Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is the main memory in most current computers. The excellent scalability of DRAM has significantly contributed to the development of modern computers. However, DRAM technology now faces critical challenges associated with further scaling toward the ∼10-nm technology node. This scaling will likely end soon because of the inherent limitations of charge-based memory. Much effort has been dedicated to delaying this. Novel cell architectures have been designed to reduce the cell area, and new materials and process technologies have been extensively investigated, especially for dielectrics and electrodes related to charge storage. In this article, the current issues, recent progress in and the future of DRAM materials, and fabrication technologies are discussed.