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The Cambridge History of Islam

Book description

First published in 1970, The Cambridge History of Islam is the most comprehensive and ambitious collaborative survey of Islamic history and civilization yet to appear in English. On publication it was welcomed as a work useful both for reference and reading, for the general reader, student and specialist alike. It has now been reprinted, with corrections, and for ease of handling the original two hardcover volumes have each been divided into two separate paperbacks.


‘ … undoubtedly a very valuable and very much needed contribution to the field of Islamic studies. It is a thoroughly scholarly and often erudite presentation of the entire Muslim world that will be consulted by the specialist and non-specialist for many years to come.’

Source: The Middle East Journal

‘On the basis of length and scope, the History is the most comprehensive, and at the same time the most detailed study of Islam so far attempted, and … it is likely to remain so for at least another generation.’

Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society

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    pp 1-34
  • View abstract
    Mahmūd's successor, Mas‘ūd, maintained control over Lahore, and when he heard that its governor Ahmad Niyaltigin had rebellious intentions he sent a Hindu general, Tilak, against him. The Ghaznavid monarch Bahrām came into conflict with the rulers of Ghūr. A struggle between the powerful slaves and generals of Mu‘izz al-Dīn Muhammad was inevitable, and Iletmish had first to deal with his rivals. The Khaljīs were Turks by origin, but had resided in Afghanistan so long that they were no longer regarded as Turks. The Sharqī dynasty of Jawnpur was established by Malik Sarwar, who was given the titles of Khwāja Jahān and Malik al-Sharq, and appointed governor of the eastern provinces by Nāsir al-Dīn Mahmūd, whom Sarwar had put on the throne of Delhi. Islam was introduced into Kashmir by Shāh, Mīr of Swāt in 713 /1313. The sultans of Delhi adhered to the legal conception of the position of the sultan which was common throughout the Muslim world.
    pp 35-63
  • View abstract
    The rise of the Özbegs and the Safavids affected Bābur's career deeply. The Özbegs were able to extinguish the power of the Timurids because they proved incapable of serious and joint effort. Humāyūn, succeeded to the throne without any trouble, but later his younger brothers, Kāmrān, ‘Askarī and Hindāl created difficulties. Shēr Shāh was a good general and a great strategist, as the way he trapped and defeated Humāyūn shows. Akbar's strictness in the enforcement of regulations regarding the maintenance of troops by local officers resulted in a rebellion in the eastern provinces. The Mughal emperors claimed to be fully independent monarchs, and to be caliphs within their dominions. After the abolition of the 'Abbasid caliphate in Baghdād, some jurists had already come to believe that a universal caliphate was no longer necessary, and that every independent monarch should discharge the duties of a caliph inside his realm.
    pp 67-96
  • View abstract
    By the beginning of the eighteenth century, Muslim society in India was composed of descendants of Turkic, Afghan, Persian and Arab immigrants, and of Indian Muslims who had embraced Islam in different regions and circumstances, and under varied pressures. The system of state employment evolved by Akbar, known as the mansabdārī system, absorbed all types of landed interests such as Rajputs, Marathas and the Muslim tribes and ethnic groups, into the same graded hierarchy, with definite salaries either in the form of a jāgīr or partly in cash and partly in jāgīr, for each mansab and for the number of horsemen maintained. The traditional seminaries of Delhi or the curriculum of the oriental learning evolved at Lucknow in the eleventh/seventeenth century, produced some eminent scholars in several branches of the traditional learning, and regional literatures were also greatly enriched. The most formidable resistance to British imperialistic designs was made by the Marathas and the court of Mysore.
    pp 97-120
  • View abstract
    After the First World War, Muslim India was involved in a mass political convulsion of a composite nature. The Muslim League, which, despite its alliance with Congress, had followed a policy of caution when it came to open defiance of British rule in India, receded into the background. The Government of India Act of 1919, had introduced some political reforms, modelled to some extent on the Congress-League 'Lucknow Pact' of 1916, had not come up to Indian expectations of a greater share in government and administration. During the crucial years between 1937 and 1939 the Indian Muslims in several provinces became for the first time familiar with the implications of the transfer of power from British hands into those of Congress, which had a predominantly Hindu membership. The partition of the sub-continent into the successor-states of India and Pakistan was confined specifically to British India.
    pp 121-154
  • View abstract
    The importance of the role of the trader, especially in the early years, arose naturally from the situation of Malaya and the Archipelago along the main trade-route between western Asia and the Far East and the spice islands of the Moluccas. North Sumatra, where the trade-route from India and the West reaches the Archipelago, was where Islam first obtained a firm footing. Malacca, the main trading centre of the area in the ninth/ fifteenth century, was the great stronghold of the faith, from which it was disseminated along the trade-routes, north-east to Brunei and Sulu, south-east to the north Java ports and the Moluccas. The kingdom of Samudra, before long to be known as Pasai, grew into an important state which was to have a powerful Muslim influence on its surroundings. From North Sumatra, Islam spread along the trade route to Malacca. In general, West Javanese Islam has a more orthodox character than elsewhere in Java.
    pp 155-181
  • View abstract
    The eighteenth century in central Java had been marked by an efflorescence of specifically Javanese culture, and of Javanism, prompted in part, it has been suggested, by the severance of Mataram from the coast and from the vitalizing trade contacts which had helped to bring and sustain Islam. The direct and forceful entry of the Dutch on the side of the priyayi, the increasing islamization of the peasantry, and the growth during the century of new, and especially urban, groups with interests served by a more individualistic Islamic ethic, served only to strengthen and deepen the tendencies. Elsewhere in South-East Asia, Islamic communities were left much more to themselves in the early nineteenth century than in Java. During the second half of the nineteenth century, Islamic South-East Asia underwent a religious revival, perhaps more properly an intensification of religious life, of large proportions.
    pp 182-208
  • View abstract
    The nineteenth century had witnessed repeated and powerful commotion among the major Muslim communities in island South East Asia, especially in the Netherlands possessions. Of more far-reaching importance to the Islamic renaissance was Muslim reformism and modernism, emanating from Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh in Egypt at the close of the nineteenth century. On the religious plane, reformism's broad attack on traditional South-East Asian Islam posed a threat to old-fashioned ulamāʾ and their practices. In the early years of the twentieth century, reformism rapidly spread to most parts of the Archipelago. The slow modernization of Malaya under both British and Japanese rule and the country's peculiar ethnic composition were together responsible for the limited role Islam was to play in post-war Malayan history. The Japanese envisaged the permanent incorporation of both Indonesia and Malaya, as vital raw-material suppliers in the Co-Prosperity Sphere.
    pp 209-237
  • View abstract
    The spearhead of the Byzantine army in Africa was destroyed at the battle of Sbeitla, and was never formed again, for Africa was very far from Byzantium and the rulers there had seceded just before the Muslims overran it. The revolt began at Tangier under the leadership of a man of the people called Maysara, and from there it spread throughout North Africa like a train of gunpowder. The Umayyads sent reinforcements, but they were submerged by the Berber flood, and sought for help from the Umayyad governor of Spain. During the third/ninth century, the Arabo-Islamic Maghrib took shape and gave birth to an original type of civilization which still remains alive. From the beginning of the fourth/tenth century, the Maghrib suffered serious upheavals which were to continue almost without ceasing until the middle of the fifth/eleventh century. They began with the installation in Ifrīqiya of the Fatimid dynasty.
    pp 238-265
  • View abstract
    Before the end of the ninth/fifteenth century, the three great dynasties then in power in North Africa, the Marinids in Morocco, the 'Abd al-Wadids in the central Maghrib and the Hafsids in Ifriqiya, were either being displaced by a new dynasty or suffered the decline of their authority and the dividing up of their lands; so that at the beginning of the tenth/sixteenth century the Maghrib was in complete political decay. At the end of the ninth/fifteenth century in Ifrlqiya the Hafsid rulers were no longer able to impose their authority either in Ifriqiya proper or in eastern Algeria: with the exception of Tunis and its immediate suburbs, all their territory lay open to the nomadic Arab tribes who levied tribute on the coastal and inland towns. In Algeria, the 'Abd al-Wadids had lost control over the central Maghrib, and could exercise their authority only over Tlemcen and the western part of the country.
    pp 266-298
  • View abstract
    In the last years of the eleventh/seventeenth and the first years of the twelfth/eighteenth century, the three countries of the Maghrib began almost simultaneously a new phase in their history. The history of Morocco in the nineteenth century was dominated by the phenomenon of European penetration, the effects of which were felt in all aspects of the country's life. In the last years of the eighteenth century, however, the stability of Algeria came to an end, and the Regency went through a new period of crisis shortly before its encounter with France. The Turks had founded the territorial framework of Algeria, but it was French colonization, established on the ruins of Ottoman domination, which was, through the country's reaction, to form the Algerian nation. In 1807 Tunisia put an end to half a century of Algerian domination. Relations with a rapidly developing Europe were undergoing a marked change.
  • 4 - North Africa in the period of colonization
    pp 299-326
  • View abstract
    The occupation of Algiers led at first to the conquest of Algeria and then to that of the whole of the Maghrib by the French; the conquest was limited until 1834 to a few points on the coast but progressively extended towards the interior in spite of some spectacular reverses. The colonists and the European civilians had imposed on the Algerians a humiliating political situation. The effects of the conquest were twofold. In the first place the war produced destruction and losses in men and in money. In the second place, the armies were followed by colonization, which produced major changes in the economic life of the country. Colonization upset the traditional economy. The conquest altered the administrative organization of Algeria from top to bottom, especially after 1834. The French administration acted exactly as if it believed that the population of Algeria consisted only of an agglomeration of individuals without any common link or any social organization.
    pp 327-344
  • View abstract
    The Christian kingdom of Nubia, known to the medieval Arabic writers as al-Muqurra, at first opposed effective resistance to the Muslim Arab conquerors of Egypt on far from unequal terms. The fall of Suba represents the final break-through of the nomad Arabs into the grasslands of the Nilotic Sudan. The remote and self-contained life of the Nilotic Sudan was brusquely affected by the expedition sent by Muhammad ‘Alī Pasha. The Mahdia began as a religious movement for the revival of Islam, primarily in the Sudan, but with universal implications; it developed into a theocratic polity, and this in turn was transformed into a territorial Islamic state. The Mahdi aimed to restore the primitive Islamic Umma, and to end the innovations and tyranny of the Turco- Egyptian regime. The golden age of paternalism ended after the First World War. As militant nationalism grew in Egypt, the Condominium in the Sudan was called into question.
    pp 345-405
  • View abstract
    The Sudan has been the principal theatre for African Islamic history below the northern coast. Islam south of the Sahara has followed a threefold development: first, as represented by foreign Muslim residents; second, commanding some local support but forced to compromise with local custom; and third, able to impose reform at will. The eleventh/seventeenth and twelfth/eighteenth centuries were a period of decline. Hausa dominated the Saharan trade. Tuareg pressure increased. The Jukun raided from the south: there are many Jukun stories of Jukun magic pitted against Bornu Islam, the honours always equally divided. European colonialists relied extensively on the direct employment of the most educated and experienced African groups. The colonial troops of all European powers in Africa were often Muslim. Muslim separatism in Africa is an attempt to maintain a balanced relationship between the faith and the practical circumstances in which the faith exists.
    pp 406-439
  • View abstract
    The weakness of the Visigothic monarchy and the apathy of the oppressed Hispano-Roman population offered an easy prey to the Arabs recently established on the other shore of the Straits of Gibraltar. The spectacular collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate in Syria, and the accession of the 'Abbasid dynasty, loosed the bonds which linked Andalus to Damascus through frequently dismissed governors. The Umayyad state witnessed a great development of scientific culture, under the influence of the Orient and the personal effort of the heir apparent, al-Hākam. The high cultural level attained by the Spanish Muslims during the Umayyad Caliphate, in the confused days of the fitna, and the formation of the Party Kingdoms, finds its outstanding exponent in Ibn Hayyān in history, and in Ibn Ḥazm in literature and philosophy. The Catholic Kings made a solemn entry into Granada putting an end to the Muslim domination in the Iberian peninsula which had lasted for 780 years.
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