Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: September 2017

12 - Playing the System: The Impacts of Invasive Ants and Plants on Facultative Ant-Plant Interactions

from Part IV - Effect of Invasive Ants on Plants and Their Mutualists
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Ant-Plant Interactions
  • Online ISBN: 9781316671825
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Ackerman, J. D., Falcon, W., Molinari, J., Vega, C., Espino, I., & Cuevas, A. A. (2014). Biotic resistance and invasional meltdown: consequences of acquired interspecific interactions for an invasive orchid, Spathoglottis plicata in Puerto Rico. Biological Invasions, 16, 24352447.
Addison, P., & Samways, M. J. (2000). A survey of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) that forage in vineyards in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. African Entomology, 8, 251260.
Allen, C., Forys, E., Rice, K., & Wojcik, D. (2001). Effects of fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on hatching turtles and prevalence of fire ants on sea turtle nesting beaches in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 84, 250253.
Baker, H. G., Opler, P. A., & Baker, I. (1978). A comparison of the amino acid complements of floral and extrafloral nectars. Botanical Gazette, 139, 322332.
Barrios, B., Arellano, G., & Koptur, S. (2011). The effects of fire and fragmentation on occurrence and flowering of a rare perennial plant. Plant Ecology, 212, 10571067.
Becerra, J. X. I., & Venable, D. L. (1989). Extrafloral nectaries a defense against ant-homoptera mutualism. Oikos, 55, 276280.
Bentley, B. L. (1977a). Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 88, 407427.
Bentley, B. L. (1977b). The protective function of ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae). Journal of Ecology, 65, 2738.
Billick, I., & Price, M. V. (eds.). (2010). The Ecology of Place: Contributions of Place-Based Research to Ecological Understanding. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bleil, R., Blüthgen, N., & Junker, R. R. (2011). Ant-plant mutualism in Hawaii? Invasive ants reduce flower parasitism but also exploit floral nectar of the endemic shrub Vaccinium reticulatum (Ericaceae). Pacific Science, 65, 291300.
Blossey, B., & Notzold, R. (1995). Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive nonindigenous plants: a hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 83, 887889.
Carrillo, J., Wang, Y., Ding, J., Klootwyk, K., & Siemann, E. (2012a). Decreased indirect defense in the invasive tree, Triadica sebifera. Plant Ecology, 213, 945954.
Carrillo, J., Wang, Y., Ding, J., & Siemann, E. (2012b). Induction of extrafloral nectar depends on herbivore type in invasive and native Chinese tallow seedlings. Basic and Applied Ecology, 13, 449457.
Dattilo, W., Rico-Gray, V., Rodrigues, D. J., & Izzo, T. J. (2013). Soil and vegetation features determine the nested pattern of ant–plant networks in a tropical rainforest. Ecological Entomology, 38(4), 374380.
Davidson, D. W. (1998). Resource discovery versus resource domination in ants: a functional mechanism for breaking the trade-off. Ecological Entomology, 23, 484490.
de la Fuente, M. A. S., & Marquis, R. J. (1999). The role of ant-tended extrafloral nectaries in the protection and benefit of a neotropical rainforest tree. Oecologia, 118, 192202.
Diaz-Castelazo, C., Guimarães, P. R., Jordano, P., Thompson, J. N., Marquis, R. J., & Rico-Gray, V. (2010). Changes of a mutualistic network over time: reanalysis over a 10-year period. Ecology, 91, 793801.
Dormann, C. F., Frund, J., Blüthgen, N., & Gruber, B. (2009). Indices, graphs, and null models: analyzing bipartite ecological networks. The Open Ecology Journal, 2, 724.
Eubanks, M. D. (2001). Estimates of the direct and indirect effects of red imported fire ants on biological control in field crops. Biological Control, 21, 3543.
Fleet, R. R., & Young, B. L. (2000). Facultative mutualism between imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and a legume (Senna occidentalis). Southwestern Naturalist, 45, 289298.
Gonzalez-Teuber, M., & Heil, M. (2009). The role of extrafloral nectar amino acids for the preferences of facultative and obligate ant mutualists. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 35, 459468.
Gotelli, N. J., & Arnett, A. E. (2000). Biogeographic effects of red fire ant invasion. Ecological Letters, 3, 257261.
Green, P. T., O’Dowd, D. J., & Lake, P. S. (1999). Alien ant invasion and ecosystem collapse on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Aliens, 9, 24.
Guimarães, P. R., & Guimarães, P. (2006). Improving the analyses of nestedness for large sets of matrices. Environmental Modelling and Software, 21, 15121513.
Guimarães, P. R., Rico-Gray, V., dos Reis, S. F., & Thompson, J. N. (2006). Asymmetries in specialization in ant-plant mutualistic networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 273, 20412047.
Guimarães, P. R., Rico-Gray, V., Oliveira, P. S., Izzo, T. J., dos Reis, S. F., & Thompson, J. N. (2007). Interaction intimacy affects structure and coevolutionary dynamics in mutualistic networks. Current Biology, 17(20), 17971803.
Haddad, N. M., Bowne, D. R., Cunningham, A., Danielson, B. J., Levey, D. J., Sargent, S., & Spira, T. (2003). Corridor use by diverse taxa. Ecology, 84, 609615.
Heil, M. (2011). Nectar: generation, regulation and ecological functions. Trends in Plant Science, 16, 191200.
Heil, M. (2015). Extrafloral nectar at the plant-insect interface: a spotlight on chemical ecology, phenotypic plasticity, and food webs. Annual Review of Entomology, 60, 213232.
Heil, M., Koch, T., Hilpert, A., Fiala, B., Boland, W., & Linsenmair, K. E. (2001). Extrafloral nectar production of the ant-associated plant, Macaranga tanarius, is an induced, indirect, defensive response elicited by jasmonic acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 10831088.
Holway, D. A., Lach, L., Suarez, A. V., Tsutsui, N. D., & Case, T. J. (2002). The causes and consequences of ant invasions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 181233.
Horvitz, C. C., & Schemske, D. W. (1984). Effects of ants and an ant-tended herbivore on seed production of a neotropical herb. Ecology, 65, 13691378.
Inouye, D. W., & Taylor, O. R. (1979). A temperate region plant-ant-seed predator system: consequences of extrafloral nectar secretion by Helianthella quinquenervis. Ecology, 60, 18.
Ivens, A. B. F., Beeren, C. V., Blüthgen, N., & Kronauer, D. J. C. (2016). Studying the complex communities of ants and their symbionts using ecological network analysis. Annual Review of Entomology, 61, 353371.
Janzen, D. H. (1966). Coevolution between ants and acacias in Central America. Evolution, 20, 249275.
Jezorek, H., Stiling, P., & Carpenter, J. (2011). Ant predation on an invasive herbivore: can an extrafloral nectar-producing plant provide associational resistance to Opuntia individuals? Biological Invasions, 13, 22612273.
Jones, I. M., Koptur, S., Gallegos, H. R., Tardanico, J. P, Trainer, P. A., & Peña, J. (2016). Changing light conditions in pine rockland habitats affect the intensity and outcome of ant-plant interactions. Biotropica, 49, 8391.
Junker, R. R., Daehler, C. C., Doetterl, S., Keller, A., & Blüthgen, N. (2011). Hawaiian ant-flower networks: nectar-thieving ants prefer undefended native over introduced plants with floral defenses. Ecological Monographs, 81, 295311.
Kaakeh, W., & Dutcher, J. D. (1992). Foraging preference of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) among three species of summer cover crops and their extracts. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85, 389394.
Kautz, S., Lumbsch, H. T., Ward, P. S., & Heil, M. (2009). How to prevent cheating: a digestive specialization ties mutualistic plant-ants to their ant-plant partners. Evolution, 6, 839853.
Keeler, K. H. (1985). Extrafloral nectaries on plants in communities without ants: Hawaii. Oikos, 44, 407414.
Koi, S., & Daniel, J. (2015). New and revised life history of the Florida hairstreak Eumaeus atala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with notes on its current conservation status. Florida Entomologist, 98(4), 11341147.
Koptur, S. (1979). Facultative mutualism between weedy vetches bearing extrafloral nectaries and weedy ants in California. American Journal of Botany, 66, 10161020.
Koptur, S. (1984). Experimental evidence for defense of Inga (Mimosoideae) saplings by ants. Ecology, 65, 17871793.
Koptur, S. (1992). Plants with extrafloral nectaries and ants in Everglades habitats. The Florida Entomologist, 75(1), 3850.
Koptur, S., Jones, I. M., & Peña, J. E. (2015). The influence of host plant extrafloral nectaries on multitrophic interactions: An experimental investigation. PLOSone, 10(9), e0138157.
Koptur, S., & Lawton, J.H. (1988). Interactions among vetches bearing extrafloral nectaries, their biotic protective agents, and herbivores. Ecology, 69, 278293.
Krushelnycky, P. D., Loope, L. L., & Reimer, N. J. (2005). The ecology, policy, and management of ants in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 37, 125.
Lach, L. (2003). Invasive ants: unwanted partners in ant-plant interactions? Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 90, 91108.
Lach, L. (2007). A mutualism with a native membracid facilitates pollinator displacement by Argentine ants. Ecology, 88, 19942004.
Lach, L., & Hoffmann, B. D. (2011). Are invasive ants better plant-defense mutualists? A comparison of foliage patrolling and herbivory in sites with invasive yellow crazy ants and native weaver ants. Oikos, 120, 916.
Lach, L., Tillberg, C. V., & Suarez, A. V. (2010). Contrasting effects of an invasive ant on a native and an invasive plant. Biological Invasions, 12, 31233133.
Lewinsohn, T. M., & Inacio Prado, P. (2006). Structure in plant/animal interaction assemblages. Oikos, 113(1), 174184.
Lubin, Y. D. (1984). Changes in the native fauna of the Galapagos Islands following invasions by the little red fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 21, 229242.
Marazzi, B., Conti, E., Sanderson, M. J., McMahon, M. M., & Bronstein, J. L. (2013). Diversity and evolution of a trait mediating ant-plant interactions: Insights from extrafloral nectaries in Senna (Leguminosae). Annals of Botany, 111, 12631275.
Maschinski, J., & Wright, S. (2006). Using ecological theory to plan restorations of the endangered Beach jacquemontia (Convolvulaceae) in fragmented habitats. Journal for Nature Conservation, 14, 180189.
Mathew, G., & Anto, M. (2007). In situ conservation of butterflies through establishment of butterfly gardens: A case study at Peechi, Kerala, India. Current Science, 93(3), 337347.
McLain, D. K. (1983). Ants, extrafloral nectaries, and herbivory on the passion vine Passiflora incarnata. American Midland Naturalist, 110, 433439.
Minno, M., & Minno, M. (1999). Florida Butterfly Gardening: A Complete Guide to Attracting, Identifying, and Enjoying Butterflies. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.
Ness, J. H. (2003). Contrasting exotic Solenopsis invicta and native Forelius pruinosus ants as mutualists with Catalpa bignonioides, a native plant. Ecological Entomology, 28, 247251.
Ness, J. H., & Bronstein, I. L. (2004). The effects of invasive ants on prospective ant mutualists. Biological Invasions, 6, 445461.
Ness, J. H., Morris, W. F., & Bronstein, J. L. (2006). Integrating quality and quantity of mutualistic service to contrast ant species protecting Ferocactus wislizeni. Ecology, 87, 912921.
Oliveira, P. S., Rico-Gray, V., Diaz-Castelazo, C., & Castillo-Guevara, C. (1999). Interactions between ants, extrafloral nectaries, and insect herbivores in Neotropical sand dunes: herbivore deterrence by visiting ants increases fruit set in Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae). Functional Ecology, 13, 623631.
Rios, R. S., Marquis, R. J., & Flunker, J. C. (2008). Population variation in plant traits associated with ant attraction and herbivory in Chamaecrista fasciculata (Fabaceae). Oecologia, 156(3), 577588.
Rosumek, F. B., Silveira, F. A. O., Neves, F. d. S., Barbosa, N. P. d. U., Diniz, L., Oki, Y., Pezzini, F., Fernandes, G. W., & Cornelissen, T. (2009). Ants on plants: a meta-analysis of the role of ants as plant biotic defenses. Oecologia, 160, 537549.
Savage, A. M., Rudgers, J. A., & Whitney, K. D. (2009). Elevated dominance of extrafloral nectary-bearing plants is associated with increased abundances of an invasive ant and reduced native ant richness. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 751761.
Savage, A. M., & Whitney, K.D. (2011). Trait-mediated indirect interactions in invasions: unique behavioral responses of an invasive ant to plant nectar. Ecosphere, 2, 106.
Sendoya, S. F., Blüthgen, N., Tamashiro, J. Y., Fernandez, F., & Oliveira, P. S. (2016). Foliage-dwelling ants in a neotropical savanna: effects of plant and insect exudates on ant communities. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 10, 183195.
Soberon Mainero, J., & Martinez del Rio, C. (1985). Cheating and taking advantage in mutualistic associations. In The Biology of Mutualism, ed. Boucher, D. A.. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 192216.
Torres-Hernandez, L., Rico-Gray, V., Castillo-Guevara, C., & Vergara, J. A. (2000). Effect of nectar-foraging ants and wasps on the reproductive fitness of Turnera ulmifolia (Turneraceae) in a coastal sand dune in Mexico. Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 81, 1321.
Wagner, D., & Kay, A. (2002). Do extrafloral nectaries distract ants from visiting flowers? An experimental test of an overlooked hypothesis. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 4, 293305.
Warren, A. D., & Calhoun, J. V. (2011). Notes on the historical occurrence of Aphrissa neleis in Southern Florida, USA (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Coliadinae). News of the Lepidopterists’ Society, 53(1), 37.
Weber, M. G., & Keeler, K. H. (2013). The phylogenetic distribution of extrafloral nectaries in plants. Annals of Botany, 111(6), 12511261.
Wetterer, J. K. (2010). Worldwide spread of the graceful twig ant, Pseudomyrmex gracilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist, 93, 535540.
Whitcomb, W. H., Denmark, H. A., Buren, W. F., & Carroll, J. F. (1972). Habits and present distribution in Florida of the exotic ant, Pseudomyrmex mexicanus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist, 55, 3133.
Wild Ones® Natural Landscapers Ltd. (2004). Wild Ones: Native Plants, Natural Landscapes – Landscaping with Native Plants, 4th edition. Downloaded from US Environmental Protection Agency website (
Wilder, S. M., Holway, D. A., Suarez, A. V., LeBrun, E. G., & Eubanks, M. D. (2011). Intercontinental differences in resource use reveal the importance of mutualisms in fire ant invasions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108, 2063920644.
Xu, F. F., & Chen, J. (2009). Comparison of the differences in response to the change of the extrafloral nectar-ant–herbivore interaction system between a native and an introduced Passiflora species. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 31, 543550.
Zettler, J. A., Taylor, M. D., Allen, C. R., & Spira, T. P. (2004). Consequences of forest clear-cuts for native and non-indigenous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97, 513518.
Zimmerman, E. C. (1970). Adaptive radiation in Hawaii with special reference to insects. Biotropica, 2, 3238.