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Scottish nationalism is a powerful movement in contemporary politics, yet the goal of Scottish independence emerged surprisingly recently into public debate. The origins of Scottish nationalism lie not in the medieval battles for Scottish statehood, the Acts of Union, the Scottish Enlightenment, or any other traditional historical milestone. Instead, an influential separatist Scottish nationalism began to take shape only in the 1970s and achieved its present ideological maturity in the course of the 1980s and 1990s. The nationalism that emerged from this testing period of Scottish history was unusual in that it demanded independence not to defend a threatened ancestral culture but as the most effective way to promote the agenda of the left. This accessible and engaging account of the political thought of Scottish nationalism explores how the arguments for Scottish independence were crafted over some fifty years by intellectuals, politicians and activists, and why these ideas had such a seismic impact on Scottish and British politics in the 2014 independence referendum.
Dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) is known to affect acid−base status and mineral metabolism, but is rarely considered in diet formulation for pigs. Yet, the use of a wide variety of local feedstuffs in Europe contributes to lowering the dEB and increasing the fibre content. Hence, mineral requirements may be modified and skeletal health affected. Therefore, the effects of a lower dEB and a higher dietary Ca level on acid−base balance and mineral status were assessed in young pigs fed a diversified diet. A total of twenty-four weaned pigs were fed a control moderate-dEB diet (C) or a diversified moderate-dEB (D), low-dEB (D-A) or low-dEB supplemented with Ca (D-CA) diet. Growth performance, venous blood gas and chemistry, urine pH, mineral balance and femur characteristics were determined. With an equivalent dEB compared with the C diet, the D diet caused an acidification of the urine and increased the excretion of P as a result of a higher dietary content of S. Low-grade metabolic acidosis occurred in piglets fed the D-A diet with changes at systemic and urine levels. A higher excretion of ammonia and P in urine was observed and some bone characteristics tended to be negatively affected. Ca supplementation partially counteracted the effects of low-grade acidosis. Urine excretion of P and ammonia was alleviated and bone characteristics improved. In conclusion, a higher Ca supply must be considered in more diversified diets to counteract the risk of evolving towards low-grade metabolic acidosis which can negatively affect bone.
We present lattice Boltzmann pore-scale numerical simulations of solute transport and reaction in porous electrodes at a high Schmidt number,
. The three-dimensional geometry of real materials is reconstructed via X-ray computed tomography. We apply a volume-averaging upscaling procedure to characterise the microstructural terms contributing to the homogenised description of the macroscopic advection–reaction–dispersion equation. We firstly focus our analysis on its asymptotic solution, while varying the rate of reaction. The results confirm the presence of two working states of the electrodes: a reaction-limited regime, governed by advective transport, and a mass-transfer-limited regime, where dispersive mechanisms play a pivotal role. For all materials, these regimes depend on a single parameter, the product of the Damköhler number and a microstructural aspect ratio. The macroscopic dispersion is determined by the spatial correlation between solute concentration and flow velocity at the pore scale. This mechanism sustains reaction in the mass-transfer-limited regime due to the spatial rearrangement of the solute transport from low-velocity to high-velocity pores. We then compare the results of pre-asymptotic transport with a macroscopic model based on effective dispersion parameters. Interestingly, the model correctly represents the transport at short characteristic times. At longer times, high reaction rates mitigate the mechanisms of heterogeneous solute transport. In the mass-transfer-limited regime, the significant yet homogeneous dispersion can thus be modelled via an effective dispersion. Finally, we formulate guidelines for the design of porous electrodes based on the microstructural aspect ratio.
To analyse the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising on the three major Brazilian free-to-air television (TV) channels.
Cross-sectional study. A protocol developed for the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support was applied for data collection. A total of 432 h of TV programming was recorded from 06.00 to 24.00 hours, for eight non-consecutive and randomly selected days, in April 2018. All TV advertisements (ads) were analysed, and food-related ads were classified according to the NOVA classification system. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the number and type of ads, food categories and the distribution of ads throughout the day and time of the day.
The three most popular free-to-air channels on Brazilian TV.
The study did not involve human subjects.
In total, 14·2 % (n 1156 out of 7991) of ads were food related (858 were specific food items). Approximately 91 % of food items ads included ultra-processed food (UPF) products. The top three most promoted products were soft drinks, alcoholic beverages and fast-food meals. Alcoholic beverage ads were more frequently broadcast in the evening.
The high risk of exposure of the Brazilian population to UPF ads should be considered a public health concern given the impact of unhealthy food advertising on people’s food choices and health.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine tumour. Although surgical resection is a treatment choice, it often occurs in the head and neck and occurs mainly in the elderly, making surgery impossible. Radical radiation therapy may be an alternative to surgery in these patients. In addition, radiation treatment may be performed even after recurrence after surgery.
An 82-year-old MCC patient had cT2N0M0, stage IIA MCC on the left cheek that metastasised to lymph node 2 months after surgery. She was treated with radiation monotherapy with a hypofractionation schedule (39 Gy at 3 Gy per fraction).
The patient achieved complete remission after radiotherapy without severe toxicities.
R-MAT (for Recursive MATrix) is a simple, widely used model for generating graphs with a power law degree distribution, a small diameter, and communitys structure. It is particularly attractive for generating very large graphs because edges can be generated independently by an arbitrary number of processors. However, current R-MAT generators need time logarithmic in the number of nodes for generating an edge— constant time for generating one bit at a time for node IDs of the connected nodes. We achieve constant time per edge by precomputing pieces of node IDs of logarithmic length. Using an alias table data structure, these pieces can then be sampled in constant time. This simple technique leads to practical improvements by an order of magnitude. This further pushes the limits of attainable graph size and makes generation overhead negligible in most situations.
Impaired mentalizing ability – an impaired ability to understand one's own and other people's behavior in terms of mental states – is associated with social dysfunction in non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD). We tested whether adding mentalization-based treatment for psychotic disorder (MBTp) to treatment as usual (TAU) results in greater improvement in social functioning.
Multicenter, rater-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Eighty-four patients with NAPD were assigned to TAU or MBTp plus TAU. Patients in the MBTp group received 18 months of MBTp, consisting of weekly group sessions and one individual session per 2 weeks. Social functioning was measured using the Social Functioning Scale. We conducted ANCOVAs to examine the difference between treatment conditions directly after treatment and at 6-month follow-up and performed moderation and mediation analyses.
Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant differences between groups post-treatment (p = 0.31) but revealed the MBTp group to be superior to TAU at follow-up (p = 0.03). Patients in the MBTp group also seemed to perform better on measures of mentalizing ability, although evidence of a mediation effect was limited (p = 0.06). Lastly, MBTp treatment was less effective in chronic patients than in recent-onset patients (p = 0.049) and overall symptoms at baseline were mild, which may have reduced the overall effectiveness of the intervention.
The results suggest that MBTp plus TAU may lead to more robust improvements in social functioning compared to TAU, especially for patients with a recent onset of psychosis.
Women in South Asia, including Nepal, have some of the poorest nutritional indicators globally, leading to poor maternal and child health outcomes. Nepal also suffers from high levels of household food insecurity, and newly married women are at high risk. Intra-household relationships may mediate the relationship between food insecurity and women’s nutrition in Nepal for newly married women. Our aim is to understand how newly married, preconception, women’s food consumption changes when she enters her husband’s home, compared with her natal home. We also explore whether relationship quality with husbands and mothers-in-law mediates the association between food insecurity and eating less high-quality food, using structural equation modelling.
Cross-sectional survey data.
Rural Nepal in 2018.
Data were collected from 200 newly married, preconception women.
Women had poor diet quality, and most ate fewer high-quality foods important for pregnancy in their marital, compared with natal, home. Higher quality relationships with mothers-in-laws mediated the association between food insecurity and a woman eating fewer high-quality foods in her marital, compared with natal, home. Relationship quality with husbands was not associated with changes in food consumption.
Preconception, newly married women in Nepal are eating less high-quality foods important for women’s health during the preconception period – a key period for avoiding adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. Relationships with mothers-in-law are key to women’s access to high-quality food, suggesting that interventions aiming to improve maternal and child nutrition should target all household members.
The chapter summarises the various ways through which attachment to a particular geography - be a street or a nation - can be compromised. Memory, familiarity with customs and rules, and access to public space, as well as safety, personal and political freedoms are key constituents of belonging as is basic economic well-being.
Airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) surveys are widely used to measure ice-sheet bed topography. Measuring bed topography as accurately and widely as possible is of critical importance to modelling ice dynamics and hence to constraining better future ice response to climate change. Measurement accuracy of RES surveys is influenced both by the geometry of bed topography and the survey design. Here we develop a novel approach for simulating RES surveys over glaciated terrain, to quantify the sensitivity of derived bed elevation to topographic geometry. Furthermore, we investigate how measurement errors influence the quantification of glacial valley geometry. We find a negative bias across RES measurements, where off-nadir return measurement error is typically −1.8 ± 11.6 m. Topographic highlands are under-measured an order of magnitude more than lowlands. Consequently, valley depth and cross-sectional area are largely under-estimated. While overall estimates of ice thickness are likely too high, we find large glacier valley cross-sectional area to be under-estimated by −2.8 ± 18.1%. Therefore, estimates of ice flux through large outlet glaciers are likely too low when this effect is not taken into account. Additionally, bed mismeasurements potentially impact our appreciation of outlet-glacier stability.
Digital phenotyping (such as using live data from personal digital devices on sleep, activity and social media interactions) to monitor and interpret people's current mental state is a newly emerging development in psychiatry. This article offers an imaginary insight into its future potential for both psychiatrist and patient.
Mental health problems can lead to costs and benefits in other sectors (e.g. in the education sector) in addition to the healthcare sector. These related costs and benefits are known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Although some ICBs within the education sector have been identified previously, little is known about their extensiveness and transferability, which is crucial for their inclusion in health economics research.
The aim of this study was to identify ICBs in the education sector, to validate the list of ICBs in a broader European context, and to categorize the ICBs using mental health as a case study.
Previously identified ICBs in the education sector were used as a basis for this study. Additional ICBs were extracted from peer-reviewed literature in PubMed and grey literature from six European countries. A comprehensive list of unique items was developed based on the identified ICBs. The list was validated by surveying an international group of educational experts. The survey results were used to finalize the list, which was categorized according to the care atom.
Additional ICBs in the education sector were retrieved from ninety-six sources. Fourteen experts from six European countries assessed the list for completeness, clarity, and relevance. The final list contained twenty-four ICBs categorized into input, throughput, and output.
By providing a comprehensive list of ICBs in the education sector, this study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs in health economics research in the broader European context.
The author reflects upon graveyards and physical memorials to the dead as place markers for individuals, families and communities. Syncretic Indian culture in medieval and modern times, has revolved around graves as Muslim Sufi saints were venerated by all communities, and their attitude to power influenced the masses. However, there is a new political discourse where graveyards are set against up cremation grounds, as if the two were incompatible, suggesting that Hindus and Muslims/Christians were incompatible. This chapter is about the divisive discourse and its impact on memory and attachment for communities who count upon a physical, emotional and spiritual attachment to the land
The development of resilient cropping systems with high yield stability is becoming increasingly important due to future climatic and agronomic challenges. Consequently, it is essential to compare the effects of different agronomic management practices, such as cropping sequences and nutrient supply, on the stability of crop yields. Long-term experiments are a valuable resource for investigating these effects, as they provide enough time to accurately estimate stability parameters. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of different cropping sequencing (#1: continuous v. rotational), fertilization (#2: mineral v. organic) and straw management techniques (in the case of continuous wheat; #3: removal v. incorporation) on the yield stability of winter wheat; yield risk (the probability of yield falling below a threshold yield level) and inter-annual yield variability were used as stability indicators of the effects. Long-term yield data from the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment (Rothamsted, UK) were analysed using a mixed model. Overall, the results showed that rotational cropping combined with sufficient mineral N fertilizer, with or without organic manure, ensured stable wheat yields while reducing yield risk. In contrast, higher yield risks and inter-annual yield variabilities were found in continuous wheat sections with less mineral N fertilizer or with organic manure only.
Travelling from Spanish to English to Urdu with its curlicue graces, that line waited to trip me up in my own language. I found it at a stall selling posters at a literary festival. It’s from Gabriel Garcia Marquez’ One Hundred Years of Solitude: A person does not belong to a place until someone beloved is buried there.