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Narrative Science examines the use of narrative in scientific research over the last two centuries. It brings together an international group of scholars who have engaged in intense collaboration to find and develop crucial cases of narrative in science. Motivated and coordinated by the Narrative Science project, funded by the European Research Council, this volume offers integrated and insightful essays examining cases that run the gamut from geology to psychology, chemistry, physics, botany, mathematics, epidemiology, and biological engineering. Taking in shipwrecks, human evolution, military intelligence, and mass extinctions, this landmark study revises our understanding of what science is, and the roles of narrative in scientists' work. This title is also available as Open Access.
In the mid-nineteenth century, thirty-six expeditions set out for the Northwest Passage in search of Sir John Franklin's missing expedition. The array of visual and textual material produced on these voyages was to have a profound impact on the idea of the Arctic in the Victorian imaginary. Eavan O'Dochartaigh closely examines neglected archival sources to show how pictures created in the Arctic fed into a metropolitan view transmitted through engravings, lithographs, and panoramas. Although the metropolitan Arctic revolved around a fulcrum of heroism, terror and the sublime, the visual culture of the ship reveals a more complicated narrative that included cross-dressing, theatricals, dressmaking, and dances with local communities. O'Dochartaigh's investigation into the nature of the on-board visual culture of the nineteenth-century Arctic presents a compelling challenge to the 'man-versus-nature' trope that still reverberates in polar imaginaries today. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
People have been digging in the ground for useful minerals for thousands of years. Mineral materials are the foundation of modern industrial society. As the global population grows and standards of living in emerging and developing countries rises, the demand for mineral products is increasing. Mining ensures that we have an adequate supply of the raw materials to produce all the components of modern life, and at competitive prices. Innovation is central to meeting the diverse challenges faced by the mining industry. It is critical for developing techniques for finding new deposits of minerals, enabling us to recover increasing amounts of minerals from the ground in a cost-effective manner, and ensuring it this is done in a way that is as environmentally responsible. This book provides the first in-depth global analysis of the innovation ecosystem in the mining sector. This book is Open Access.
Based on an interdisciplinary investigation of future visions, scenarios, and case-studies of low carbon innovation taking place across economic domains, Decarbonising Economies analyses the ways in which questions of agency, power, geography and materiality shape the conditions of possibility for a low carbon future. It explores how and why the challenge of changing our economies are variously ascribed to a lack of finance, a lack of technology, a lack of policy and a lack of public engagement, and shows how the realities constraining change are more fundamentally tied to the inertia of our existing high carbon society and limited visions for what a future low carbon world might become. Through showcasing the first seeds of innovation seeking to enable transformative change, Decarbonising Economies will also chart a course for future research and policy action towards our climate goals. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
This chapter discusses key questions to provide a foundation for understanding why quantum computers are different from classical computation: What is computation? How is computation different from calculation? What kinds of tasks can computers perform? What is complexity theory? This chapter discusses the early design and government patronage of computing. Critically, this chapter dispels the commonly-held belief that quantum computers have magical, universal powers to solve problems.
In this chapter we present our recommendations for how the policy landscape in the U.S. and other liberal democracies should respond to the opportunities and challenges brought on by quantum information science. These recommendations are informed by the four scenarios of quantum futures combined with the understanding of technology capabilities we discussed in Part I. We begin this chapter by putting our cards on the table and presenting our policy goals. We then explore how to achieve these goals using traditional policy levers: direct investments, education, and law. We conclude with a discussion of national security issues.
Introduces and outlines The Quantum Age: what are quantum technologies and what are the reasons why different institutions are interested in them now. The introduction discusses scenario analysis, likely scenarios for quantum technology deployment, and the high-level policy implications raised by them.
Presents the approaches to building a quantum computer, the different substrates being used to build a scalable quantum computer, the profound challenges in doing so, and finally, an outlook on how the scientific challenges and economic incentives will shape quantum computing projects.
The history of Quantum Computing and Quantum Cryptography starts with a friendship between Charles Bennett and Stephen Wiesner, two undergraduates at Brandeis University who toyed with ideas for sending information using quantum entanglement, and John Conway's Game of Life, which stimulated interest in cellular automata at MIT in the 1970s and started a generation of computer scientists wondering if the universe might be some massive computer running a simulation of reality. In 1974 MIT professor Ed Fredkin spent his yearlong sabbatical at Caltech, where he learned quantum physics from Richard Feynman while he taught Feynman about computer science. Returning to MIT, Fredkin's ideas developed into the philosophy of digital physics, which blossomed into the 1981 Conference on Physics and Computation at MIT. Feynman's keynote at the conference described how a computer based on quantum mechanics principles could compute physics simulations much faster than today's classical compu
This appendix explains quantum effects: uncertainty, entanglement, and superposition; and explains how these effects form the basis of quantum sensing, computing and communication. This appendix summarizes the history and debates of wave mechanics, which was developed at the start of the Twentieth Century. Examples are given of macro-level quantum effects that the reader can observe in an attempt to start building an intuitive sense of quantum effects. These macro-level quantum phenomena are the dual-slit experiment, black-body radiation, and the characteristics of polarized light. Much attention is given to the characteristics of light, both because light provides examples of quantum effects but also because photonic emitters and sensors play a key role in quantum sensing, computing, and communication.
Quantum sensing, computing, and communication offer some significant improvements on classical technologies, in some cases create fundamentally new capabilities. Quantum technologies are quickly arriving. Even if the most hyped promises in quantum computing are not realized in the next decade, in the near term quantum sensing could shift relationships irrevocably. This book has painted the landscape of quantum's implications---from nation-state concerns of strategic conflict, intelligence gathering, and law enforcement activities; to the concerns of companies that may be subject to industrial policy priorities and restrictions; to the level of the individual who may face institutions with great asymmetries in sensing and sense-making power. This chapter concludes with a forecast of quantum technology scenarios, with forecasts for each quantum technology analyzed in this book, and with a summary of the most important policy issues to pursue.