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The Crisis of German Historicism
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Book description

Hannah Arendt and Leo Strauss - two major political thinkers of the twentieth century, both of German-Jewish background and forced into exile in America - were never friends or intellectual interlocutors. Yet they shared a radical critique of contemporary idioms of politically oriented discourses and a lifelong effort to modify reflective approaches to political experience. Liisi Keedus reveals how Arendt's and Strauss's thinking about political modernity was the product of a common intellectual formation in Weimar Germany, by examining the cross-disciplinary debates guiding their early work. Through a historical reconstruction of their shared interrogative horizons - comprising questions regarding the possibility of an ethically engaged political philosophy after two world wars, the political fate of Jewry, the implications of modern conceptions of freedom, and the relation between theoria and praxis - Keedus unravels striking similarities, as well as genuine antagonisms, between the two thinkers.


'This insightful and well-researched book reads like a thriller. True to its title, the book covers the responses of Arendt and Strauss to the German historical school and to the historicized philosophy of the Weimar years. It also deals with the situation that Arendt and Strauss faced as Jews in Germany during those years. But the book is not limited to these topics nor is it limited to the early years of Arendt and Strauss … Highly recommended. General readers, upper-division undergraduate students, and above.'

Source: Choice

'There is much from which one can learn in this book. Keedus has read broadly in the intellectual and political debates in Germany in the early twentieth century. Learning about the contemporary cultural impact of a Friedrich Gogarten or a Karl Barth is interesting in its own right, and the sense of cultural crisis associated with such thinkers is relevant to the political philosophies later articulated by Arendt and Strauss … Keedus’s book offers the paradox of a historicist treatment of thinkers who (as her own argument highlights) rebelled against historicism.'

Ronald Beiner Source: The Review of Politics

'I believe the great merit of the book consists in broadening the scope of themes and authors to which and whom Strauss and Arendt have related and in introducing much new source material.'

Wout Cornelissen Source: History of Political Thought

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The titles are given in the language of original publication.1

1 Here I only list the bibliography and sources relevant for this study. A more comprehensive bibliography has been composed by Heinrich Meier and can be consulted on the Leo Strauss Center website:



  • Die Religionskritik Spinozas als Grundlage seiner Bibelwissenschaft: Untersuchungen zu Spinozas Theologisch-politischem Traktat, Berlin, Akademie-Verlag. English translation: Spinoza’s Critique of Religion, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.


  • Philosophie und Gesetz: Beiträge zum Verständnis Maimunis und seiner Vorlaüfer, Berlin, Schocken Verlag. English translation: Philosophy and Law: Contributions to the Understanding of Maimonides and His Predecessors, Albany: SUNY Press, 1995.


  • The Political Philosophy of Hobbes: Its Basis and Genesis, Oxford, Clarendon Press.


  • On Tyranny: An Interpretation of Xenophon’s Hiero, New York, Political Science Classics.


  • Persecution and the Art of Writing, Glencoe, IL, The Free Press.


  • Natural Right and History, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.


  • Thoughts on Machiavelli, Glencoe, IL, Free Press.


  • What Is Political Philosophy?, Glencoe, IL, Free Press.


  • History of Political Philosophy, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. (Editor with Joseph Cropsey.)


  • The City and Man, Chicago, Rand McNally.


  • Socrates and Aristophanes, New York, Basic Books.


  • Liberalism Ancient and Modern, New York, Basic Books.


  • Xenophon’s Socratic Discourse: An Interpretation of the Oeconomicus, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.


  • Xenophon’s Socrates, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1972



  • The Argument and the Action of Plato’s Laws, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.


  • An Introduction to Political Philosophy: Ten Essays by Leo Strauss, collected and edited with an Introduction by Hilail Gildin. Detroit, MI, Wayne State University Press.

  • The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism: An Introduction to the Thought of Leo Strauss. Selected and introduced by Thomas L. Pangle, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

1996/1997 – 2001

  • Gesammelte Schriften (GS), Vol. 1 (Die Religionskritik Spinozas und zugehörige Schriften), Vol. 2 (Philosophie und Gesetz – Frühe Schriften), and Vol. 3 (Hobbes’ politische Wissenschaft und zugehörige Schrifte – Briefe), edited by Heinrich Meier, Stuttgart/Weimar, J. B. Metzler Verlag.


  • Jewish Philosophy and the Crisis of Modernity: Essays and lectures in Modern Jewish Thought by Leo Strauss, edited by Kenneth Hart Green, Albany, State University of New York Press.



  • “Das Erkentnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. H. Jacobis.” Unpublished thesis, published in GS.


  • “Anmerkung zur Diskussion über ‘Zionismus und Antisemitismus,” Jüdische Rundschau 28, No. 83/84, 501. English translation by Michael Zank in Leo Strauss: Early Writings, 1923–1932, State University of New York Press (henceforth I mark the translated articles by EW).

  • “Antwort auf das prinzipielle Wort der Frankfurter,” Jüdische Rundschau 28, No. 9, 45. EW.

  • “Das Heilige,” Der Jude 7, 240–242. EW.

  • “Der Zionismus bei Max Nordau,” Der Jude 7, 657–660. EW.


  • “Cohens Analyse der Bibel-Wissenschaft Spinozas,” Der Jude 8, 295–314. EW.

  • “Paul de Lagarde,” Der Jude 8, 8–15. EW.

  • “Religionsphilosophie: Zur Auseinandersetzung mit der europäischen Wissenschaft,” Der Jude 8, No. 10, 613–617. EW.

  • “Soziologische Geschichtschreibung?” Der Jude 8, 190–192. EW.

  • Review of A. Levkowitz: Religiöse Denker der Gegenwart. Der Jude 8, 4–32. EW.


  • “Bemerkung zu der Weinbergschen Kritik,” Der jüdische Student 22, 15–18. EW.

  • “Biblische Geschichte und Wissenschaft,” Jüdische Rundschau 30, No. 88, 744–45. EW.

  • “Ecclesia Militans,” Jüdische Rundschau 30, No. 36, 334. EW.


  • “Zur Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas und seiner Vorläufer,” Korrespondenzblatt des Vereins zur Gründung und Erhaltung einer Akademie für die Wissenschaft des Judentums 7, 1–22. EW.


  • “Die Zukunft einer Illusion,” Der jüdische Student 25, No. 4, 16–22. EW.

  • “Zur atheistischen Ideologie des Zionismus, ” Der jüdische Student 25, No. 6/7, 8–13.


  • “Franz Rosenzweig und die Akademie für die Wissenschaft des Judentums,” Jüdische Wochenzeitung für Kassel, Hessen, und Waldeck, 13 December 1929.

  • “Zur Ideologie des politischen Zionismus (In Erwiderung auf drei Aufsätze Max Josephs),” Der jüdische Student 16, No. 5, 22–27


  • Introduction to “Pope ein Metaphysiker!”, “Sendschreiben an den Herrn Magister Lessing in Leipzig,” “Kommentar Zu den Termini der Logik” des Mose ben Maimon,” “Abhandlung über die Evidenz,” XV-XXIII-XLI-XLVLIII. In Moses Mendelssohn Gesammelte Schriften: Jubiläumsausgaben, Vol. 2. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

  • Review of Julius Ebbinghaus: Über die Fortschritte der Metaphysik: Deutsche Literaturzeitung, No. 52 (27 December 1931), 2451–53.


  • “Anmerkungen zu Carl Schmitt, der Begriff des Politischen,” Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik 67, No. 6, 732–749.

  • Introduction to “‘Phädon,’” “Abhandlung von der Unkörperlichkeit der menschlichen Seele,” “Über einen schriftlichen Aufsatz des Herrn de Luc,” “Die Seele,” XIII–XLI. In Moses Mendelssohn Gesammelte Schriften: Jubiläumsausgaben, Volume 3, part 1. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. “Das Testament Spinozas,” Bayerische Israelitische Gemeindezeitung 8, No. 21, 322–326.


  • “Quelques remarques sur la science politique de Hobbes,” Recherches Philosophiques 2, 609–622.


  • “Maimunis Lehre von der Prophetie und ihre Quellen,” Le Monde Oriental, Uppsala 28, 99–139.


  • “Quelques remarques sur la science politique de Maimonide et de Farabi,” Revue des Etudes juives 100, 1–37.

  • “Eine vermisste Schrift Farâbîs,” Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums 80, 96–106.


  • “On Abravanel’s Philosophical Tendency and Political Teaching,” in Isaac Abravanel. Edited by J. B. Trend and H. Loewe, 93–129. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • “Der Ort der Vorsehungslehre nach der Ansicht Maimunis,” Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums 81, 93–105.


  • Review of Maimonides: The Mishneh Torah, Book 1, Review of Religion 3, No. 4, 448–456.

  • “The Spirit of Sparta and the Taste of Xenophon,” Social Research 6, No. 4, 502–36.


  • “The Literary Character of The Guide of the Perplexed,” in Essays on Maimonides. Edited by S. W. Baron, 37–91. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • “Persecution and the Art of Writing,” Social Research 8, No. 4, 488–504.

  • Review of R. H. S. Crossman, Plato Today, Social Research 8, No. 2, 250–251.

  • Review of Karl Löwith, Von Hegel bis Nietzsche. Social Research 8, No. 4, 512–515.

  • Review of James T. Shotwell, The History of History, Social Research 8, No. 1, 126–127. Most of the following reviews have been republished in What Is Political Philosophy and Other Essays.

  • Review of C. E. Vaughan, Studies in the History of Political Philosophy, Social Research, No. 3, 390–393.


  • Review of C. H. McIlwain, Constitutionalism, Ancient and Modern, Social Research 9, No. 1, 149–151.

  • Review of E. E. Powell, Spinoza and Religion, Social Research 9, No. 4, 558–560.


  • “The Law of Reason in the Kuzari,” Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 13, 47–96.

  • Review of S. B. Chrime, Sir John Fortescue, De Laudibus Legum Angliae, Columbia Law Review 43, No. 6, 958–960.

  • Review of John Dewey, German Philosophy and Politics, revised edition, Social Research 10, No. 4, 505–507.


  • “Farabi’s Plato,” in Louis Ginzberg Jubilee Volume. Edited by Alexander Marx, Saul Lieberman, et al., 357–393. New York: American Academy for Jewish Research.

  • “On Classical Political Philosophy,” Social Research 12, 98–117.


  • “On a New Interpretation of Plato’s Political Philosophy,” Social Research 13, 326–367.

  • “Political Philosophy and History,” Iyyun 1, 129–146.

  • Review of Leonardo Olschki, Machiavelli the Scientist, Social Research 13, No. 1, 121–124.

  • Review of Anton C. Pegis, Basic Writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Social Research 13, No. 2, 260–62.

  • Review of John O. Riedl Gilles de Rome, Errores Philosophorum, Church History 15, No. 1, 62–63.

  • Review of Heinrich A. Rommen, The State in Catholic Thought: A Treatise in Political Philosophy, Social Research 13, No. 2, 250–252.

  • Review of Zera S. Fink, The Classical Republicans: An Essay on the Recovery of a Pattern of Thought in Seventeen Century England, Social Research 13, No. 3, 393–395.


  • “On the Intention of Rousseau,” Social Research 14, 455–487.

  • Review of Ernst Cassirer, The Myth of the State, Social Research 14, No. 1, 125–128.

  • Review of Alfred Verdross-Rossberg, Grundlinien der antiken Rechts und Staat-philosophie, Social Research 14, No. 1, 128–132.


  • “Political Philosophy and History,” Journal of the History of Ideas 10, 30–50.


  • “Natural Right and the Historic Approach,” Review of Politics 12, No. 4, 422–42.

  • “On the Spirit of Hobbes’ Political Philosophy,” Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4, No. 14, 405–31.

  • Review of J. W. Gough, John Locke’s Political Philosophy, American Political Science Review 44, No. 3, 767–770.


  • “On Isaac Husik’s Work in Medieval Jewish Philosophy” [in Hebrew], Iyyun 2, 215–223.

  • Review of David Grene, Man and his Pride: A Study in the Political Philosophy of Thucydides and Plato, Social Research 18, No. 3, 394–397.

  • “The Social Science of Max Weber,” Measure 2, No. 2, 204–230.


  • “On Collingwood’s Philosophy of History,” Review of Metaphysics 5, No. 4, 559–586.

  • “On Locke’s Doctrine of Natural Right,” Philosophical Review 61, No. 4, 475–502.

  • “The Origin of the Idea of Natural Right,” Social Research 19, No. 1, 23–60.

  • Preface to Isaac Husik’s Philosophical Essays: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, edited by Milton Nahm and Leo Strauss, vii–xli. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

  • Review of Yves R. Simon, Philosophy of Democratic Government, New Scholasticism 26, No. 3, 379–383.


  • “Maimonides Statement on Political Science,” Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 22, 115–130.

  • “Walker’s Machiavelli,” Review of Metaphysics 6, No. 3, 437–446.

  • Machiavelli.


  • “Les fondements de la philosophie politique de Hobbes,” Critique 10, No. 83, 338–362.

  • “The Mutual influence of Theology and Philosophy” [in Hebrew], Iyyun 5, 110–123.

  • “On a Forgotten Kind of Writing,” Chicago Review 8, No. 1, 64–75.


  • “What Is Political Philosophy?” [in Hebrew], Iyyun 6, 65–99.


  • “Kurt Riezler, 1882–1955,” Social Research 23, No. 1.

  • “Social Science and Humanism” [in Hebrew], Iyyun 7, 65–73.


  • “How Farabi Read Plato’s Laws,” in Mélanges Louis Massignon, vol. 3, Damas: Institut Français de Damas, 319–44.

  • “Machiavelli Intention: the Prince,” American Political Science Review 51, No. 1, 13–40.

  • Review of J. L. Talmon, The Nature of Jewish History – Its Universal Significance, Journal of Modern History 29, No. 3, 306.

  • “The State of Israel,” National Review 3, No. 1, 23.


  • “Locke’s Doctrine of Natural Law,” American Political Science Review 52, No. 2, 490–501.


  • “The Liberalism of Classical Political Philosophy,” Review of Metaphysics 12, No. 3, 390–439. Review of E. A. Havelock, The Liberal Temper in Greek Politics.

  • “What Is Liberal Education?” Speech at University College, University of Chicago.



  • “Der Konspektivismus,” GS II.


  • “Religiöse Lage der Gegenwart,” GS II.


  • “Disposition: Die politische Wissenschaft des Hobbes: Eine Einführung in das Naturrecht,” GS III.

  • “Die Religionskritik des Hobbes: Ein Beitrag zum Verständnis der Aufklärung,” GS III.

  • “Vorwort zu einem geplanten Buch über Hobbes,” in GS III.


  • “Die geistige Lage der Gegenwart,” GS II.


  • “The Living Issues of German Postwar Philosophy,” delivered at Syracuse University. The lecture was published in Heinrich Meier (2006): The Theologico-Political Problem, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  • “German Nihilism,” lecture, published in Interpretation 26, No. 3, 1999.


  • “Existentialism,” lecture, published in Interpretation 22, No. 3, 1995, 302–319


  • “Why We Remain Jews,” speech, published in JPCM.


  • “Exoteric Teaching.”’ Edited by Kenneth Hart Green. Interpretation 14, No. 1, January, 51–59.


  • Speech together with Jacob Klein, “A Giving of Accounts,” The College 22, No. 1, April, 1–5.



  • Correspondence with Hans-Georg Gadamer: “Correspondence Concerning Wahrheit und Methode,” Independent Journal of Philosophy 2 (Wien), 5–12.

  • “Letter to Helmut Kuhn,” The Independent Journal of Philosophy 2, 23–26.


  • “Correspondence between Karl Löwith and Leo Strauss,” Independent Journal of Philosophy 5/6, 177–192.


  • Faith and Political Philosophy: The Correspondence between Leo Strauss and Eric Voegelin, 1934–1964. Translated and edited by Peter Emberley and Barry Cooper, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.


  • Correspondences with Jacob Klein, Karl Löwith and Gerschom Scholem in GS.


Box 1, Folder 3

  • Letter from Salo W. Baron to Strauss, October 18, 1937.

  • Letters from Arnold Brecht to Strauss, May 24, 1956, and October 18, 1956.

  • Letter from Rudolf Bultmann to Strauss, August 4, 1956

  • Letter from Alan Bloom to Strauss, April 22, 1964.

  • Kirchhainer Anzeigeblatt, November 19, 1966, No. 46.

Box 1, Folder 13

  • Letter from Werner Jaeger to Strauss, March 1, 1930.

Box 3, Folder 8

  • Strauss’s book proposal on Hobbes, 1932.

Box 3, Folder 8

  • Correspondence with Edward Shils

Box 3, Folder 12

  • Correspondence with Edward Shils

Box 3, Folder 14

  • Recommendation letter for Strauss from Tawney to Lederer, February 2, 1936.

Box 4, Folder 8

  • Strauss’s letter to Dr. Gottschalk, December 28, 1931.

Box 6, Folder 6

  • Paper, “On the Study of Classical Political Philosophy” (1938).

Box 6, Folder 14

  • Lecture on “Historicism,” 1941.

Box 11, Folder 1–5

  • Transcripts of Strauss’s seminar, “The Political Philosophy of Spinoza,” Autumn Quarter, 1959.

Box 14, Folder 11

  • Paper, “The Origin of Modern Political Thought.”

Box 18, Folder 2

  • Lecture, “Moral Philosophy,” 1946.

Box 14, Folder 12

  • Paper, “Exoteric Teaching,” not dated.

Box 77–78

  • Transcripts of seminar on Kant, May 5, 1958, Lecture 11, and May 7, Lecture 12.

The titles are given in the language of original publication.



  • Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin: Versuch einer philosophischen Interpretation, Berlin: J. Springer, 1929 (Philosophische Forschungen 9).


  • Sechs Essays, Heidelberg: Schneider.


  • The Origins of Totalitarianism, New York: Harcourt.


  • Rahel Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewess, London: East and West Library.

  • The Human Condition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


  • Between Past and Future: Six Exercises in Political Thought, New York: Viking Press.


  • Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, New York: Viking Press.

  • On Revolution, New York: Viking Press.


  • Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought, New York: Viking Press.

  • Men in Dark Times: New York: Harcourt.


  • On Violence, New York: Harcourt.


  • Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics – Civil Disobedience – On Violence – Thoughts on Politics and Revolution, New York: Harcourt.



  • The Jew as Pariah: Jewish Identitity and Politics in the Modern Age, New York: Grove Press.

  • The Life of the Mind, 2 vols., New York: Harcourt.


  • Lectures on Kant’s Political Philosophy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


  • Essays in Understanding 1930–1954, New York: Harcourt.


  • Love and Saint Augustine, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


  • Denktagebuch 1950–1973, 2 vols., Munich: Piper.


  • Responsibility and Judgment, New York: Schocken Books.


  • The Promise of Politics, New York: Schocken Books.


  • Jewish Writings, New York: Schocken Books.



  • “Augustin und der Protestantismus,” Frankfurter Zeitung 75, 12 April, No. 902, S. 1, translated in Essays in Understanding (EU).

  • “Philosophie und Soziologie: Anläβlich Karl Mannheim, Ideologie und Utopie,” Die Gesellschaft 7, No. 1. 163–176, EU.

  • “Rilkes’s ‘Duineser Elegien,’” Neue Schweizer Rundschau 23, No. 11, 855–871.


  • Review of Hans Weil, Die Entstehung des deutschen Bildungsprinzips, Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik 66, No. 1, 200–205.


  • “Adam Müller-Renaissance?” Kölnische Zeitung, 13 September, No. 502; 1932–09–17, No. 510.

  • “Aufklärung und Judenfrage,” Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland 4, 1932, No. 2–3, p. 65–77, translated in Jewish Writings (JW).

  • “Berliner Salon,” in Deutschen Almanach für das Jahr 1932, Leipzig: Reclam, 173–184, EU.

  • “Friedrich von Gentz: Zu seinen 100. Todestag am 9. Juni,”Kölnische Zeitung, August 6, No 308; reprinted and translated as “Friedrich von Gentz: On the 100th Anniversary of His Death, June 9th, 1932,” EU.

  • “Sören Kierkegaard,” Frankfurter Zeitung 76, January 29, No. 75–76, 2, EU.


  • “Gegen Privatzirkel,” Jüdische Rundschau 38, May 3, 174.

  • “Originale Assimilation: Ein Nachwort zu Rahel Varnhagens 100. Todestag,” Jüdische Rundschau 38, April 7, 143.

  • “Rahel Varnhagen: Zum 100. Todestag, 7. März 1933,” Kölnischer Zeitung, March 7, No. 131, Unterhaltungsblatt.

  • Review of Alice Rühle-Gerstel, Das Frauenproblem der Gegenwart: Eine psychologische Bilanz, Die Gesellschaft 10, No. 2, 177–179, EU.


  • Review of Hans Wilhelm Hagen, Rilkes Umarbeitungen, Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 28, No. 3, 111–112.

  • Review of Käte Hamburger, Thomas Mann und die Romantik, Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 28, No. 3, 297–298.


  • “Un Guide de la Jeunesse: Martin Buber,” Journal Juif 12, No. 17, April 16, JW.

  • “Des Jeunes s’en vont chez eux,” Journal Juif 12, No. 26, June 28, JW.

  • “Le Reclassement Profesionel de la Jeunesse,” Journal Juif 12, No. 4, January 25, JW.


  • “Prozess Gustloff,” Die neue Weltbühne 33, 51.

In the 1930s, unpublished (published posthumously in Jewish Writings):

  • “The Jewish Question” and “Antisemitism.”

In the 1940s, published posthumously in Jewish Writings:

  • “The Minority Question,” “Jewish Politics,” and “The Crisis of Zionism.”


  • “The Jewish War That Isn’t Happening,” Aufbau.


  • “Ein Mittel zur Versöhnung der Völker,” Porvenir: Zeitschrift für alle Fragen des jüdischen Lebens, No. 3, November–December, Buenos Aires, 125–130.

  • “From Dreyfus Affair to France Today,” Jewish Social Studies 4, No. 3, July, 195–240, JW.

  • Review of Paul Sweet, Friedrich von Geentz: Defender of the Old Order, “A Believer in European Unity,” Review of Politics 4, No. 2, 245–247.


  • “Portrait of a Period,” Menorah Journal 31, No. 3, 307–314.

  • Review of Howard Brooks, Prisoners of Hope: Report on a Mission, Jewish Social Studies 5, No. 1, 79–80.

  • Review of Bruno Weil, Dreyfus: Historia del Crimen Judical más Escandalosa del Siglo XIX, Jewish Social Studies 5, No. 2, 205.

  • “We Refugees,” Menorah Journal 31, No. 1, January, 69–77.

  • “Why the Crémieux Decree was Abrogated,” Contemporary Jewish Record 6, No. 2, April, 115–123, JW.


  • “Between Silence and Speechlessness,” Articles from Aufbau, February 1943–March 1944.

  • “Concerning Minorities,” Contemporary Jewish Record 7, No. 4, 353–368, JW.

  • “Franz Kafka: A Revaluation (On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of his death),” Partisan Review 11, No. 4, 412–422.

  • “Jew as a Pariah: A Hidden Tradition,” Jewish Social Studies 6, No. 2, April, 99–122, JW.

  • “New Leaders Arise in Europe: Fighting Jews Will Want a Fighting Leadership,” New Currents: A Jewish Monthly 2, No. 4, 13–14, JW.

  • “Our Foreign Language Groups,” i Chicago Jewish Forum 3, No. 1, 25–34.

  • “The Political Organization of the Jewish People,” series of articles in Aufbau, April 1944–April 1945, JW.

  • “Race-Thinking before Racism,” Review of Politics 6, No. 1, 36–73.

  • Review of Neville Lytton, Life in Unoccupied France, Jewish Social Studies 6, No. 1, 85.

  • “Zionism Reconsidered,” Menorah Journal, October, JW.


  • “Approaches to the ‘German Problem,’” Partisan Review 12, No. 1, 93–106.

  • “The Assets of Personality: A Review of Chaim Weizmann: Statesman, Scientist, Builder of the Jewish Commonwealth,” Contemporary Jewish Record 8, No. 2, April

  • “Christianity and Revolution,” The Nation, 161, No. 12, September 22.

  • “Dilthey as a Philosopher and Historian, A Review of Wilhelm Dilthey: An Introduction, by H. A. Hodges,” Partisan Review 12, No. 3.

  • “Imperialism, Nationalism and Chauvinism,” Review of Politics 7, No. 4, 441–463.

  • “Nightmare and Flight,” Partisan Review 12, No. 2, 259–260.

  • “Organized Guilt and Universal Responsibility,” Jewish Frontier 12, No. 1, 19–23.

  • “Parties, Movements, Classes,” Partisan Review 12, No. 4. 504–513.

  • “Power Politics Triumphs,” Commentary 1, No. 2, 92–93.

  • Review of Eugene Kulischer, The Displacement of Population in Europe, Jewish Social Studies 7, No. 1, 88–89.

  • Review of Charles Micaud, The French Right and Nazi Germany 1933–1939: A Study of Public Opinion, Jewish Social Studies 7, 187–188.

  • “The Seeds of Fascist International,” Jewish Frontier 12, No. 6 (124), 12–16.

  • “The Stateless People,” Contemporary Jewish Record 8, No. 2, 137–153.

  • “Zionism Reconsidered,” Menorah Journal 33, No. 2, 162–196.


  • “The Jewish State: Fifty Years After, Where Have Herzl’s Politics Led?” Commentary 5.


  • “Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction. Tentative List of Jewish Cultural Treasures in Axis-Occupied Countries” (ed.), Jewish Social Studies, supplement to volume 8, No. 3, 5–95.

  • “Expansion and the Philosophy of Power,” Sewanee Review 54, No. 4, 601–616.

  • “Franz Kafka, von neuem gewürdigt,” Die Wandlung 1, No. 12, 1050–1062.

  • “French Existentialism,” The Nation 162, February 2nd, No. 8. 226–228.

  • “The Image of Hell” Commentary 2, No. 3, 291–295.

  • “Imperialism: Road to Suicide, The Political Origins and Use of Racism,” Commentary 1, No. 4, 27–35.

  • “The Ivory Tower of Common Sense,” The Nation 163, October 19, No. 16, 447–449.

  • “The Nation” Review of Politics 8, No. 1, 138–141.

  • “No Longer and Not Yet,” Review of The Death of Virgil by Hermann Broch, The Nation, September 14.

  • “Organisierte Schuld,” Die Wandlung 1, No. 4. 333–344.

  • “Privileged Jews,” Jewish Social Studies 8, No. 1, January, 3–30.

  • “Proof Positive,” The Nation 162, No. 1, January 5, 22.

  • Review of Oscar Janowsky, Nationalities and National Minorities Jewish Social Studies 8, No. 3, 204–205.

  • Review of Katharine Munro, France, Yesterday and Today, Jewish Social Studies 8, No. 2, 143.

  • “The Streets of Berlin,” Review of Robert von Gilbert, Meine Reime Deine Reime, The Nation 162, 350–35, 1 March 23.

  • “The Too Ambitious Reporter,” Commentary 1, No. 3, 94–95.

  • “What Is Existenz Philosophy?” Partisan Review 13, No. 1, 34–56.


  • “Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction. Tentative List of Jewish Periodical in Axis-Occupied Countries” (ed.), Jewish Social Studies, supplement to volume 9, No. 3, 7–44.

  • “Creating a Cultural Atmosphere,” Commentary 4, No. 5, 424–426.

  • “The Hole of Oblivion,” Jewish Frontier 14, 1947, No. 7, 23–26.


  • “About Collaboration,” Jewish Frontier, October, No. 10, 55–56.

  • “Beyond Personal Frustration: The Poetry of Bertold Brecht,” Kenyon Review 10, No. 2, 304–312.

  • “The Concentration Camps,” Partisan Review 15, No. 7. 743–763.

  • “The Failure of Reason: The Mission of Bernadotte,” New Leader 31, No. 43, 8–15, October 23.

  • “Jewish History, Revised,” Review of Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, Jewish Frontier 15, March, 34–38.

  • “New Palestine Party,” letter to the editor, New York Times 98, December 4, No. 33, 187, 12.

  • “To Save the Jewish Homeland There is Still Time,” Commentary 5, No. 5, 398–406.


  • “‘The Rights of Man’: What are They?” Modern Review 3, No. 1, 31ff.

  • “Single Track to Zion: A Review of Trial and Error: The Autobiography of Chaim WeizmannSaturday Review, February 23.


  • “The Aftermath of Nazi Rule: Report from Germany,” Commentary 10, No. 4, 342–353.

  • “Der Dichter Bertold Brecht,” Der neue Rundschau, No. 1, 53–67.

  • “The Eggs Speak Up” – unpublished essay, EU.

  • “The Imperialist Character,” Review of Politics 12, No. 3, 303–320.

  • “The Mob and the Elite,”Partisan Review 17, No. 8, 509–522.

  • “Peace or Armistice in the Near East,” Review of Politics 12, No. 1, January, 56–82

  • “Religion and the Intellectuals,”Partisan Review 17, No. 2, 113–116, EU.

  • “Social Science Techniques and the Study of Concentration Camps,” Jewish Social Studies 12, No. 1, 49–64, EU.


  • “Bei Hitler zu Tisch,” Der Monat 4, No. 37, 85–90, EU.


  • “The History of the Great Crime: A Review of Bréviaire de la Haine: Le IIIe Reich et les Juifs, by Léon Poliakov,” Commentary, March.

  • “Magnes, the Conscience of the Jewish People” Jewish Newsletter 8, No. 24, November 24.


  • “The Ex-Communists,” Commonweal 57, No. 24, 19.

  • “Heidegger the Fox” – unpublished, EU.

  • “Religion and Politics,” Confluence 2, 105–126, EU.

  • “A Reply to Eric Voegelin,” Review of Politics, January.

  • “Understanding and Politics,” Partisan Review 20, No. 4, EU.

  • “Understanding Communism,” Partisan Review 20, No. 5, 580–583.


  • “Concern with Politics in Recent European Philosophical Thought” – unpublished, EU.

  • “Europe and America,” Commonweal 60, No. 23, 551–554.

  • “Tradition and the Modern Age,” Partisan Review 21, No. 1, 53–75.


  • “Authority in the Twentieth Century,” Review of Politics 18, No. 4, 403–417.


  • “History and Immortality,” Partisan Review 24, No. 1, 11–35.


  • “The Crisis in Education,”Partisan Review 25, No. 4, 493–513.

  • “The Modern Concept of History,” Review of Politics 20, No. 4, 570–590.


  • “Reflections on Little Rock, “Dissent 6, No. 1, 45–56.

2 In this article list, I have relied extensively on the bibliography composed by Kohn, J. and Feldman, R. in Arendt, Hannah (2007): The Jewish Writings, New York: Schocken Books.



  • “What Remains? The Language Remains,” interview with Günther Gaus, EU.


  • “Martin Heidegger at Eighty,” New York Review of Books 17, No. 6 October 21, 1971.



  • Correspondence with Karl Jaspers. Correspondence, 1926–1969, New York: Harcourt, edited by Lotte Kohler and Hans Saner.


  • Correspondence with Kurt Blumenfeld. “…in keinem Besitz verwurzelt.” Die Korrespondenz, Hamburg: Rotbuch Verlag, edited by Ingeborg Normann and Iris Pilling.


  • Within Four Walls: The Correspondence between Hannah Arendt and Heinrich Blücher, 1936–1968, New York: Harcourt, edited by Lotte Kohler.


  • Letters 1925–1975. Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger, edited by Ursula Ludz, New York: Harcourt.


Hannah Arendt Papers, the manuscript division, Library of Congress


    1. Correspondence 1938–1976

  • Curriculum Vitae sent to the Walgreen Foundation, Folder: Universities and Colleges, 1947–1975, University of Chicago, Walgreen Lecture, 1955–1957.

  • Letter from Arendt to Fradier, January 4, 1961, Folder: “Fa-Fram” miscellaneous, 1958–1975.


    2. Speeches and Writings File, 1923–1975

  • Arendt’s research memoranda to the publisher, 1946, Folder: Miscellany, Outlines and Research Memoranda.

  • “Hat Politik überhaupt noch einen Sinn?” 1956/1957, Einführung in die Politik, Folder: Essays and Lectures.

  • Lecture “European Intellectual,” no date, Folder: Essays and Lectures.

  • Lecture in New School, 1952, “The Spiritual Quest of Modern Man: The Answer of the Existentialists,” Folder: Essays and Lectures.

  • Lecture notes from “Philosophy and Politics: The Problem of Action and Thought After the French Revolution,” file 2/4, “Philosophy and Politics,” 1954, Folder: Essays and Lectures.

  • Paper for panel discussion of “Europe’s Image of America,” no date, Folder: Essays and Lectures.


    3. Subject File, 1949–1975

  • Clippings 1942–1975, Reviews, The Human Condition, 1958, and ibid. 1959–1964.

  • “The Great Tradition and the Nature of Totalitarianism,” lecture at New School 1953, Folder: Courses.

  • Letters to Leslie Farber, November 1, 1960, and to John Oesterreicher, August 23, 1952, Folder: Martin Heidegger, correspondence regarding, 1952–1955.

  • Seminar notes for “From Machiavelli to Marx,” Cornell University, Fall 1965, Folder: Courses.

  • Seminar notes for “History of Political Theory,” University of California, spring, 1955, Folder: Courses.

  • Seminar notes for “Ideologies,” University of California, Berkeley, 1955, Folder: Courses.

  • Seminar notes for “Machiavelli,” Wesleyan University, Middletown, 1961, Folder: Courses.

  • Seminar notes for “Political Experiences in the Twentieth Century,” Cornell University, Spring 1965, Folder: Courses.

  • Seminar notes for “Political Experiences in the Twentieth Century,” New School, Spring, 1968, Folder: Courses.

  • Seminar notes for “Political Philosophy,” Columbia, 1960, Folder: Courses.

  • Seminar notes for “Political Philosophy and Politics: What Is Political Philosophy,” New School, 1969, Folder: Courses.

The Walgreen Foundation Records, University of Chicago Library, Special Collections Research Center

Box 2, Folder 1

  • Correspondence regarding the founding of the Foundation 1938–1940.

Box 2, Folder 17

  • Programme for lecture series in Spring 1956.

Box 3, Folder 2

  • Correspondence regarding and with Hannah Arendt, 1955–1956.

Box 4, Folders 9–10

  • Leo Strauss’s manuscript for the lectures “Natural Right and History,” 1949.

Records of the Political Science Department, University of Chicago Library, Special Collections Research Center

Box 2, Folder 10

  • Letter from John Nef to Charles E. Merriam, October 13, 1936.

  • Letter from Morgenthau to Leonard White, August 25, 1948.

  • Letter from Pritchett to Dean Chauncey D. Harris, October 20, 1958.

  • Letter from Strauss to Hans Morgenthau, August 30, 1948.

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