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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has become a hugely influential institution. It is the authoritative voice on the science on climate change, and an exemplar of an intergovernmental science-policy interface. This book introduces the IPCC as an institution, covering its origins, history, processes, participants, products, and influence. Discussing its internal workings and operating principles, it shows how IPCC assessments are produced and how consensus is reached between scientific and policy experts from different institutions, countries, and social groups. A variety of practices and discourses – epistemic, diplomatic, procedural, communicative – that make the institution function are critically assessed, allowing the reader to learn from its successes and failures. This volume is the go-to reference for researchers studying or active within the IPCC, as well as invaluable for students concerned with global environmental problems and climate governance. This title is also available as Open Access via Cambridge Core.
Introducing foundational concepts in infinite-dimensional differential geometry beyond Banach manifolds, this text is based on Bastiani calculus. It focuses on two main areas of infinite-dimensional geometry: infinite-dimensional Lie groups and weak Riemannian geometry, exploring their connections to manifolds of (smooth) mappings. Topics covered include diffeomorphism groups, loop groups and Riemannian metrics for shape analysis. Numerous examples highlight both surprising connections between finite- and infinite-dimensional geometry, and challenges occurring solely in infinite dimensions. The geometric techniques developed are then showcased in modern applications of geometry such as geometric hydrodynamics, higher geometry in the guise of Lie groupoids, and rough path theory. With plentiful exercises, some with solutions, and worked examples, this will be indispensable for graduate students and researchers working at the intersection of functional analysis, non-linear differential equations and differential geometry. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Carpe diem – 'eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die!' – is a prominent motif throughout ancient literature and beyond. This is the first book-length examination of its significance and demonstrates that close analysis can make a key contribution to a question that is central to literary studies in and beyond Classics: how can poetry give us the almost magical impression that something is happening here and now? In attempting an answer, Robert Rohland gives equal attention to Greek and Latin texts, as he offers new interpretations of well-known poems from Horace and tackles understudied epigrams. Pairing close readings of ancient texts along with interpretations of other forms of cultural production such as gems, cups, calendars, monuments, and Roman wine labels, this interdisciplinary study transforms our understanding of the motif of carpe diem.
For decades, a post-Cold War narrative heralded a 'new Arctic', with melting ice and snow and accessible resources that would build sustainable communities. Today, large parts of the Arctic are still trapped in the path dependencies of past resource extraction. At the same time, the impetus for green transitions and a 'new industrialism' spell opportunities to shift the development model and build new futures for Arctic residents and Indigenous peoples. This book examines the growing Arctic resource dilemma. It explores the 'new extractivist paradigm' that posits transitioning the region's long-standing role of delivering minerals, fossil energy, and marine resources to one providing rare earth elements, renewable power, wilderness tourism, and scientific knowledge about climate change. With chapters from a global, interdisciplinary team of researchers, new opportunities and their implications for Arctic communities and landscapes are discussed, alongside the pressures and uncertainties in a region under geopolitical and environmental stress.
In the past decade, artificial intelligence (AI) has become a disruptive force around the world, offering enormous potential for innovation but also creating hazards and risks for individuals and the societies in which they live. This volume addresses the most pressing philosophical, ethical, legal, and societal challenges posed by AI. Contributors from different disciplines and sectors explore the foundational and normative aspects of responsible AI and provide a basis for a transdisciplinary approach to responsible AI. This work, which is designed to foster future discussions to develop proportional approaches to AI governance, will enable scholars, scientists, and other actors to identify normative frameworks for AI to allow societies, states, and the international community to unlock the potential for responsible innovation in this critical field. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Healthcare policy frequently invokes notions of cultural change as a means of achieving improvement and good-quality care. This Element unpacks what is meant by organisational culture and explores the evidence for linking culture to healthcare quality and performance. It considers the origins of interest in managing culture within healthcare, conceptual frameworks for understanding culture change, and approaches and tools for measuring the impact of culture on quality and performance. It considers potential facilitators of successful culture change and looks forward towards an emerging research agenda. As the evidence base to support culture change is rather thin, a more realistic assessment of the task of cultural transformation in healthcare is warranted. Simplistic attempts to manage or engineer culture change from above are unlikely to bear fruit; rather, efforts should be sensitive to the complexity and highly stratified nature of culture in an organisation as vast and diffuse as the NHS. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Positive deviance is an asset-based improvement approach. At its core is the belief that solutions to problems already exist within communities, and that identifying, understanding, and sharing these solutions enables improvements at scale. Originating in the field of international public health in the 1960s, positive deviance is now, with some adaptations, seeing growing application in healthcare. We present examples of how positive deviance has been used to support healthcare improvement. We draw on an emerging view of safety, known as Safety II, to explain why positive deviance has drawn the interest of researchers and improvers alike. In doing so, we identify a set of fundamental values associated with the positive deviance approach and consider how far they align with current use. Throughout, we consider the untapped potential of the approach, reflect on its limitations, and offer insights into the possible challenges of using it in practice. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Suppose that you prefer A to B, B to C, and A to C. Your preferences violate Expected Utility Theory by being cyclic. Money-pump arguments offer a way to show that such violations are irrational. Suppose that you start with A. Then you should be willing to trade A for C and then C for B. But then, once you have C, you are offered a trade back to A for a small cost. Since you prefer A to C, you pay the small sum to trade from C to A. But now you have been turned into a money pump. You are back to the alternative you started with but with less money. This Element shows how each of the axioms of Expected Utility Theory can be defended by money-pump arguments of this kind. The Element also defends money-pump arguments from the standard objections to this kind of approach. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
This Element argues for a perspective on literary translation based around the idea of ludification, using concrete poetry as a test case. Unlike rational-scientific models of translating, ludic translation downplays the linear transmission of meaning from one language into another. It foregrounds instead the open-ended, ergodic nature of translation, where the translator engages with and responds to an original work in an experimental and experiential manner. Focusing on memes rather than signs, ludic translation challenges us to adopt an oblique lens on literary texts and deploy verbal as well as nonverbal resources to add value to an original work. Such an approach is especially amenable to negotiating apparently untranslatable writing like concrete poems across languages, modes, and media. This Element questions assumptions about translatability and opens the discursive space of literary writing to transgressive articulation and multimodal performance. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Increasing quantities of information about our health, bodies, and biological relationships are being generated by health technologies, research, and surveillance. This escalation presents challenges to us all when it comes to deciding how to manage this information and what should be disclosed to the very people it describes. This book establishes the ethical imperative to take seriously the potential impacts on our identities of encountering bioinformation about ourselves. Emily Postan argues that identity interests in accessing personal bioinformation are currently under-protected in law and often linked to problematic bio-essentialist assumptions. Drawing on a picture of identity constructed through embodied self-narratives, and examples of people's encounters with diverse kinds of information, Postan addresses these gaps. This book provides a robust account of the source, scope, and ethical significance of our identity-related interests in accessing – and not accessing – bioinformation about ourselves, and the need for disclosure practices to respond appropriately. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Digital media, including social media, has fundamentally changed how the human species communicates, relates, and influences one another. Adolescents use digital media extensively. Researchers, scholars, teachers, parents, and teens themselves have many questions about the effects of digital media on young people's psychological development. This handbook offers a comprehensive synthesis of scientific studies that explain what we know so far about digital media and its effects on youth mental health. With chapters from internationally renowned experts in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, media, and communications, the book offers a broad overview of the positive and negative implications of youths' engagement with digital media for brain development, relationships, identity exploration, daily behaviors, and psychological symptoms. Chapters include a discussion of the current state of knowledge, directions for future research, and practical suggestions for parents, educators, and teens themselves. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Written by an international team of over sixty experts and drawing on over three thousand scientific studies, this is the first comprehensive global assessment of the political impact of the Sustainable Development Goals, which were launched by the United Nations in 2015. It explores in detail the political steering effects of the Sustainable Development Goals on the UN system and the policies of countries in the Global North and Global South; on institutional integration and policy coherence; and on the ecological integrity and inclusiveness of sustainability policies worldwide. This book is a key resource for scholars, policymakers and activists concerned with the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, and those working in political science, international relations and environmental studies. It is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The first comprehensive analysis of the emergence of academic brands, this book explores how the modern university is being transformed in an increasingly global economy of higher education where luxury is replacing access. More than just a sign of corporatization and privatization, academic brands provide a unique window on the university's concerns and struggles with conveying 'excellence' and reputation in a competitive landscape organized by rankings, while also capitalizing on its brand to generate revenue when state support dwindles. This multidisciplinary volume addresses topics including the uniqueness of academic brands, their role in the global brand economy of distinction, and their vulnerability to problematic social and political associations. By focusing on brands, the volume analyzes the tensions between the university's traditional commitment to public interest values – education, research, and the production of knowledge – and its increasingly managerial culture framed by corporate, private values. Available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Intellectual property transactions underlie large segments of the global economy, from pharmaceuticals to computing, entertainment to digital content. This first-of-its-kind resource combines practical contract drafting and negotiation skills with substantive legal doctrine in the rapidly growing area of intellectual property transactions and licensing. Though primarily designed for classroom use, it is also a must-have legal reference work for every lawyer involved in the technology, biopharma, entertainment, media or financial services industries. It includes practical drafting models and explanations of key contractual provisions such as field of use, exclusivity, milestones, royalties, termination, indemnification and liability, and combines these with discussion of the latest cases interpreting these provisions. Numerous legal doctrines that affect the enforcement of IP agreements are also covered, including exhaustion, first sale, misuse, estoppel, antitrust and bankruptcy law, as well as chapters focusing on specialized fields such as trademark law, music licensing, technical standardization, and IP pooling. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Seneca's Characters addresses one of the most enduring and least theorised elements of literature: fictional character and its relationship to actual, human selfhood. Where does the boundary between character and person lie? While the characters we encounter in texts are obviously not 'real' people, they still possess person-like qualities that stimulate our attention and engagement. How is this relationship formulated in contexts of theatrical performance, where characters are set in motion by actual people, actual bodies and voices? This book addresses such questions by focusing on issues of coherence, imitation, appearance and autonomous action. It argues for the plays' sophisticated treatment of character, their acknowledgement of its purely fictional ontology alongside deep – and often dark – appreciation of its quasi-human qualities. Seneca's Characters offers a fresh perspective on the playwright's powerful tragic aesthetics that will stimulate scholars and students alike.
Shaped around the stories of one extended family, their friends, neighbours, and community, Pandemic Kinship provides an intimate portrait of everyday life in Botswana's time of AIDS. It challenges assumptions about a 'crisis of care' unfolding in the wake of the pandemic, showing that care - like other aspects of Tswana kinship - is routinely in crisis, and that the creative ways families navigate such crises make them kin. In Setswana, conflict and crisis are glossed as dikgang, and negotiating dikgang is an ethical practice that generates and reorients kin relations over time. Governmental and non-governmental organisations often misread the creativity of crisis, intervening in ways that may prove more harmful than the problems they set out to solve. Moving between family discussions, community events, and the daily work of orphan care projects and social work offices, Pandemic Kinship provides provocative insights into how we manage change in pandemic times.
Health services in most European countries were developed to meet the needs of demand-led health care. Although they still focus mostly on treatment, cure and care (Beaglehole & Dal Poz, 2003), the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, along with newly emerging communicable diseases and increasing antimicrobial resistance, create strong and shifting demands on these services. At the same time, the growing prevalence of multimorbidity and the widening health inequalities pose additional threats to health systems that do not give enough attention to the factors that produce health. To address these challenges, it is necessary to reorient health services towards more preventive, people-centred and community-based approaches, with a more prominent role for disease prevention and health promotion, integrated within the wider health system.