lowland. These cores were studied through pollen analysis and sedimentary features, and the results were discussed within a chronological framework provided by radiocarbon dating. The cores were sampled from fluvial terraces representative of channel, floodplain/lake and crevasse splay deposits formed since the mid-Holocene. The pollen samples derive from floodplain/lake deposits and the pollen grains are mainly composed by families Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Combretaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Aizoaceae, Apiaceae and genus Sebastiana. The pollen data suggest no significant vegetation changes in the study area for the past 4808–4886 cal yr BP. This led to proposing stable climatic conditions since at least the middle Holocene. Such a finding is contrary to the occurrence of a dry period during the middle Holocene. The stabilization of the relative sea level about 6000 cal yr BP along the northern Brazilian littoral may have influenced the water table, and favored the establishment and maintenance of Amazonian lowland forest during the mid- and late Holocene. In addition, this process may have attenuated the impact of that dry period in areas under most fluvial influence.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email:
Hide All
Ab’Saber A. 1989. Zoneamento ecológico e econômico da Amazônia: questões de escala e método. Estud. Avançados 3:420.
Absy ML. 1975. Polen e esporos do Quaternário de Santos (Brasil). Hoehnea 5:126.
Absy ML. 1979. A palynological study of Holocene sediments in the Amazon basin [PhD thesis]. University of Amsterdam. 86 p.
Absy ML, Cleef A, Fournier M, Martin L, Servant M, Sifeddine A, Silva MF, Soubiès F, Suguio K, Turcq B, Van der Hammen T. 1991. Mise en évidence de quatre phases d’ouverture de la forêt dense dans le sudest de l’Amazonie au cours des 60,000 dernières années. Première comparaison avec d’autres régions tropicales. Compte Rendu de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris 312:673678.
Anderson AB. 1981. White-sand vegetation of Brazilian Amazonia. Biotropica 13:199210.
Angulo RJ, Lessa GC. 1997. The Brazilian sea-level curves: a critical review with emphasis on the curves from the Paranaguá and Cananéia regions. Marine Geology 140:141166.
Angulo RJ, Giannini PCF, Suguio K, Pessenda LCR. 1999. Relative sea-level changes in the last 5500 years in southern Brazil (Laguna-Imbituba region Santa Catarina State) based on vermitid 14C ages. Marine Geology 159:323339.
Behling H. 2002. Impact of the Holocene sea-level changes in coastal eastern and central Amazonia. Amazoniana 17:4152.
Behling H. 2011. Holocene environmental dynamics in coastal eastern and central Amazonia and the role of the Atlantic sea-level change. Geographica Helvetica 3:208216.
Behling H, Hooghiemstra H. 1998. Late Quaternary palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology from pollen records of the savannas of the Llanos Orientales in Colombia. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 139:251267.
Behling H, Hooghiemstra H. 1999. Environmental history of the Colombian savannas of the Llanos Orientales since the Last Glacial Maximum from lake records El Pinal and Carimagua. Journal of Paleolimnology 21:461476.
Behling H, Costa ML. 2000. Holocene environmental changes from the Rio Curuá record in the Caxiuanã region eastern Amazon Basin. Quaternary Research 53:369377.
Behling H, Costa ML. 2001. Holocene vegetation and coastal environmental changes from Lago Crispim in northeastern Pará State northern Brazil. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 114:145155.
Behling H, Hooghiemstra H. 2000. Holocene Amazon rainforest–savanna dynamics and climatic implications: high-resolution pollen record from Laguna Loma Linda in eastern Colombia. Journal of Quaternary Science 15:687695.
Behling H, Cohen MCL, Lara RJ. 2001. Studies on Holocene mangrove ecosystem dynamics of the Bragança Peninsula in northeastern Pará Brazil. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 167:225242.
Behling H, Arz HW, Pätzold J, Wefer G. 2002. Late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics in southeastern Brazil inferences from marine cores GeoB 3229-2 and GeoB 3202-1. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 179:227243.
Behling H, Cohen MCL, Lara RJ. 2004. Late Holocene mangrove dynamics of the Marajó Island in northern Brazil. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 13:7380.
Berrio JC, Hooghiemstra H, Behling H, Van der Borg K. 2000. Late Holocene history of savanna gallery forest from Carimagua area Colombia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 111:295308.
Bos JAA, Dambeck R, Kalis AJ, Schweizer A, Thiemeyer H. 2008. Palaeoenvironmental changes and vegetation history of the northern Upper Rhine Graben (southwestern Germany) Since the Lateglacial. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 87:6790.
Broecker WS. 2003. Does the trigger for abrupt climate change reside in the ocean or in the atmosphere? Science 300:15191522.
Bush MB, Colinvaux PA. 1988. A 7000-year pollen record from the Amazon lowlands Ecuador. Vegetation 76:141154.
Bush MB, Miller MC, de Oliveira PE, Colinvaux PA. 2000. Two histories of environmental change and human disturbance in eastern lowland Amazonia. The Holocene 10:543553.
Bush MB, Silman MR, Listopad CMCS. 2007. A regional study of Holocene climate change and human occupation in Peruvian Amazonia. Journal of Biogeography 34:13421356.
Castro DF, Rossetti DF, Pessenda LCR. 2010. Facies δ13C, δ15N, and C/N analyses in a late Quaternary compound estuarine fill northern Brazil and relation to sea level. Marine Geology 274:135150.
Castro DF, Oliveira PE, Rossetti DF, Pessenda LCR. 2013. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom record. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 85:3555.
Chiang JCH, Bitz CM. 2005. Influence of high latitude ice cover on the marine Intertropical Convergence Zone. Climate Dynamics 25:477496.
Cohen MCL, Behling H, Lara RJ. 2005a. Amazonian mangrove dynamics during the last millennium: the relative sea-level and the little Ice Age. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 136:93108.
Cohen MCL, Souza Filho PW, Lara RL, Behling H, Angulo R. 2005b. A model of Holocene mangrove development and relative sea-level changes on the Bragança. Peninsula (northern Brazil). Wetlands Ecology and Management 13:433443.
Cohen MCL, Lara RJ, Smith CB, Angélica RS, Dias BS, Pequeno T. 2008. Wetland dynamics of Marajó Island northern Brazil during the last 1000 years. Catena 76:7077.
Cohen MCL, Lara RJ, Smith CB, Matos HRS, Vedel V. 2009. Impact of sea level and climatic changes on the Amazon coastal wetlands during the late Holocene. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 18:425439.
Cohen MCL, Pessenda LCR, Behling H, Rossetti DF, França MC, Guimarães JTF, Friaes YS, Smith CB. 2012. Holocene palaeoenvironmental history of the Amazonian mangrove belt. Quaternary Science Reviews 55:5058.
Cohen MCL, Rossetti DF, Pessenda LCR, Friaes YS, Oliveira PE. 2014. Late Pleistocene glacial forest of Humaitá—Western Amazonia. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 415c:4858.
Colinvaux PA, De Oliveira PE, Moreno JE, Miller MC, Bush MB. 1996. A long pollen record from lowland Amazonia: forest and cooling in glacial times. Science 247:8588.
Colinvaux P, De Oliveira PE, Patiño JEM. 1999. Amazon Pollen Manual and Atlas. Dordrecht: Harwood Academic Publishers. 332 p.
Cordeiro RC, Turcq PFM, Turcq BJ, Moreira LS, Rodrigues RC, Costa RL, Sifeddine A, Simões Filho FFL. 2008. Acumulação de carbono em lagos amazônicos como indicador de eventos paleoclimaticos e antrópicos. Oecol. Bras 12:130154.
Cordeiro RC, Turcq BJ, Sifeddine A, Lacerda LD, Silva Filho EV, Gueiros BB, Cunha YPP, Santelli RE, Pádua EO, Pachinelam SR. 2011. Biogeochemical indicators of enviromnental changes from 50 ka to 10 ka. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 299:426436.
Davis MB. 2000. Palynology after Y2K—understanding the source area of pollen in sediments. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 28:118.
Desjardins T, Filho AC, Mariotti A, Chauvel A, Girardin C. 1996. Changes of the forest savanna boundary in Brazilian Amazonia during the Holocene as revealed by soil organic carbon isotope ratios. Oecologia 108:749756.
Faegri K, Iversen J. 1989. Textbook of Pollen Analysis, 4th Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Fan Y, Li H, Miguez-Macho G. 2013. Global patterns of groundwater table depth. Science 339:940943.
França MC, Francisquini MI, Cohen MCL, Pessenda LCR, Rossetti DF, Guimarães JTF, Smith CB. 2012. The last mangroves of Marajó Island—Eastern Amazon: impact of climate and/or relative sea-level changes. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 187:5065.
Freitas HA, Pessenda LCR, Aravena R, Gouveia SEM, Ribeiro AS, Boulet R. 2001. Late Quaternary vegetation dynamics in the southern Amazon basin inferred from carbon isotopes in soil organic matter. Quaternary Research 55:3946.
Freitas PTA, Silva MS, Souza Filho PWM, Ogston A, Nittrouer CA, Asp NE. 2014. Tidal influence on the hydrodynamics in a major Amazon tributary. Proceedings of the 17th Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas (PECS) Conference. Porto de Galinhas Pernambuco, Brazil.
Gosling WD, Mayle FE, Tate NJ, Killeen TJ. 2009. Differentiation between neotropical rainforest dry forest and savanna ecosystems by their modern pollen spectra and implications for the fossil pollen record. Reviews of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153:7085.
Gouveia SEM, Pessenda LCR, Aravena R, Boulet R, Roveratti R, Gomes BM. 1997. Dinâmica de vegetações durante o Quaternário recente no sul no Amazonas indicada pelos isótopos do carbono (12C 13C 14C) do solo. Geochimica Brasiliensis 11:335367.
Gribel R, Ferreira CAC, Coelho LS, Santos JL, Ramos J F, Silva KAF. 2009. Vegetação do Parque Nacional do Viruá–RR. Relatório Técnico. Brasília: Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio).
Grimm EC. 1987. CONISS: a Fortran 77 program for stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis by the method of the incremental sum of squares. Pergamon Journal 13:1335.
Guimarães JTF, Cohen MCL, França MC, Lara RJ, Behling H. 2010. Model of wetland development of the Amapá littoral during the Late Holocene. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 82:115.
Hermanowski B, Costa ML, Carvalho AT, Behling H. 2012. Palaeoenvironmental dynamics and underlying climatic changes in southeast Amazonia (Serra Sul dos Carajás Brazil) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 365–366:227246.
Howard AJ, Gearey B, R Hill T, Fletcher W, Marshall P. 2009. Fluvial sediments correlations and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction: the development of robust radiocarbon chronologies. Journal of Archaeol. Science 36:26802688.
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE. 2012. Manuais Técnicos em Geociências – número 1, Manual Técnico da Vegetação Brasileira– Sistema fitogeográfico Inventário das formações florestais e campestres Técnicas e manejo de coleções botânicas Procedimentos para mapeamentos. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE/ Ministério do Planejamento Orçamento e Gestão. 271 p.
Irion G, Bush MB, Nunes de Mello JA, Stüben D, Neumann T, Müller G, Morais de JO, Junk JW. 2006. A multiproxy palaeoecological record of Holocene lake sediments from the Rio Tapajós eastern Amazonia. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 240:523535.
Irion G, Junk WJ, Mello JASN de. 1997. The large Central Amazonian River floodplains near Manaus: geological climatological hydrological and geomorphological aspects. In: Junk WJ, editor. The Central Amazon Floodplain. Berlin: Springer Verlag. p 2346.
Jacob J, Huang Y, Disnar JR, et al. 2007. Paleohydrological changes during the last deglaciation in Northern Brazil. Quaternary Science Reviews 26:10041015.
Junk WJ. 1994. Ecology of the várzea floodplain of Amazonian whitewater rivers. In: Harald Sioli, editor. The Amazon-Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and Its Basin. Netherlands: Springer. p 215243.
Junk WJ, editor. 1997. The Central Amazon Floodplain Ecological Studies. Berlin: Springer.
Kasse C, Hoek WZ, Bohncke SJP, Konert M, Weijers JWH, Cassee ML, Van der Zee RM. 2005. Late Glacial fluvial response of the Niers-Rhine (western Germany) to climate and vegetation change. Journal of Quaternary Science 20:377394.
Kosuth P, Calléde J, Laraque A, Filizola N, Guyot JL, Seyler P, Fritsch JM, Guimarães V. 2009. Sea-tide effects on flows in the lower reaches of the Amazon River. Hydrological Processes 23:31413150.
Laranjeiras TO, Naka LN, Bechtoldt CL, da Costa TVV, Andretti CB, Cerqueira MC, de Fátima Torres M, Rodrigues GL, Santos MPD, Vargas CF, Pacheco AMF, Sardelli CH, Mazar-Barnett J, Cohn-Haft M. 2014. The avifauna of Viruá National Park Roraima reveals megadiversity in northern Amazonia. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 22:138171.
Latrubesse EM. 2002. Evidence of Quaternary palaeohydrological changes in middle Amazônia: the Aripuanã-Roosevelt and Jiparaná fans. Z. Geomorphol 129:6172.
Latrubesse EM, Ramonell CG. 1994. A climatic model for southwestern Amazonia in last glacial times. Quaternary International 21:163169.
Latrubesse EM, Nelson BW. 2001. Evidence for Late Quaternary aeolian activity in the Roraima-Guyana Region. Catena 43:6380.
Ledru MP, Ceccantini G, Gouveia SEM, Lopez–Sáez JA, Pessenda LCR, Ribeiro AS. 2006. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (northeast Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 25:11101126.
Lowe JJ, Walker MJC, Scott EM, Harkness DD, Bryant CL, Davies SM. 2004. A coherent high-precision radiocarbon chronology for the Late-glacial sequence at Sluggan Bog Co. Antrim Northern Ireland. Journal of Quaternary Science 19:147158.
Macario K, Gomes PRS, Anjos RM, Carvalho C, Linares R, Alves EQ, Oliveira FM, Castro MD, Chanca IS, Silveira MFM, Pessenda LCR, Moraes LMB, Campos TB, Cherkinsky A. 2013. The Brazilian AMS Radiocarbon Laboratory (LAC–UFF) and the intercomparison of results with CENA and UGAMS. Radiocarbon 55(2):325330.
Markgraf V, D’Antoni HL. 1978. Pollen Flora of Argentina. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Maslin MA, Burns SJ. 2000. Reconstruction of the Amazon Basin effective moisture availability over the past 14,000 years. Science 290:22852287.
Mayle FE, Burbridge R, Killeen TJ. 2000. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests. Science 290:22912294.
Mayle FE, Power MJ. 2008. Impact of a drier Early-Mid-Holocene climate upon Amazonian forests. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:18291838.
Meggers BJ. 2007. Mid-Holocene climate and cultural dynamics in Brazil and the Guianas. In: Anderson DG, Maasch KA, Sandweiss DH, editors. Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics: A Global Perspective on Mid-Holocene Transitions, p 117155.
Miranda ACC, Rossetti DF, Pessenda LCR. 2009. Quaternary paleoenvironments and relative sea–level changes in Marajó Island (Northern Brazil): facies, δ13C δ15N and C/N. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 282:1931.
Moreira LS, Moreira-Turcq P, Turcq B, Caquineau S, Cordeiro RC. 2012. Paleohydrological changes in an Amazonian floodplain lake: Santa Ninha Lake. Journal of Paleolimnology 48:339350.
Mosblech NAS, Bush MB, Gosling WD, Hodell D, Thomas L, Van Calsteren P, Correa-Metrio A, Valencia BG, Curtis J, Van Woesik R. 2012. North Atlantic forcing of Amazonian precipitation during the Last Ice Age. Nat. Geosci 5:817820.
Pessenda LCR, Valencia EPE, Martinelli LA, Cerri CC. 1996. 14C measurements in tropical soil developed on basic rocks. Radiocarbon 38(2):203208.
Pessenda LCR, Gomes BM, Aravena R, Ribeiro AS, Boulet R, Gouveia SEM. 1998a. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect: implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. The Holocene 8.5:599603.
Pessenda LCR, Gouveia SEM, Aravena R, Gomes BM, Boulet R, Ribeiro AS. 1998b. 14C dating and stable carbon isotopes of soil organic matter in forest savanna boundary areas in the southern Brazilian Amazon region. Radiocarbon 40:10131022.
Pessenda LCR, Gouveia SEM, Gomes BM, Boulet R, Ribeiro AS. 1998c. Studies of paleovegetation changes in the central Amazon by carbon isotopes (12C 13C 14C) of soil organic matter. Isotope techniques in the study of environmental change. Proceedings of a symposium, Vienna, April 1997. p 645–52.
Pessenda LCR, Boulet R, Aravena R, Rosolen V, Gouveia SEM, Ribeiro AS, Lamotte M. 2001. Origin and dynamics of soil organic matter and vegetation changes during the Holocene in a forest–savanna transition zone Brazilian Amazon region. The Holocene 11:250254.
Pessenda LCR, Ribeiro AS, Gouveia SEM, Aravena R, Boulet R, Bendassoli JA. 2004. Vegetation dynamics during the late Pleistocene in the Barreirinhas region Maranhão State northeastern Brazil based on carbon isotopes in soil organic matter. Quaternary Research 62:183193.
Pessenda LCR, Vidotto E, De Oliveira PE, Buso AA, Cohen MCL, Rossetti D, de Ricardi-Branco F, Bendassolli JA. 2012. Late Quaternary vegetation and coastal environmental changes at Ilha do Cardoso mangrove southeastern Brazil. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 363:5768.
RADAMBRASIL. 1975. Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral. Projeto Radam. Folha NA–20 Boa Vista e parte das folhas NA-21 Tumucumaque NB-20 Roraima e NB–21: geologia geomorfologia pedologia vegetação e uso potencial da terra. Rio de Janeiro: DNPM 1975. 428 p.
RADAMBRASIL Project. 1976. Folha NA-20 Boa Vista: geologia geomorfologia pedologia vegetação e uso potencial da terra. Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral: Rio de Janeiro.
Räsänen M, Salo J, Kalliola R. 1987. Fluvial perturbance in the western Amazon basin: regulation by long term sub-Andean tectonics. Science 238:13981401.
Reimer P. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55:18691887.
Rigsby CA, Hemric EM, Baker PA. 2009. Late Quaternary paleohydrology of the Madre de Dios River southwestern Amazon Basin, Peru. Geomorphology 113:158172.
Rossetti DF, Toledo PM, Moraes-Santos HM, Santos AEA. Jr 2004. Reconstructing habitats in central Amazonia using megafauna sedimentology radiocarbon and isotope analyses. Quaternary Research 61:289300.
Rossetti DF, Toledo PM, Góes AM. 2005. New geological framework for Western Amazonia (Brazil) and implications for biogeography and evolution. Quaternary Research 63:7889.
Rossetti DF, Valeriano MM, Goes AM, Thales M. 2008. Palaeodrainage on Marajó Island northern Brazil in relation to Holocene relative sea-level dynamics. The Holocene 18:0112.
Rossetti DF, Souza LSB, Prado R, Elis VR. 2012. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 37:175190.
Rossetti DF, Zani H, Cremon EH. 2014. Fossil megafans evidenced by remote sensing in the Amazonian wetlands. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie 58:145161.
Rossetti DF, Polizel SP, Cohen MCL, Pessenda LCR. 2015. Late Pleistocene–Holocene evolution of the Doce River delta southeastern Brazil: implications for the understanding of wave-influenced deltas. Mar. Geol 367:171190.
Roubik DW, Moreno JE. 1991. Pollen and Spores of Barro Colorado Island. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden. 268 p.
Ruter A, Arzt J, Vavrus S, et al. 2004. Climate and environment of the subtropical and tropical Americas (NH) in the mid-Holocene: comparison of observations. Quaternary Science Reviews 23:663679.
Salgado-Labouriau M.L. 1973. Contribuição à palinologia dos cerrados. Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 273 p.
Santos JOS, Nelson BW, Geovannini CA. 1993. Os campos de dunas do Pantanal Setentrional. Ciência Hoje 16(93):2225.
Serruya NM. 2002. Zoneamento Ecológico Econômico da Região Central do Estado de Roraima tomo II. Volume II: Diagnóstico do Meio Biótico-Cobertura Vegetal e Áreas Alteradas. CPRM–Serviço Geológico do Brasil p. 90101.
Shackleton NJ. 1988. Oxygen isotopes ice volume and sea level. Quaternary Science Reviews 6:183190.
Sifeddine A, Bertrand P, Fournier M, Martin L, Servant M, Soubiès F, Suguio K, Turcq B. 1994. La sédimentation organique lacustre en milieu tropical humide (Carajás Amazonie orientale Brésil): relation avec les changements climatiques au cours des 60000 dernières années. Bulletin de La Société Geologique de France 165:613621.
Sifeddine A, Marint L, Turcq B, Volkmer-Ribeiro C, Soubiès F, Cordeiro RC, Suguio K. 2001. Variations of the Amazonian rainforest environment: a sedimentological record covering 30,000 years. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168:221235.
Souza Filho PWM, Martins ESF, Costa FR. 2006. Using mangroves as a geological indicator of coastal changes in the Bragança macrotidal flat Brazilian Amazon: a remote sensing data approach. Ocean and Coastal Management 49:462475.
Stuiver M, Polach HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19:355363.
Suguio K, Martin L, Bittencourt ACSP, Dominguez JML, Flexor JM, Azevedo AEG. 1985a. Flutuações do Nível do Mar durante o Quaternário Superior ao longo do Litoral Brasileiro e suas Implicações na Sedimentação Costeira. Revista Brasileira de Geociência 15:273286.
ter Steege H, Jetten VG, Polak AM, et al. 1993. Tropical rain forest types and soil factors in a watershed area in Guyana. Journal of Vegetation Science 4:705716.
Tomazelli LJ. 1990. Contribuição ao estudo dos sistemas deposicionais Holocênicos do Nordeste da Província Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul com Ênfase no Sistema Eólico [PhD thesis]. Porto Alegre Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. 270 p.
Toonen WHJ, Kleinhans MG, Cohen KM. 2012. Sedimentary architecture of abandoned channel fills. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 37:459472.
Turney CSM, Coope GR, Harkness DD, Lowe JJ, Walker MJC. 2000. Implications for the dating of Wisconsinan (Weichselian) Late-Glacial events of systematic radiocarbon age differences between terrestrial plant macrofossils from a site in SW Ireland. Quaternary Research 53:114121.
Van der Hammen T, Duivenvoorden JF, Lips JM, Urrego LE, Espejo N. 1992. The late Quaternary of the middle Caquetá area (Colombian Amazonia). Journal of Quaternary Sciences 7:4555.
Vedel V, Behling H, Cohen MCL, Lara RJ. 2006. Holocene mangrove dynamics and sea-level changes in Taperebal northeastern Pará State northern Brazil. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 15:115123.
Veloso HP, Rangel-Filho ALR, Lima JCA. 1991. Classificação da Vegetação Brasileira Adaptada a um Sistema Universal. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística.
Vital H, Stattegger K, Posewang J, Theilen F. 1998. Lowermost Amazon River: morphology and shallow seismic characteristics. Mar. Geol 152:277294.
Vormisto J, Phillips OL, Ruokolainen K, et al. 2000. A comparison of fine-scale distribution patterns of four plant groups in an Amazonian rainforest. Ecography 23:349359.
Walker RG. 1992. Facies facies models and modern stratigraphic concepts. In: Walker RG, James NP, editors. Facies Models—Response to Sea Level Change. Ontario: Geological Association of Canada. p 114.
Weng C, Bush MB, Athens JS. 2002. Two histories of climate change and hydrarch succession in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 120:7390.
Weng C, Bush MB, Silman MR. 2004b. An analysis of modern pollen rain on na elevational gradient in southern Peru. Journal Trop. Ecology 20:113124.
Wentworth CK. 1922. A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. J. Geol. 30:377392.
Xu Q, Tian F, Bunting MJ, Li Y, Ding W, Cao X, He Z. 2012. Pollen source areas of lakes with inflowing rivers: modern pollen influx data from Lake Baiyangdian China. Quaternary Science Review 37:8191.
Zani H, Rossetti DF, Cohen MLC, Pessenda LCR, Cremon EH. 2012. Influence of landscape evolution on the distribution of floristic patterns in northern Amazonia revealed by δ13C data. Journal of Quaternary Science 27:854864.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 27 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 223 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd August 2017 - 11th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.